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/.V 7'il"0 VOr.VMES. 



.lOlIN STBKET, Al)K],l'lir, W,C. 


Print U- Od. <» tlaSJL^^^^. 














Frice 3*. Qd. in cloth. 


th;. r .V'' ■•OFK 

866290 ^ 

AGTor?. • ; :•' / ■L) 
TlLDi-N i • •iJ.i.Tl ->NS 



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Vol. I. 
Septembeb 1880 to December ISSl. 



Price S«.\^ in cloth. 


PUBLIC U2?.i\:{Y 


A?.'rjFf, LLIN'OX AllD 


R 1936 L 




Accent Rules of "Anglo-Romanic," 9 
Andrews, S. P. — sample of his spelling, 21 
Anglo-American Accord in Spelling — cor- 
respondence from Mr. Blackmer, 107; 
editorial remarks, ib. 
Anglo-Indian" spelling, 111 
Anglo -Romanic** spelling — alphabetic 
scheme, 1 ; spelling rules, 2 ; test para- 
graph, 3; "Object and Principles'* of 
the spelling, 5, 13 ; its accent rules, 9 ; 
articles in it, 5, 11, 13, 16, 21, 29, 82 
"Approximation** spelling (Victor), 48 
Auxiliary H — articles on, 21, 32 
Beniowski, Maj. — sample of his spelling, 24 
Blackmer, Mr. O.C., on "Compendious** 

spelling and new types, 100, 107 
"Broad Romic'* spelling — note by Mr. H. 
Sweet on, 75; specimen of, in the Pa- 
rallel Exhibition, 76 
Bull, R. P.— his " Cheilic ** spelling, 75, 76 
But Vowel, Representation of, 10 i 
Candy, Prof. — note from, in his "Tempo- 
rary** spelling, with editorial remarks 
on, 20; specimen of the spelling in the 
Parallel Exhibition, 80; note on, 84 
Cheilic** spelling (Bull) — exposition of, 
75; specimen of, in the Parallel Exhi- 
bition, 76 

Collateral** spelling (Analogical and 
Conventional styles)— Test Paragraph 
in, 62; exposition of the spelling, 65; 
Mr. E. Jones's opinion, 69; specimen 
of the spelling in the Parallel Exhibi- 
tion, 78 ; note on, 83 
Comparison of Schemes, by E. Jones, 89 
"Compendious** spelling, 61; specimen 
of, in the Parallel Exhibition, 80 ; note 
on, 84 ; articles in the spelling, 61, 85, 
93, 104, 107, 109, 111 
"Consistent** spelling — specimen of, in 
the Parallel Exhibition, 80 See Soames 
Continental Nuts to Crack, by E. Jones, 90 
Correspondence: — Mr. Ellis on forms of 
"modifiers,** 19: Prof. Candy on ditto 
and on unaccented vowel notation, 20 ; 
G. H. D. on vocal I, 25 ; Mr. E. Jones 
on Pitman's Phonotypy, 26 ; ditto on 
selection of orthographic symbols, 84 ; 
Dr. Victor on " Union ** spelling, 49 ; 
"Fiat Experimentum** on Mr. Jones*s 
spelling, 47; Mr. Jones*s reply, 66; 
"Fiat Experimentum **s rejoinder, ib.; 
Mr. E. Jones on "Collateral** spelling, 
69; introduces his correspondent "Wun 
Hoo," &C., 70; Mr. J. Macarthur on 





the need for union, 71 ; " Ecclesiastes** 
and his Fox C/amaniis, ib.; Prof. V\riebe 
on "Compendious" spelling, 100; Mr. 
R. Vickroy and Mr. O. C. Blackmer on 
" Compendious *' spelling and new let- 
ters, ib.; Mr. E.Jones on other people*s 
opinions, ib.; Mr. Blackmer on Anglo- 
American accord in spelling, 107 
"Dimidian** and "Anglo-Romanic,** 16 
Donations and subscriptions, J 16, 124, 132 
Ellis, Mr. A. J. — a suggestion from, con- 
cerning a form of " modifier,** 4 ; his 
"Dimidian** spelling, 16; his opinion 
on a new modifier, 19; his "Europic" 
spelling, 37; his "Suggestive** si)ell- 
ing, 53; his " Suggestive*' rendering of 
the Test Sentences, 63; his "Europic** 
and " Suggestive** in the Parallel Exhi- 
bition, 77, 79 ; his notes thereon, 82 ; 
his "Suggestive** compared with an 
"Anglo- Indian** representation of Mr. 
Sweet's orthoepy, 113; his annotations 
on the Statement of Principles, 127 
Europic" spelling — exposition of, 37; 
specimen of, in the Parallel Exhibition, 
77 ; note by Mr. Ellis on, 82 
Experimentfd** spelling (Dr. Victor), 97 
Faulder, John — sample of his spelling, 24 
Five Orthographic Schemes compared, 24 
Janau, Mr. — his personal orthoepy, 115; 
his remarks on the Statement of Prin- 
cijjles, 130 
Jones, Mr. E. — on Pitman's Phonotypy, 
26 ; on selection of orthographic sym- 
bols, 34 ; on Schemes of Spelling Re- 
form, 40; his "Questions submitted to 
Spelling Reformers,** 46; his spelling 
challenged by "Fiat Experimentum,** 
and Test Sentences proposed, 47 ; his 
reply to " F. E.** and the latter's rejoin- 
der, 56 ; his rendering of the Test Sen- 
tences, 58 ; analysis of his spelling and 
" Proximate ** as exemplified in these 
sentences, 59 ; Phonetic Fragments by, 
62; he introduces " Wun Hoo,** &c. 70; 
on Comparison of Schemes, 89; his 
Continental Nuts to Crack, 90; views 
on Partial Corrections, 98; on other 
people*s opinions, 100 ; his remarks on 
the Statement of Principles, 129; on 
the Result of the Canvass, with editorial 
note on his spelling, 131 
Lecky, Mr. J. — his personal orthoepy, 123 ; 
his remAxVa QTLV)ck& ^\»X;ea:k!Sc^ ^1'^t«l- 


Macarthiir, Mr. J. — his orthograpliic ren- 
dering of the Test Seiiteuees, fiO; views 
on the Need for Union, 7 1 ; on Partial 
Corrections, 91 

"Majority Alphabet," The (according to 
Mr. K. Jones) — Test Paragraph of the 
Association in, 121 

Max Miiller, Professor, on Practical Pho- 
nctics, 55 

New Departure, A — editorial article, 29 

New Letters — theoretically approved and 
practically rejected by Mr. E. Jones, 46; 
defended by "S. 11." 95, I19j proposed 
by Mr. Vickroy, 100; by Mr. Black- 
mer, 100, 107 * 

Opinions on the Schemes: — From D*]3., 
L. B. B., R. C, A. J. E., Jaorj F., P. K., 
J. L., J. M., T. P., J. D. U., C. K. 8., 
G. S., J. T., 88 ; W. E. J., J. L. (2), 
F. R., W. v., AV. H. W., 99; C. W. K., 
B. T., 116 ; editorial remarks on, ib. 

Orthoepical Alphabet, An, 101 ; editorial 
article on, ib.; used by vai'ious contrib- 
utors, 114, 123 

Orthographic Schemes, Five, compared, 24 

Orthographic Symbols, Selection of — Mr. 
E. Jones on, 34; editorial reply, ib, 

Pagliardini, Mr. T. — his opinion on "Col- 
lateral" spelling, 83 ; his comments on 
the Statement of Principles, 129 

Parallel Exhibition, A — introductory arti- 
cle on, 73 ; twelve old-letter schemes of 
spelling compared in parallel columns, 
76-81 ; notes on the schemes, 75, 82 

Parallel Exhibition, The — editorial on, 85 

Partial Corrections in Spelling — article 
on, by J. Macarthur, 91 ; Defence of, 
by E. Jones, 98 

Personal Orthoepy — of Mr. F. Rutt, 114; 
of Mr. Janau, 115; of " Anglicus," in 
extended "Popular English" and per- 
sonal "Broad Romic," 121 ; of Mr. J. 
Lecky, 128; of Mr. D. Pitcaim, ib. 

Phonetic Fragments, by E. Jones, 62 

Pitcairn, Mr. D. — personal orthoepy, 123; 

' his remarks on the Statement of Princi- 
ples, 128 

Pitman's Phonotypy-Mr. E. Jones on, 26; 
editorial remarks, ib. 

"Popular English" spelling — specimen 
of, in the Parallel Exhibition, 79 ; note 
on, 83 ; its alphabetic scheme extended 
to represent orthoepy, 121 See Jones 

Practical Phonetics — Profr. Max Miiller 
on (in Union spelling), 65 

Practical Principles submitted to Spelling 
Reformers for consideration, 126; State- 
ment of Principles, 126; signed, sub- 
ject to various qualifications or amend- 
ments, by 21 prominent Reformers, 127 

Price, Mr. C. W. — his diagonal modifier, 
10 ; specimen of his spj.'lling, ib. 

"Proximate" spelling — exposition of, 56; 
Test Paragraph in, 54 ; Test Sentences 
in, 58 Stii' Collateral (Analogical; 

Questions snbniitti'd to Spelling Kelbrniers 
bv E. Jones, 45; answers to Questions 
3; 4, 5 by " S. K." 95 

Remonstrance from Q, W 

Representation of the But Vowel — edito- 
rial article on, with specimens, 101 

Result of the Canvass — editorial article 
on, 117; article by E.Jones on, with 
editorial remarks on the spelling, 131 

Rundell, Mr. J. B.— his " Utility" spell- 
ing, 30, 8 1 ; his observations on the 
Statement of Principles, 129 

Rutt, Mr. F. — personal orthoepy, 114 

" S. R." — his answer to Mr. Jones's ques- 
tions, 95 ; defence of new letters, 119 

Sayce, Prof. A. II. — his suggested amend- 
ments to the Statement of Principles, 128 

Schemes of Spelling Reform — article on, 
by E. Jones, 40 

Script Forms — editorial remarks on. 111 

Soames, Miss Laura — sample of her spell- 
ing, 25; in the Parallel Exhibition, 80; 
her remarks on the Statement of Prin- 
ciples, 130 

Stock-taking — editorial article, 93 

"Suggestive" English spelling-exposition 
of, by A. J. Ellis, 53 ; Test Sentences 
in, 63; specimen of, in the Parallel Ex- 
hibition, 79 ; note by Mr. Ellis on, 82 

Sweet, Mr. H. — his approval of "Union** 
spelling, 52; his "Broad Romic" spell- 
ing in the Parallel Exhibition, 76 ; his 
orthoepy represented in " Suggestive ** 
and in "Anglo-Indian" spelling, 113 

"Temporary" spelling — see Candy 

Thanks — editorial article, 109 

"Union" Alphabet, The, 43 

** Union" spelling — letter on, from W. R. 
Evans to Isaac Pitman, 49 ; this spell- 
ing approved by Dr. Victor, 48 ; by Mr. 
H. Sweet. 52; simple "Union," 55; 
specimen of, in the Parallel Exhibition, 
77; note on, 82; article in, 117 

"Utility" spelling (Rundell) — exposition 
of, 80; specimen of, in the Parallel 
Exhibition, 81 ; note on, 84 

Vickroy, Mr. R. — letter from, on " Com- 
pendious" spelling and new letters, 100 

Vietor, Dr. W. — his "Approximation" 
spelling, 48 ; his approval of " Union" 
spelling, ib.; his " Experimental " spell- 
ing, 97 

Vom CiamantiSj by " Ecclesiastes," 71 

Wiebe, Prof. — letter from, approving of 
"Compendious" spelling, 100 




No. 1.] September, 1880. [Greitis. 


This biiif instaulment ov whot iz intended tu bii a munthli shiit ov 
8 peijez ha!5 nou bim heistili got out, amfd an eksepshonal preshur ov 
literari wurk, and mei bii regarded az litel moir than a teipografikal 
" spesimen." The underteiking iz striktli a personal wun ov the pro- 
jekter, for which hii. alom iz responsibel ; and the serkyuleishon iz 
intended tu bii vertyuali limited tu Speling Reformerz, from eni ov 
huim kritisizmz, remarks, sujestionz, or propoizalz, tending toirdz the 
produkshon ov a simpel, wurkabel, efektiv, and akseptabel skiim ov 
oild-leter refonnd speling aukziliari and subsidiari tu a neu-leter sis- 
tem leik Mr. EiZAK PiTMAN*z, wil bii gladli resiivd, at the adres 
given in the imprint on peg 4. 




Aa Ee li Oo Du Uu 

Stopt pat, post pet, pert pit pot, war bwt, wort pwt 
Bruf paternal petition pztuztous potato afflz^nt 

Ai ai El ei Ii ii Au au Oi oi Ui ui 

Long palm pate, azr peel, ear pait^n pole, pore pooZ, poor 
„ father patient pzquant pawper potent fitment 

Ai ai Ei ei Oi oi Ou ou Eu eu Yu yu 
naive, ay file, eye foil, coy - fowl, cow fwel, peio deputy 

Pp Bb Tt Dd ChchJj Kk Gg 
^ee;p bih trot dredid church judge cork gig 

P f V V Th th Thi thi S s Z z Sh sh Zh zh 
fi/e valve ^^inke^A ^erewi^A since 2:ones vicious vision 

Mm Nn Ngng LI Rr Ww Yy Hh 
Tn^iTn noon Singling level river wet yet hot 

Wh wh — when X x — exttem^ 

THE SPE!LI>J(I experimenter. 



Stopt Vouelz, — The simpel leter a (a) expresez the diferont, bi)t 
veiriabel and indeterminabel sheidz ov sound kauzd bei pozishon in 
WDrdz leik pat^ pant^ palpiteit^ path^ past^ pa7i, until tui A-soundz ar 
idiomatikali euzd in the seim pozishon, az in hai\ hmv (have, halve). 

Az the soundz ov a and e in bar and er (err) ar deterniiiid bei the 
suksiiding untrild r, and az the trild r iz seupei-aded tu this befoir a 
vouel in an inflekshonal afiks, it iz adveizabel for boith riizonz tu reit 
barring and erring^ in distinkshon from releited but not Ingglish- 
meid formz, leik barter and eror^ in which the ordinari stopt a and e 
ar prononnst, folo'd oinli bei the trild r; and for the later riizon it iz 
wel aDlso tu reit worring^fvrri (warring, furry), tu distinggwish the 
r-sound from that in worier^fvrier, 

Iich vouel-sein iz emploid for the koresponding obskeur sound in 
koloikwiali indistinkt silabelz, wurdz leik formal^ sistem^ person^ biiing 
speld in konformiti withi releited wurdz, 9Lz/o7inaltti^ sistemateiz^per- 

Bri}/ Vouelz, — Thiiz, az in the oild speling, ar reprezented bei the 
seim seinz az the stopt vouelz, the former soundz biiing indikeited 
bei their okurring at the end ov unaksented silabelz. When a stopt 
vouel befoir a singgel miidial konsonant luizez its aksent in a releited 
wurd, it bekumz briif, az evidenst bei the intercheinj ov -soundz in 
astronffmi^ astrcndmikal. Biiing ov the seim kwoliti az their biiif 
soundz, long a, i, o, and w, at the end ov a silabel, bekum briif when 
thei luiz the aksent, soi that wii mei reit, not oinli drcama^ dramatik^ 
but riml^ rialiii — noibel^ nobiliti — pnadent^ prudenshal. 

When it iz nesesari ta distinggwish the briif from the stopt sound, 
az in ading-on inflekshonal z or c?, a dot iz interpoizd, thus — shado'z^ 
shxido'd {shado'ing^ shodoH\ Zmlwz. 

Long Vouelz, — The sleitli-veirid soundz ov «, w, o?, and te?, which 
presiid r (az in joear, pier, pore^ poor\ rekweir noi marking, bekauz 
in that pozishon thei ar idiomatikali aulweiz pronounst, and never in 
eni uthier; and az bbith the untrild and the trild sound ov r in suk- 
seshon ar regyularli uterd after a long vouel and befoir anuthor 
vouel, whethier ov an afiks or not, ther iz noi nesesiti tu reit rr in 
peiring^ adMtring^ porring^ inshmring^ in distinkshon from peivent^ ad- 
hiirent^ poiws^ inshmrans. 

Bifthongz, — The simbol yu (reprezenting the briif sound ov eu) iz 
riten in miidial and femal unaksented silabelz, tu avoid mis-spjestiou 


ov aksent, az in dispyutcmi^ marvyual^ UGtyur^ trihyut, (Kompeir dis- 
peuted^ reneual^ mateur^ asteut.) 

When tui short vouelz ordinarili forming a difthong ar pronounst 
separetli (the fomier wpn then biiing briif), a dot iz interpoizd, az in 
hiibrarist, foloring, 


TH Dnmarkt (eksept in erli leson-buks) iz aloud tu reprezent th in 
the folo'ing thertiin komon wDrdz, withi their inflekshonal fonnz and 
kompouudz: — The^ this^ that: thou^ tha: therr^ thither^ tbens: theuy 
thvs: that^ than^ ihoi^ 

NG iz diveided oiuli for the soundz ov n proper and ^, az ewgretv. 
The deigraf iz aulweiz riten for its oin sound befoir g^ az mfingger^ 
singglt. (Kompeir singer^ hingli.) 

NK haz the kombeind pouerz ov ngk (az in hank^ tinker\ eksept in 
kompound WDrdz (az mankeind)^ and in wurdz having the priifiksez 
en, w, vn^ and kon (az enkounter^ inkxmi^ tmkeind^ konkle^v); wheirfor, 
in the feu wurdz in which ng iz pronounst in this pozishon, it shud 
bii riten (az kmigkwtd), 

H haz a dot befoir it when it iz pronounst separetli from a presiid- 
ing 5 or ^, az in dis'harten^ neit'hud, 

X'vL euzd az a kompendium or kontrakshon ov hs exkluisivli in the 
priifiks ex befoir konsonants, az in explcfir^ exchanj. 

Ekzerrvplari Paragraf emploid in the Spesimmz prirUed bei the 
Ingylish Speling Reform Asoishieishon, 

[This mater ekzemplifeiz a sekond fonn o? the vouel-modifeier.] 

ni?r and thejr a feu Ingglish wurdz me? bi? found, in the euzhual 
orthografi, which li?v no? ru?m for dout az tu the?r pronunsie?shon. 
But this iz kweit eksepshonal. Yet wi? ar shu?r that our speling 
woz orijinali fonetik. It iz nou propo?zd tu revert tu that prinsjpel. 
But a divizhon ov opinion haz arizen az tu the mo?st seutabel leterz 
tu emploi. The foloing vershonz ov this 8te?tment sho? the ne?teur 
ov such ov the ve?rius propo?zalz aulredi me?d az kud bi? konv6- 
nientli printed, i?ch az far az woz posibel in the ortho?epi ov its 
author. In so? short a paragraf o?nli the chi?f points kud bi? in- 
klu?ded, but the alfabetikal lau iz jenerali kli?r, and the ei'wil bi? 
e?bel tu juj priti wel whot the api?rans wud bi? in printed buks. 
Meni planz involving ra?th?er inaksesibel teips had tu bi? enteirli past 
bei. Hens the chois me?d duz not implei a verdikt. The Ekzekyu- 
tiv Komiti wil selekt such methodz az the? me? think rekweir long- 
ger ilustre?shon. The Ingglish Speling Reform Aso?shie?shon az a 
bodi iz not responsibel for eni wun ov thi?z ski?mz. 



Mr. A. J. EUs'ez praktikal teipografikal expiiriens, aded tu cxton- 
siv and mateur foiiiolojikal nolej, givz soi much valyu tii eui teknikal 
sujestion enianeitiug from him, that hiz permishon haz biin askt, and 
gladli aksepted, tu publish the apended extrakt from a preivet leter, 
which iz hiir given in Angglo-Romanik speling, but withi the modi- 
feier propoizd be! Mr. El is : — 

" Ei toild yui that ei did not leik yuir neu modifeier (?), az hiking 
till much leik a (?). But aulso ei dui not sii hou this fonn iz tu bii 
extended tu kapitalz. It haz struk mil that the best form for a 
modifeier meit bii found in an 'i I' sheip olterd, the efekt ov which 
meit bii treid bei kuting thhz leterz, thus — eit, EFT = eet^ or ait in 
yuir sistem. This avoidz the thin efekt ov eithier ov yuir last seinz 
Q l], and, kiiping the left seid ov the leter untiK*.ht, and sloiping the 
uthier in a kurv, wud bii a perfektli distinkt form in eni keind ov 
teip. In ' 1 T ' the Juxif serif distinggwishez the loier-keis from the 
smaul kapital. Ei dui not advokeit a modifeier meiself, biiing per- 
fektli wel satisfeid with the sistem ov dublmg — a aa^ e ce^ ets. — 
long euzd in Palioteip." 

A similar form (]), kut from ' j * insted ov 4 ', had bim treid for 
Angglo-Romanik speling, and rejekted, partli bekauz a kut ' j ' stud 
tui far apart from the presiiding leter, and woz unseitli az a veri frii- 
kwent desending teip, but prinsipali bekauz withi 'o' in a wurd leik 
* no]z,' (nose or knows) ther apiird tu bii tui strong a sujestion ov the 
sound in noise, Mr. Elis'ez form wud eskeip the tiu former objek- 
shonz, but it siimz iiven moir amiinabel tu the therd (if this iz held 
tu bii ov much akount), espeshali amung kapitalz, az ' NOTZ, notz, 
noiz.' It wud aulso rekweir tu bii kast in thrii seizez, insted ov the 
wvn hiir emploid in ' NOiZ, NOiZ, noiz/ But the komparativ wurth 
ov the fonnz kan oinli bii tested bei experiment, leik that hiir meid. 


Prithii, feir singer, huiz swiit toinz ekseit 
Withiin mei brest such exkwizit del eit, — 
Oi, prithii stei that thriling melodi ! 
Or ei shal think, in mei diip ekstasi, 
That ei hav left this siin ov keir and pein, 
And hiir in hev'n a seraf's likwid strem, — 
But tu aweik az from a driim ov blis. 
And fill erth's iivilz sharper after this. 

( Uhland^ transl. bet W, R. E.) 

printed by "W. K. Evans, 14 Gloucester Street, Quecu {Scjuare, W.C. 




Nr. 2.] 0KT02BER, 1880. [Frets Id, 


^^ This Pvhlikeishon iz striktU a personal vnderte^king on the part 
ov its projekter^ for which hh aloin iz responsibel. Its speshal objekt 
iz tu work oiU^ bei experiment and ko'opereiskon^ a simpel^ praktikal^ 
efektiv^ and akseptabel skiim ov odd-leter refomid speling^ avkziliari 
and svbsidiari tu a neu-leter sistem leik Mr. ElZAK PlTMAN*Z ; and 
its serkyuleishon iz intended tu bii vertyuali restrikted tu Speling 72e- 
formei'z^ km ar respektfuli inveited tu kontribyut tu its peijez kritisizmz^ 
renidrks^ svjestionz^ or propoizalz^ adrest tu " 14 Gloster Street, Queen 
Square^ Lo7idon^ W. C" 



[Insted ov the konvcnshonal eu^ analitikal yut (bi/ing the long form ov bri/f y«) iz 
experimentali yu/zd thruout this number. For the modifeier (/) si/ p. 10.] 

The propo^zer ov a nym steil ov speling for a langgwej mei rhzon- 
abli bii expekted tu ste^t definitli whot iz the spesifik objekt \m haz 
\\i vym, and whot ar the priusipelz on which hiz plan iz founded ; 
for it iz posibel and intelijibel, if not dezeirabel, that orthografik 
ski^mz shud bij intended for kweit diferejit objekts, and \A\ fre^md 
upon az diferent prinsipelz. Won objekt mei bi^, tu proveid a skhui 
ov speling kolateral and subsidiari tu the establisht sistem, tu bii 
ymzd in elmside^ting this, or, at mo^st, tu \m taut az a steping-stom 
tu it. A veri diferent objekt mei bi?, tu abolish enteirli a standard 
sistem ov speling, and, minii proveiding rekogneizd mimz ov expres- 
ing the diferent voikal soundz emploid in spi^ch, tu li^v everi reiter 
tu spel wurdz akording tu hiz om pronunsie^shon or hiz fansi. Be- 
twim thi^z im extri^mz, meui vareietiz ar konsiwabel ov a therd pur- 
pos, which mej bh braudli ste^ted az that ov reveizing, amending, or 
ri^konstru'kting the standard orthografi ov the langgwej. Withfn 
the termz ov this last steitment iz inklu^ded the objekt ov the ski^m 
ov speling hi^r put forward, and the partikyular keind ov oltereishon 
propo^zd me^ hxi defeind az rhkonsirvkshoiu 


In adresiiig persouz for hmm this publikeishon iz iutended, it mei 
bh tejkeu for granted, that our estdblisht speling haz beku'm thuroli 
efijt and iuefektiv az a prof est moid ov alfabetikal reiting. It not 
omli feilz iu iiinyiumerabel instansez tu expres the proper prononsiei- 
shon ov wurdz, but it often suj^sts and kaozez egriijius mispronun- 
sieishon, and tendz tu multiplei and perpetyueit, iusted ov dekriising 
and abolishing, vareietiz ov spiich. Soi misliiding iz the kurent or- 
thografi in meni keisez, that the mo^st lemed Ingglish filolojists, not 
tu menshon eithier the tijcherz or the taut in preimari skujlz, often 
akweir and ymz indymbitabel mispronuusieishonz sujested bei the 
riten form ov wurdz ; wheil the intrikasiz ov this orthografi, apart 
from its moir gleiring anomaliz (hmz extravagans meit impr^s them 
up6n the memori if the? wer fym in number), ar soi perpleksing, that 
men ov filolojikal or jeneral literari atemments ar friikwentli at fault 
in the^r spelingz. Thbz ar not random asershonz, but deliberet sto7t- 
ments founded on their reiter'z aktyual obzerveishon boith ov sphch 
and ov reiting. 

Tu remedi this dubel iivil — the inkapasiti ov the establisht ortho- 
grafi tu indikeit pronunsieishon, and the diflBkulti ov mastering the 
kompleksitiz ov speling — iz the objekt ov this prezent esei in ortho- 
grafik ref6i-m. It iz not the intenshon tu diskrimineit and reprezent 
ekzaktli everi vareieti ov sheid soimd uterd in spiich, tu pemt wurdz 
and freizez az ymzd hveu bei the moist ku'ltiveited personz in koloi- 
kwial diskoirs, or tu giv everi reiter the mimz ov putiug upon peiper 
preseisli whot hii spiiks, or fansiz that hii spiiks. The prinsipel iz 
asyuimd, that wheir a kuntii haz a long-establisht literan lauggwej, 
this and its pronunsieishon in Hiding or in retorikal diskoirs wil bh 
ov a moir ku'ltiveited and eleveited karakter than everi-dei spiich, 
which later iz often mard bei individyual neglijens or bei kaprishus 
and transhent faslion. The minyuitli-imitativ fonetik reiting ov 
aul spoiken vareietiz ov langgwej, az a mater ov seientifik interest 
or amymzment, must bii kliirli dLskrimineited from speling reform in 
a literari langgwej ov weid nashonal and intemashonal kurensi in an 
everi wheir substanshali eidentikal form, az pruivd bei the pronouns- 
ing dikshonariz and praktikal fonetik printing ov this kuutri and ov 
the Yuneited Steits. 

Tu at^mpt in komon and popyular praktis the fonetik reprezentei- 
shon ov aul vareietiz ov Ingglish and Amerikan spiich wud bii tu 
introdyuis a literari beibel ; wheiraz tu rhkonstru'kt the orthografi 
ov the standard literan langgwej ov the British E'mpeir and ov the 
greit Amerikan Republik wud dui efektyuali whot prouomisuig dik- 


shonariz dm and hav dun parshali — netmli, dimfuish lo^kal aud per- 
sonal vareietiz ov sphch. It iz perfektli praktikabel tu rhkonstitymt 
the standard orthografi so) az tu render it a seif geid tu the standard 
pronunsieishon in its esenshali distinktiv fi^tyurz, and az tu remmv 
aul simus dfffikulti in leming tu spel. But ther must hh a standard 
orthografi tu bi) lemt. The absolmt nesesitiz ov the printing-ofis, 
tu menshon noi Dtber rekweirments, forbfd a reveival ov the ortho- 
grafik anarki ov munkish teimz, tu which sum personz wud ape^rentli 
hav us retu'm. 

It meit shm tu sum ri^derz preposterus tu supo2z, that eni ortho- 
grafik ski^m or projekt put forward for konsidere^shon in konekshon 
witb the muivment for Ingglish Speling Reform kud bii intended 
for eni utber purpos than that just indikeited, ov proveiding a kom- 
preh^nsiv reprezentejshon ov the jeneral fiityurz ov Ingglish pronun- 
sieishon — a reprezente^shon braud enu'f tu iukluid the ku'ltiveited 
spiich ov the ho^l British E'mpeir, az wel az that ov the Yuneited 
Stents. Yet, ov the komparativli fym rimli wurkabel skijmz yet pro- 
po^zd in Inggland— ov the fym that hav bim submfted tu the test ov 
praktis beyond the le^bord produkshon ov a spesimen paragraf or tiii 
— ov the fyu^ in which their cm authorz kud riiprodyiiis primus per- 
formansez without referens, or in which enibodi els kud reit with- 
out kontinyual rekoirs tu a nyui dikshonari — ov this smaul minoriti 
out ov sum skozrz ov orthografik skiimz put forward, niirli aul sbm 
tu the reiter tu depart moir or les from the komprehensiv objekt ov 
a rijali nashonal, not tu sei internashonal, reprezenteishon ov the 
Ingglish langgwej. The poleit spiich ov the British Eilz, az exklm- 
siv ov that ov the koloniz or the Yuneited Stents — the pronunsieishon 
ov Inggland, az exklmding that ov Skotland or Eirland — ^the loikal 
spiich ov South- Lstem Inggland, the speshal pronunsiezshon ov Lun- 
donerz, the transheutli fashonabel parlans ov Belgreman exkwizits 
— ^iich, in a kontinyuali-kontrakting serkel, iz meid the objekt ov re- 
prezenteishon, raatber than the greit komon langgwej ov aul the 
Ingglish-spijking piipelz; wheil, az aulredi fntimeited, sum skiim- 
meikerz avouedli intend tu proveid the mimz for hch individyual tu 
reit hiz om personal pronunsieishon. 

When orthografik skiim-meikerz get beyond thhz lo^kal or per- 
sonal limiteishonz, thez yuizhuali adopt, in aul mathrial fiityurz, the 
Ingglish orthoiepi emploid wiik after wiik in Mr. Eizak Pitman'z 
weidli-serkyuleited Fonetik Jvmal — an orthojepi which, in Fonotipi 
and Fonografi, iz found komprehensiv and reprezentativ enu'f tu bn 
apriishiabel bei aul Ingglish-spiiking komyvnmtYL, Tkv^ w*Cs\<^'ei^*^a^ 


exprest bei an eiilarjd alfabet, inkluiding the twenti-thrii servisabel 
leterz ov the Rozmau alfabet, iich ymzd in its mo^st ordinari Ingglish 
sens, which hapenz aulso in everi kejs tu bh eitber the jeneraJ inter- 
nashonal valyu ov the leter, a spesifik vareieti ov this, or a valya ov 
konsiderabel internashonal kurensi whe^r jeneral yu^zej diferz. For 
the soundz, moistli ov modern development or ov modem introduk- 
shon intu their prezent pozishonz, which in the establisht speling ar 
absoluitli Dnpi-oveided witb eni speshal or jenerali-aveilabel simbolz 
ov their om, nyu2 seinz ar furnisht in the enlarjd alfabet, prodymst 
bei anaJojikali veiriing the formi ov oild seinz i-etemd tu expres nhrli- 
releited soundz. 

Sum personz, wheil substanshali adopting the hoil ortho^epi ov the 
Fonetih Jvrnal (theirbei perhaps peeing the unkonshus homej ov imi- 
tejshon tu the soirs ov their oiii fonetik inspire? shon), objekt tu the 
ymsez meid, in its alfabet, ov sum oild letorz, and tu the formz given 
tu sum nym wunz, bekauz such ymsez and foi-mz ai* not founded on 
the aksidental, ink6nstant, and inkonsistent i-epi-ezente?shoiiz which 
hav, thru chemj ov pronunsie^shon, kum tu hu fn^kwentli asoishiejted 
withi serten souudz hi the kurent speling. Transeuding the inkonsi- 
deret imitativnes ov the Cheini^z tedor, hm in meiking a pe^r ov nyui 
Yuropiian trouzerz kopid a pach in wun leg ov the oJd wunz given 
tu him for a patem, thhz speling-meikerz wud in a nyu? orthografi 
not omli riiprodyms the blemishez ov the odd, but multiplei them 
for simetrikal korespondens ov defekt. With? this steil ov objekshon 
it wil \m proper tu did letter on, in expleming the speshal fiityurz ov 
this prezeut orthografi. 

Dthier personz apiir tu objekt tu Mr. Eizak Pitman'z enhirjd Fo- 
netik Alfabet, simpli bekauz it haz the nym leterz which ar nesesari 
tu expres soimdz having no regyular odd reprezentativz. The? shni 
tu fansi that greit and rich komyumitiz, leik tho?z ov this E'mpeir 
and the Yuneited Stents, hm expend milyonz ov poundz sterling 
everi wiik in mekanikal, artistik, and soishal impni^vments,. wud bh 
soi dismeid at the prospekt ov a komparativli smaul and sertenli rh- 
produ'ktiv expendityur on nym teips for efektiv speling reform, that 
thei wud bh redi, in order tu avoid such pekyumiari kost, tu aksept 
801-kauld fonetik speling ov the Josh Bilingz stamp. The prezent 
reiter duz not belhv this, and hh haz noi hoip ov kariing a speling 
ref 6rm eksept bei kindling such enthyu^ziazm for trmth and bymti in 
sphch-reprezenteishon az wil not bii satisfeid withi rhding or reiting 
ov A week loan wwraarCz ash-pail fais bent oar the beer ov her deer 
luver gon, Exphriens ov the Imdikrus asoishieishonz ov eidhaz pro- 
dymst bei such speling aut tu konvfns eni wun, that, when a demand 
iz krieited for orthografik ref6rm, intelektyual esthetik eksijensiz, 
noi les than thoiz ov teipografikal ekonomi and bymti, wil kauz the 
produkshon ov such nym teips az mei bh niided. 

{Tu hi} koniinytid.) 


The Vouel-seinz ar thus diveided for aksentyual purposez : — 
Long — a^, e^, h, au, o^, m, ei, oi, ou, jm ; 
Short — a, e, i, o, u, u, yu. 

When the aksent-mark iz NOT PRINTED, the silabik stres shud 
bh red in akordans witb the folo'ing ru^lz : — 

A. — In Wvrdz ov Tm Silahelz : 

1. On the feinal silabel, — 

(a) When this haz a long vouel-sein, and the inishal silabel a 
short wun ; thus^ — aweik^ hehcaf^ diveid^ opeik^ promoit^ svksiid^ 
kruseid^ devoid^ about ^ dispymt. 

(b) When the wurd beginz with ekz- ; az, elczert^ ekzist. 

2. On the inishal silabel in aul utber ke^sez ; thus — aksent^ dezert^ 

tenyur^ rment^ proHest^ aviso ^fiimeil^foirmoist 

B. — In Wvrdz ov Thrii or moir Silahelz : 

1. On the last silabel, when the ferst silabel iz m, »7i, dis^ or mis^ 

prefikst tu a wurd ov the form A. la or h; thus — indisJcrut^ 
inekzakt^ unheluf^ disrepymt^ misbehav^ misekzei^t. 

2. On the last silabel but wun, — 

(a) When this kontemz a long vouel-sein ; thus — apeirent^ ko- 
hiisiv, aplavdedj vnno^tist^ intrmsivy deleited^ anoians, renyuial, 

(b) When it b'eginz witb z^ presi^ded bei ek-; az, ekzamin. 

(c) When the wurd endz in ental; az, aksidental. 

(d) When the last silabel iz ik or iks^ or haz sA, zh^ or y befo^r 
its vouel (this not belonging tu the ending ing^ est^ eth, or er) ; 
thus — spazmodik^ mathematiks^ esenshal^ perenyalz^ retorishan^ 
meridyanz^ kompashon^ imperfekshonz^ indesizhon^ komhvstyon^ 
profishmt^ emolyents^ omnishens^ inkonvimyens^ supper stishvs^ 
rebelyvs^ ignominyvs. 

3. On the therd silabel from the end in utber ke^sez, eksept thoja 

proveided for bei the nekst rml ; thus — mo'nakizm^ aka'demiy 
inde'finit, mono'toni^ am'hvskeid^ smper'fluvs^ konsii'tyuent. 

4. On the fourth silabel from the end (in wurdz not under B. 2), — 

(a) When the therd from the end kontemz yu^ or endz in i with 
a vouel folo'ing ; thus — kor'pyulensi^ aprv'shiativ^ ven'riegat, 

(b) When the therd from the end haz a short vouel, foto'd bei 
omli wun konsonant-sound and wun ov the endingz, abel-z^ 
abliy ansi'Z^ asi-z^ ari-z, or ori-z ; iYiXi^—fash'onabel^ per'tsh- 
abelz^ inev'itabli^ el'egansi^ dis'krepansiz^ in'timasi^ deVikoMZy 
sol'itari^ sem'tnariz^ irib'yuiori\ lav'atoriz. 




Bo^TH for the purpos ov praktikal treial and komparison, and tu 
avoid the expens ov ri^prodyuisiiig" marks in verins seizez ov teip 
befo^r having thuroli tested them, the smaul teip in this publikeishon 
wil, bei konseut, \m set witb a "modifeier** which iz the independ- 
ent invenshon ov Mr. Ch. W. Preis (Price), printer, ov 23 Edward 
Strict, Blakfreiarz Roid, Lundon, hm haz devo^ted much intelijens, 
reserch, teim, and muni tii the investigeishon ov Ing-glish fonetik 
dhte^lz and tu experimental fonetik piinting. In hiz orthografik 
skijm, which iz wun ov the fyui that kud b riten bei prezent rhderz 
witbout the help ov a speshal dikshonari, hii ymzez u for the vouel- 
sound in 'pvi (omiting the mark in iu\ and aa, aw, oo az our cw, ao, m; 
letemz the feiv deigrafs az, ay^ ca, ee^ oa in wurdz in which thei nou 
oku'r witb the^r regynlar soimdz ; alouz a, i at the end ov monosila- 
belz, and e, o, u at the end ov aul wurdz (eksept tu\ tu expres ther 
konvenshonal long pouerz bei pozishon ; and emploiz the m6difeier 
in aul uttoer ke^sez tu mark thiiz soundz. Yiiitileizing az this skiim 
duz aul the mo^r servisabel o^Id deigrafs without misymzing them, 
and prepe^ring a lemer for the o^ld speling az it wud dm wheir it in- 
volvz memoreizing thru its yuis ov ekwivalents, it apiirz tu bh wDn 
ov the moist praktikal " Ingglish-valyu " ski^mz yet publisht. 

Az Mr. Preis substanshali aksepts the Fonetik Jvrnal orthozepi, a 
veri fe^r komparison kan bh me^d betwhn hiz ski^m and wun founded 
on orijinal and jeneral valyuz, which wil ekzemplifei not omli the 
kapasiti ov hiz modifeier for yu^s in eilber, but the kost and ge<n ov 
konsilie^shon on wpn seid, and ov konsistensi on the utber ; thus — 


Hc/r and tha/r a fa Ingglish wurdz may 
be found, in the U/zhu/al ort/hografi, which 
leav no room for dout az tu thayr pronun- 
sia/shon. But this iz kwi/t eksepshonal. 
Yet we ar shuyr that our speling woz onj- 
inali fo/nctik. It iz nou propo/zd tu re 
vert tu that prinsipel. But a divizhon ov 
opinion haz arizen az tu the mo/st su/tahel 
leterz tu emploi. The folo/ing vershonz 
ov this sta/tment sho the na/tu/r ov such 
ov the va^rius propo/zalz aulredi ma^d az 
ciid be conve/nientli printed, each az far 
az woz posibel in the ortho/epi ov its au- 
t'hor. In so short a paragraf o/nli the 
che^f points ciid be inclu/ded, but the alfa- 
betik lau iz j^neraJi clear, and the i wil 
be a^bel tu juj priti wel whot the apearans 
wild be in printed biiks. Meni planz in- 
volving raather iuacsesibel ti/ps had tu be 
enti/rli paast bi. Hens the chois ma/d 
duz not impli/ a verdict. The Bkzecu/tiv 
Comitee wil select such met^hodz az tha 
may t'hingk rekwi/r longger ilustra/shon. 
The Ingglish Speling Reform Aso/shia/- 
shon, az a bodi, iz not rcsponsibel for eni 
won ov the/z ske/mz. 


Hi/r and the/r a fyu/ Ingglish wurdz me/ 
bi/ found, in the yu/zhual orthografi, which 
li/v no/ ru/m for dout az tu the^r prouim- 
sie/shon. But this iz kweit eksepshonal. 
Yet wiy ar shu/r that our speling woz orij- 
inali fonetik. It iz nou propo/zd tu re- 
vert tu that prinsipel. But a divizhon ov 
opinion haz arizen az tu the mo/st su/tabel 
leterz tu emploi. The foloing vershonz 
ov this ste/tment sho/ the ne/tyur ov such 
ov the ve/rius propo/zalz aulredi me/d az 
kud biy konvi/nientli printed, i/ch az far 
az woz posibel in the ortho/epi ov its au- 
thor. In SO/ short a paragraf o/nli the 
chi/f points kud bi/ inklu/ded, bift the alfa- 
betik lau iz jenerali kli/r, and the ei wil 
biy e/bel tu juj priti w«l whot the api/rans 
wud bi/ in printed buks. Meni planz in- 
volving ra/th/cr inaksesibel teips had tu bi/ 
enteirli past bei. Hens the chois me/d 
duz not implei a verdikt. The Ekzekyutiv 
Komiti wil selekt such methodz az the/ 
me/ think rekweir longger ilustre/shon. 
The Ingglish Speling Reform Aso/shie/- 
shon, az a bodi, iz not responsibel for eni 
wun ov thi/z ski/mz. 


It mei bh aded that this modifeiej* iz hkwali avalabel witb roiman 
or italik, az wel az witb mo^st fansi teips, and duz not enteA expens 
for kuting a speshal punch, but mi^rli for rhajusting a matriks. On 
the uther hand, eitber ov the tm formz ( m ) rekweirz a nym punch 
for i^ch seiz ov teip, witb a speshal matriks for italik. 


Ser, — Az a leter havinq a substanshal griivans, ei respektfuli 
rem6nstre2t agenst yu^r maner ov tri^tinq mh in ymr propojzd nyui 
spelinq for the Imglish lamgwej. Whei shud ym igno^r mh aultu- 
getber, and evins ymr wilinqnes tu dmm mi? tu extinkshon, in fre^m- 
inq ymr Alf abetik 8khm ? Ym must no? that yu? kanot dispens witb 
mei prezens in yu?r kompo?zinq-keiS. Ym ar not gounq tu olter the 
spelinq ov foran lamgwejez, ei prezymm ; nor wil ym leik tu refrem 
enteirli from kwo^tinq them ; wheil, in printinq proper neimz that ym 
me? not bi? eibel tu transliterezt, or which ym me? think it exphdyent 
tu repi?t in the?r orijinal spelinq, yu? wil ni?d mei servisez. Shud ei, 
then, bh me?kinq an unworantabel apid, in rekwestinq yu? tu proveid 
sum regyular wurk for mi? in yu?r o?n spelinq, instdd ov letinq mi? 
gro? dusti in mei smaul but ra^tber aksesibel boks ? Indi?d, yu? wil 
probabli su?n think ov apr6?prie?tinq this boks tu sum mo?r yu?sful 
teip, if ei am kondemd tu inglo?rius inakshon. Ei do?nt sh eni veri 
stronq ri?zon whei yu? *shud depreiv mi? ov the funkshon ei hav ful- 
fild for e?jez in konekshon with? mei ko'ajutor U. Wi? tii? tugetber 
perforai a speshal dyu?ti in whot ei ka?nt help konsiderinq a satisfak- 
tori maner, and no?wun kau tru?thfuli brinq agenst us the charj that 
wi? shud bh misli?dinq, if restrikted tu our Latin and proper Imglish 
emploiment. I?ven in ** piquant" and "picturesque" French spel- 
inqz, it iz not ez, but mei kompanyon, that iz su?perfluus. In pasinq 
from Lstern lan?gwejez, in which ei had the onorabel dyu?ti ov re- 
prezentinq a distinkt sound, ei me? hav beku'm an ekwivalent, but 
not an ekwivokal karakter. 

But if yu? refyu?z tu rekogneiz the kle?m that lonq antikwiti givz 
mi? tu rete?n mei prezent ofis, wud ther bh eni diflBkulti in proveidinq 
sum utber emploiment for mi? ? Sum personz propo?z establishinq 
mh sin? gel-handed in the kapasiti ov the so?-kauld guteral ne?zal ; 
but ei must 6?n that ei hav sum misgivinq az tu mei o?n sufishensi tu 
perform this funkshon. Ei never had eni ne?zal twanq about mh ; 
but, havinq started in leif az a stronq guteral, ei hav never shst tu 
bi? deseidedli guteral, tho? in Western moutbz ei hav lost the spe- 
shal karakter that formerli distin?gwisht mh from mei gud frend K. 
Ei hav nuthing tu se? agenst him, but aknolej hiz strenqth and kon- 
sistensi ov karakter. Hh haz abste?nd aulmo?st az kompbtli az mei- 
self from givinq we? tu sibile?tinq propensitiz, tu which C and G hav 
unfortyunetli beku'm adikted. Yu? shm tu respekt Mm akordinqli, 
havinq aseind tu him the gre?ter po?rshon ov C.'z dymti ; but yu? stil 
hav C performuiq limited sei'vis in kumpani witb? H, and hven X. 
du?inq sumthinq tu i*ub the dust of him. Az for G^ th.o\ liilx \i^T.\i<^- 


ku'm 80i laks in habit az tu "suggest" mispronunsiejshon in the 
"smuggest" maner, and si^mz al)lIno^st i?kwali at liounwithi "psalm- 
singers" and "horse-singers" [sin jerz],ym iiav not skrmpeld tu alou 
him tu retein hiz proper ofis, or i^ven the aksidentali-ak weird and 
often inkompatibel wun ov simpli givinq a guteral karakter tu N. 
Lven if yu^ remmv 6 from " danger " az an " inipinger " on the ofis 
ov J, ym wil find it impraktikabel tu mejk him a mi^r " hanger-on " 
tu N, bekauz sum ym persiw him in "ang[g]er" klamhiq tu ekser- 
seiz hiz orijinal in adishon tu hiz asymmd funkshon, and anon aban- 
doninq the later aultugetber in " in-gratitude." 

Nou, az j\n oiiAi wont G "clinging" az a ieA tu N tu giv the kym 
for a bak insted ov a frunt palatal vois-stopej, meit not ei, Q, plei 
the dubel part ov ki/w (queue, cue) beter than " cringing " G ? Az 
tu gDteral kwoliti, ei am abuv kwestyon ; wheil, in regard tu mark- 
inq stopej. whot shud ei bi?, witbout mei ko'ajutant and ko'eflSshent 
U, but a stop, et praetcrca nihil ? In a respektabel leter leik mi^, 
hm doun from Klasikal " antiquity " hav bim the liidhiq member ov 
the o^ld literal partnership QU, it mei apiir undig-nifeid tu propojz 
kondesendinq tu serv az an atendant upon N ; but ei wud prefer 
wurkinq in eni yujsful kapasiti tu leiinq eidel. Lven if mei prezens 
befo^r K and G themselvz wer dinnd obtruisiv, ei shud hh kontent 
witb simpli givinq the ki/w wheir neithjer ov them iz lejitimetli re- 
kweird, limnq ym tu aremj the^r releishonz witb N. 

Ti-pstinq ym wil feind an o^peniuq for mei modest servisez, 
Ymrz in gud fi^linq, and not in amger, 


P.S. — Ym wil, ov ko^rs, not o^verliik the advantej, in respekt tu 
mei smpersi^dinq G az a helpinq leter tu N, ov mei rezemblinq an 
italik or smaul reitiiiq g in she^p; so^ that meni pi^pel, and espeshali 
skraulerz ov whot iz termd the " literari" klas (perhaps, on the Incus 
anon lucendo prinsipel, from the^r not forminq eni ov ds leterz dis- 
tfnktli), wud hardli bi^ afekted bei ymr hrinqinq mi? intu servis. — Q. 

[Wun kanot help sirapatheizing witb Q, and reapekting hiz dezeir 
tu \A\ ymsful. In ri^al Klasikal " antiquity," befo^r hxi got mikst up 
witb " modem-antique " Galisizmz, hiz karakter woz ske^rsli eksep- 
shonabel ; but it wud involv a haquard mmvment, and leiqueiz euteil 
sum avquard spelingz, tu emploi him konsistentli in hiz ond kapasiti. 
Az for hiz of er tu te^k the ple^s ov G az an aukziliari in the deigraf 
NG, it haz api^rd plauzibel enu'f tu sekymr him a treial in printing 
hiz om episel. Such distinkshonz wud bi? veri servisabel az — 
Lonq, komgres, kongratyule^t, konjkwest, konkmt ; 
07* Lonq, kongres, kon-gratyulext, konkwest, kon-kri^t. 
But the adopshon ov a nym deigraf leik NQ si^mz tu sewor tm mixih 
ov nii^r orthografik injenyuuti for a praktikal ski^m ov Ingglish spel- 
ing, in which kwr haz bi^n teiken not tu render konspikyuus the ke^r 
emploid in its konstrukshon. — E.] 

LoBclon : Printed by W. 11. Evans, 14 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, "\V.C. ; and 
Published bv F. Pituian, 20 Paternoster Kow. B.C. 




Ne. 3.] November, 1880. IPreis Id. 


^^ Dhis Pvhlikoshon iz striktli a pei'sonal vndertohing on dhe part 
ov its projekter^for hwich hv atom iz responsibel. Its speshal ohjekt 
iz in wvrk out^ bet experiTnent and ko'operoshon^ a simpel^ ^?raX-/?X'aZ, 
efekiiv\ and aksepjtahcl skvm ov odd-leter reformd sprling^ avkziliari 
and svbsidiari tu a neu-leter sistem leik Mr. ElZAK PiTMAN'z ; and 
its serkyule)shon iz intended tu bi) vertyuali restnktcd tu Speling Re^ 
fcWnierz^ hw ar respektfidi inveited tu kontribyut tu its pojez kritisizmz^ 
remarks, svjestionz, or propo)zalz^ adrest ^w " 14 Gloster Street, Queen 
Square, London, W. (7." 



[In dhis ishu a nyii/ form ov vouel-modifcicr ( ) ) iz treid in dhe laijer teip, az awlso 
a difcr^nshic/ted fonn ov h in deigrafs ; hi)t, iiidepeudcutli ov dhe definitiv adopshon or 
rejckshon ov dhe later, dhe simbol dh iz emploid az dhe o/nli efektiv wun in everi pozi- 
shon for dhe voist korclativ ov th, hwich che/iij ciite/lz dhe reiting ov hw for wh^ az wil 
bi/ exple/nd in an artikcl on dhe subjekt nekst niwnth.] 

IIWEIL ttiDroli kouvinst dbat nyu) leterz for aul dbe simpel Ing- 
glisb soundz having no spest>al simbolz in dbe establish speling wil 
u'ltimetli bi) found mor akseptabel and satisfaktori dl)an deigrafs or 
i)dl?er me)ksbift deveisez, stil dbe reiter rekogneizez dl)e expi)diensi 
and advantej, in several respekts, ov having a subsidiaii and intro- 
duktori steil ov reformd speling, in hwicb 0)nli tii) or tbri) nyu) leterz 
(or, ra)dber, difereustiie)ted fomiz ov o)ld leterz) ar emploid. In dl?e 
ferst ple)s, dber iz dbe veri praktikal konsidere)sbon, dbo) it me) api)r 
trivial tu fonetik adepts, dbat meni iutelijent Ingglisbmen, kwolifeid 
bei a nolej ov foran langgwejez tu apri)sl)ie)t dije apro)priet and nat- 
yural reprezente)sbon ov spi)c^ bei Ro)man leterz, wil not i)nderte,k 
hwot dt)e) konsider dbe pyu)eril task ov leniing a duzen or ino)r nyu) 
literal forinz, widl) dl?e)r ve)rie)sbonz in kapitalz, italik, ets. Tu sucl) 
personz a speling leik dbe prezent ekzemplifeiz at li}st dfce se\lieu.t 


prinsipelz ov a kompli)tli refonnd orttK)grafi. Dt^n^ dtK» singgel 
leterz for aul simpel soundz wil eventyuali bb mo)r konvbnient and 
dbe)rfor mo)r ekonomikal tu dt^e priDter, yet hweii fonetik printing iz 
o)nli eksepstK)]iali praktist, it wil bi) wel tu hav a mett^od ov yu)til- 
eizing ekzisting founts ov teip widi? d\)e smaulest posibel expens for 
absolu)tli nesesari nyu) formz, and widb dl>e li)st praktikabel distu'rb- 
ans ov dt^ kompo)zing-ke)s ; so) dt)at teip and ke)S me) bi) ave)label 
for teipografikal kompozisl^on in eidber nyu) or o)ld speling. 

Meni persouz hav at^mpted tu nii)t dbis rekweirment ov a refonnd 
speling dbat me) bi) red widl?out leming a nyu) alfabet, and printed 
widbout larj expendityur on nyu) teips ; but mo)st ov sucb personz 
hav put forward ski)mz konflikting or inkompatibel widb dbe nyu)- 
leter Fonetik Alfabet, hwicb in foran kuntriz, and amu'ng dl)e jeneral 
publik at ho)m and in d^e koloniz, iz aksepted az reprezentativ ov 
Ingglisb Speling Ref6rm, and hwicb, in fakt, iz reprezentativ ov d^e 
bulk ov Ingglisb fonetik intelijens, abiliti, and expi)riens, ekzerted 
under dbe li)dersbip ov Mr. ElZAK Pitman. Sum ortbografik ski)m- 
me)kerz, aulso, hav faulen sbort from lak ov akwe)ntan8 widb teipo- 
grafikal teknikalitiz ; udl^erz, from imperfekt nolej or studi ov dbe 
formz ov our langgwej ; and a larjer number dl^an meit bi) supo)zd, 
from simpel fonetik inkapasiti. DWs prezent 8ki)m ov speling iz 
dt)e)rfor propo)zd az wun in substansljal harmoni, and in no) weiz 
Masking, widb dbat ov dlje Fonetik JvmaL T^uroli kouviust az dbe 
reiter iz ov dbe praktikal and efektiv karakter ov dbe fundamental 
and jeneral prinsipelz ov d^at sistem, hi) haz nutbing tu propo)z dis- 
kordant or inkonsistent widb six;b prinsipelz ; but, at dbe se)m teim, 
hi) duz not beind himself obsi)kwiusli tu kopi everi di)te)l, and not tu 
experiment widb ape)rent impru)vments ov note)sbon dbat me) sujest 
dbemselvz. Dber iz wun fi)ld for experiment in dbe o)ld-leter repre- 
zente)sl?on ov dbe Fonetik Alfabet; anudber, in dbe posibel impnDv- 
ment ov dbat alfabet itself, or ov dbe yu)s ov its leterz in speling. 
Az enitbing oku'rz tu dbe reiter hwicb hi) fansiz me) bi) an impnuv- 
ment in eidber ov dbi)z fi)ldz ov experiment, hi) wil put it tu prakti- 
kal test. For aul sucb experimenting dbe responsibiliti wil bi) upon 
him alo)n, az, indi)d, wil bi) dbat ov dbis enteir ski)m ov speling in 
eni form in hwicb hi) me) yu)z it from teim tu teim. Az hiz 0)n bei 
deliberet adopsbon, hwe)r not ov hiz 0)n deveizing, hi) iz prepe)rd tu 
defend its jeneral and spesbal prinsipelz. 

Dbe jeneral prinsipelz bei hwicb dbe reiter haz aulwe)z bi)n geided 
in hiz atempts tu prodyu)s a refonnd ortbografi, hwicb, widb dbe li)st 
amount ov inovosbon kompatibel widb tburo efektivnes, sbal bo)t]^ 


mdike)t proDDnsie)st)on and minimeiz dl;^ speling diffikulti, me) bi) 
d^us brbfli 8te)ted : — 

1. Tu retem even avolabel simbol ov dl^e old speling in its mo)st 

ordinari and jeneral yu)S ; 

2. Tu expres everi sound bei its ekzisting spes}^il simbol, hwen it 

haz wun; 

3. Tu kontinyti ekzisting yxusez ov o)id simbolz tu reprez^nt sleitli 

diferent valyuz, hwen dbbz kan bi) p6zitivli det^rmind bei 
pozist^on, and speling bi) dt^us simplifeid widtK>ut fonetik ser- 

tenti bi)ing sakrif eizd ; 

4. Tu proveid for soundz having no) spes^al or avolabel reprezen- 

te)stonz nyu) simbolz in analoji widb seinz yxuzd for rele)ted 

Probabli tl)ri)-fo)rtts ov dfee autljorz ov ortljografik ski)mz wud bb 
prepe)rd tu subskreib tu dbi)z jeneral propozisbonz, dl)0), in ve)rii)8 
partikyularz, dl?e) wud aplei dfeem dfferentli in praktis, az iz ekzem- 
plifeid bei d\)e folo'ing artikel, in hwicl) dl?is prezent speling iz kom- 
pe)rd widl? Mr. A. J. EUis'ez " Dimidian." In dlje note)sl?on ov dlje 
konsonant-soundz dl^er iz sDcb substansljal agri)ment betwi)n dl?e tii) 
ski)mz, and dber iz amu'ng speling reformerz so) much konku'rens ov 
opinyon or praktis on dlje se)m jeneral be)sis^ hweil 0)nli individyual 
fansi or predileksbon iz evinst in fe)vor ov eni udber, dbat it wud bi) 
a wprk ov su)pereroge)sbon tu defend d\)e cbois ov simbolz. Widb 
regard tu vouel-note)sbon, houever, dber iz so) mijcb ve)rians amu'ng 
diferent ski)mz, dbat d\)e reiter fi)lz bound tu adyu)8 def^ns for di)e 
di)te)lz ov hiz o)n praktis. Biot, having kweit ri)sentli riten at larj on 
mo)st ov dbe points involvd, hwicb n^sesarili rekweir konsiderabel 
spe)s for adekwet diski>sl)on, hi) konsiderz it nou beter tu ref^r tu 
publisbt mater dt)an tu atempt an imp^rfekt sumari ov it hi)r. 

'D\)e ri)zonz for apro)prie)ting d\)e vouel-sein u tu its orijinal sound 
in " put," and for introdyu)sing a dif er^nsbie)ted form ov u (or inter- 
mi)diet form betwi)n o and u) for dbe modem sound in " but, doth," 
ar ste)ted in an artikel enteiteld " Put versus But " {Fonetik Jvmal^ 
24 E)pril, 1880). Dl^e regyule)ted dubel emploiment ov d\)Q feiv 
simpel vouel-seinz, a, e, z, o, w, for stopt and bri)f soundz, hwicl? haz 
not bi)n formali rekogneizd and konsistentli karid out bei eni udber 
ski)m-me)ker, dl)0) in aul partikyularz dbe praktis ov wpn person or 
anixH)er justifeiz dbe are)njment, iz exple)nd and defended in a poper 
on "Ingglisl) Sl)ort Vouel-soundz " {Ibid. 18 and 25 Sept. 1880). 
Dl)e ri)zonz dbat led tu dbe konklu)zbon, after dilijent investige)st)on 
and ampel experiment, dl?at for dl?e simpel long voxsft^l-^^xscAa. ^'^ 


establish ortbografi haz NO ordiiiari aiid ivp^yular siiubolz, avejabel 
in a fouetikali i-eformcl ortl)()«^rali, ar s<'t f())itl) in a i)e>j)er enteiteld 
"Ingglisb Long Vouel-soundz " {Ibid. .3, 10, 17, and 24 Julei, 1880). 
Dbe reprezente)slK>n ov dbe dift^^onggal soundz iz d^o subjekt ov a 
pe)per on " Diftbongz" {Ibid. 29 Me) and 5 Jum, 1880). Dbe reiter 
haz dl)e les diffidens in dl?us referring tu hiz oni produksljonz, inaz- 
mi)cl) az, Dpon le)tli sending kopiz ov dl)eni and ov di?is Experimaiio' 
tu dl)e mo)st selebre)ted, if not di?e oblest, ov living filolojists, d^^is 
jentelman ro)t in replei: "Ei hav fonnerli red yu)r j)e)perz, and tliaut 
dl)em aulwe)z veri kli)r, veri 8tre)tfoi*ward, and veri praktikal." 

*»* Dhc form ov dhe vouel mddifeier iz not an cscnshal fi/tynr ov dhis orthografik 
skiym. az mcy bi/ inferd from sum ha/f-dnzen fonnz having Li/n treid in dhi/z pcvjez ; bnt 
it iz ho/pt.dhat dhe mark non j-u/zd in dhe larjer teip () ) wil prii/v definitivli satisfak- 
tori. It oferz dhe advantej, dhat in mo/st seizez ov teip dhe fonndcr kud suplei it from 
an ekzisting matriks, along widh extra kwontitiz ov Zy k, ets. rekweird for eni konsidcr^ 
abel amount ov fonetik printing, or az hiy wud swplei adishonal kwontitiz ov dhe pi/riod, 
if dhat wer invei-tcd ( * ) for a modifeicr. It wil harJli eskc/p dhe atenshon ov a Gri/k 
skolar, dhat our tu/ Ic/tcst marks hav bim simpli vcrtikal adapte/shonz, for teipografikal 
konvi/niens and ekonomi, ov dhe we/vi and dhe ple/n Gri/k serknmfloks ( ^ ^). For 
a simpel spesimen paragraf, dhe/rfor, dhc Latin serknmflekst vouelz (d e i 6 ii) mcit bi/ 
yu/zd az fc/r substityu/ts for our "modifeid" vouel-Lterz 


Mr. A. J. Ellis, on dlje last pe)j ov hiz ri)sentli-isbu*d pamflet on 
" Dimidian Speling," moks a jeuerus and mo)r dljan ampel aknolej- 
ment ov sum litel asistans given bei dl?e prezent reiter in korekting 
dt^at ri)ali labo)rius wDrk for d^^e pres. But for dljat publik rekogni- 
sl)on, dbe mater wud not bi) mensbond hi)r, but it me) nou bi) alu)ded 
tu az akounting for a sumhwot intimet akwe)ntans widl) Dimidiau 
and an interest in it az an e)bli and ke)rfali konstru'kted fonetik or- 
tt>ografi, dl?e wurkmanst>ip ov hwict) aul fonetisljanz wil feind it heili 
profitabel tu studi, houever dl?e) me) te)k eksepsbon tu sum ov dbe 
mati)rialz yu)zd or tu serten di)te)lz ov steil. Az wun rezu'lt ov hiz 
0)n studi ov d\)e sis tern, dbe reiter ofei'z d\)e folo'ing bri)f komparison 
ov d\)e cl)i)f fi)tyurz ov hiz 0)n steil ov speling widl) dl?o)z ov dlje 
0)nli fonetik ortl^ografi konstm'kted widl) '• Ingglist>-valyu '* deigrafs 
dbat iz kompli)t and independent in itself, and konsekwentli dbe o)nli 
wun dl?at duz not rekweir from its reiter eidljer a nolej ov d\)e o)ld 
speling or a similar memoreizing ov individyual wurdz tu dljat' hwicb 
dl?e later ente)lz. 

Kompanson ov Orthografik Dbtolz. 

Short Vouelz, — In aksented or i^dfeer kli)r silabelz bo)tb Dimidian 
and Angglo-Romanik rete)n a, e, t, o for dbe stopt soundz in pat^ pet^ 
pit^pot^ and for dbe bri)f soundz in paiei-nal^ petitioii^ piaster^ potato ; 
but in Dimidian i/ iz yu)zd for bri)f i at d^e end ov wurdz or befo)r i 
itself (az in pity^ pitying)^ and dl?e long sein oa for bri)f o befo)r eni 


vouel and befor infleksbonal z or rf (az in coainsident^foloaci^foloaing^ 
fohaz, foload^ hwicb ar nten in Aug.-Rom. ko'vmdent,/oloe7\folo'ing, 
foirO'Ztfolo'd,) Dl)e stopt vouel-sound herd in but or cloth iz repre- 
zented bei u in Dimidian, and bei v (u) in Angglo-Romanik ; hweil 
in dbe fonner siatem a koresponding bn)f sound iz intended tu bi) 
iio)ted bei unaksented o)pen a, or bei e befo)r ?•, az in p6ndei*SLbl^ dt)i)z 
seinz bi)ng' konsiderd tu deno)t obskyxor a and e in Angglo-Romanik. 
In dbe later bo)tb dbe stopt vouel in put and d\)e reloted bri)f sound 
in afluent^ instilments konienshuret^ ywzhual^ prejudis ar exprest bei 
u; but in Dimidian dlje stopt sound iz reprezented bei uu (azjpwM/, 
fuul\ and dbe bri)f sound bei dbe long vouel-sein oo (az dfioomt^ in- 
8trooment\ dbo) after sh^zh^ and^* dl?e diftbong eu ( = our yu) iz riten 
for dbe bri)f ^' u " ov dbe 0)ld speling, az after ixU^er konsonants (az, 
komensheuret^ euzheuul^ prejeudis — \&^ forieicnet^ adeulait). 

Obskywr Vouelz. — In Dimidian a, e, and u ar yu)zd az ekwivalent 
seinz for hwot iz tri)ted az wun obskyu)r vouel-sound — a at dbe end 
ov a silabel, u hwen a konsonant folo'z in dbe se)m silabel, and e be- 
fo)r r hwedber in dbe se)m or dbe nekst silabel, az in stigma^ stigmnz^ 
stigniateiz^ eideca^ eideexiz^ eideeuly^ formeuLa^ formeulery^ galeiij^ histeiy^ 
fizishun^ pozlshun^ plezher ; but in Angglo-Romanik a, e, <?, and u ar 
rekogueizd az i)cb having a separet obskyu)r sound (beseidz '* u '*), az 
lirstigma^ stigmaz^ stigmateizj eidha^ eidi/az, etdvali, fomiyula^formyu' 
lari^ galeri^ histon^ fizishan^ pozishon^ plezhur. 

Long Vouelz, — In bo)tb sistemz dbe se)m siks simpel long vouel- 
soundz ar rekogneizd az nesesari and praktikabel tu distiuggwisb in 
popyular fonetiks ; but in Dimidian dbi)z ar reprezented bei vouel - 
deigrafs or singgel-leter ekwivalents founded on " Ingglisb valyuz," 
hweil in Angglo-Romanik dbe) ar aul eksept av (for dbe sound in awl) 
exprest bei a prolonging mark aded tu dbe bri)f vouelz ; dbus — 

Dimidian — ee, e ay, ai aa aw, au oa, o oo * 

Ang,'Iio7Yi, — i) e) a) au o) u) 

— dbe yu)s ov dbe Dimidian ekwivalents bi)ing regyule)ted bei pozi- 
sbon, az in play, playing^ plaiz^ plaier^ — -forsee^ seez^ seeing ^ 5C, — saiv^ 
sauing^ sauz^ — goaz^ goaing^ go^ forgo;, hwicb wurdz ar in Angglo- 
Romanik riten — -pleJ^ plenng^ ple)Zy plejer^ — -foyrsi)^ sijz^ sinng^ s/;, — sav^ 
saving^ savz^ — goz, going, go^foyrgo), 

DifbJwngz, — In bo)tb sistemz ci, oz, and ou hav dbe se)m nii)ning, 
but Dimidian haz dbe ekwivalents ey and y for dbe ferst, and oy^ ow 
for dbe tii) later, az in deci'e^/, ci^eying^ a'eiz^ cry^ — toy^ toyiyig^ toiz^ — 
plow,, plouz^ =Ang.-Rom. dekrei^ kreiing^ kreiz^ krci^ — ioi^ toiing^ toiz^ 
— plou^ plouz. In Dimidian eu iz yu)zd for bo)tb long and bri)f " u " 
ov dbe komon speling, widb yoo (in tii) wurdz) az an ekwivalent sein 
for dbe long sound, az in eunit,, euneit^ dispevi^ dispeuianty yoo^ yooth^ 
= Ang.-Rom. yumit^ yuneit,, dispyiut^ dispyutant,, yw^ ywth, 

"i2 ^^-afekted Vouelz, — In Dimidian dbe untnld r iz tn)ted az itself 
bi)ing seUent, but az lengtbening a sbort vouel, so) dbat bar and wor 

* It shud bi/ no/ted, dhat, hi/r and els'hwc/r, Mr. Ellis' ez " dubl and tripl foi mz for 
dhe saira sound," tu yu/z hiz o/n wwrdz, " ar enteirly dew too dlie dczeu: t<i^ a^v^kc^h 
oald habits az much az woz foneticuly posibl." 


ar konsiderd ekwivaleiit spelinp^z for haa aud luaw^ dbe later formz 
bbing su'bstityu)ted hwen trild r iz aded wid^) a vouel afiks, az in 
baarbig^ loaurvig; but ur reine)nz iu pur. ring (dtK)) puhring me) bb 
riten). Dl?e kombine)al)onz er and nr ar tn)ted az ekwivalent, eksept 
dl)at dbe former iz yu)zd in uuakfleiited, and dl^e later in aksented 
silabelz, az in pervurt (v.), purvcrt (n.). In ADgglo-Romanik untnld r 
iz konsiderd a distinkt sound, aded tu a sl)ort vouel in har^ toor^ sucb 
sound reme)uing befo)r dbe trild r in barring^ worring ; hweil dbe 
sekond vouel in deferring iz rekogneizd az distinkt from d^^at in de^ 
rmyri'mg^ and servant^ svrveiv ar riten for Dimidiau survant^ serveiv, 

Dbe modifeiing efekt ov r on dbe long vouelz in " pair, peer, boar, 
boor," and on dbe diftbongz in " sire, sour, pure," iz rekogneizd in 
bo)tl) sistemz, az wel az dl^e adis^on in spi)cl) ov a trild after dbe du- 
tnld r hwen a vouel foloz eidt^er in dbe se)m wurd or in anudber 
wurd ov d\)e se)m fre)z ; so) dl?at Dim. pairent^ pairing^ pair ov boots 
=^pairrent^ pairring^ pair-rov boots ; A.K. parent^ pemtig^ par ov bwta 
==pe)rrent^ penring^ pejr-rov bwts. So) impeerius (impiyrivs) iz red az 
impeer-rius (impi)r-rws\ not az impee-riiis (impv-rivs), 

Konsonanis. — Dl?e e)ti)n simpel konsonants, 6, c?,/, ^, A,y, ^, Z, m, n, 
jo, r, 5, ^, V, ly, y, z^ hav dbe se)m valyuz in bo)tb sistemz ; but Ang"- 
glo-Romanik yu)zez o)nli dbi)Z seinz for dbe)r respektiv soundz, hweil 
Dimidian haz c, q^ ck^ cq (dl?e tii) later after sbort aksented vouelz) 
az ekwivalents for ^, widb dj (aulso after sucl) vouelz) az an ekwiv- 
alent for^ ; dl?i)s — decoarum^ deckerait^ antic^ anteek^ dntiqwaited^ ari' 
ticqwtty^ lojishun^ lodjicul^ = Ang.-Rom. dekorvm^ dekore>t^ antik^ 
antbk^ dntikwoted^ aimkwiti^ lojishan^ lojikal. Dbe kompcDdium x iz 
yu)zd in Dimidian everihwe)r befo)r konsonants ; in Angglo-Romanik 
0)nli in dlje pri)fik8 ex befo)r konsonants ; dl?us — Dim. veod^ vecs^ vecS' 
ing^ Icujcly^ laxnes^ lacs^ lacsity^ explain^ extent; A.-R. vekst^ veks^ veks' 
ing^ laksli^ laksnes^ laks^ laksiti^ explem^ extent. 

'D])e Kousonant Deigrafs, cA, th^ dh^ sh^ zh^ ar nou yu)zd aleik in 
bo)tb sistemz, eksept dbat in Dimidian ch haz dl?e ekwivalent tch 
(after sbort strong vouelz, az in itch^ but not in which^ such^ nmuch^ 
rich). Dimidian wh haz beku'm hw in Angglo-Romanik, for ri)zonz 
tu bi) fuli ste)ted in our nekst isbu. Dbe kombine)sbon ng (widb n az 
its pozisbonal substityu)t) iz yu)zd, under substanaljali 6\)e se)m ru)lz, 
in bo)tl? sistemz. Dbi)z deigrafs ar diveided in dbe tii) spelingz, tu 
expres d\)e separet pouerz ov dbe leterz: — Dim. neithuud^ ad.heer^ 
mis.hdp^ in.grain; Ang.-Rom, neit'hud^ ad'hi/r^ Tuis'hdp^ in'grem. 

Dl?e aksent ru)lz ov bo)tb sistemz ar similar in jeneral fi)tyurz, dijo) 
difering in di)te)lz ; but dl?e determine)sl?on ov dbe pozisbon ov dl;>e 
silabik stres, eidber bei ru)l or bei mark, iz konsiderd nesesari tu ren- 
der eidljer sistem efektyuali fonetik. 

Diferent az ar dbe note)sboiiz ov dbe tii) sistemz in ve)rius partik- 
yularz, yet, in reprezenting standard Ingglisb soundz, dfee) absolu)tIi 
konflikt o)nli in dbe valyu given tu dbe separet leter w. 

Dimidian okyupeiz about 5 per sent. mo)r spos dban duz Angglo- 
Romanik, dl;e leinz in dl)e former bi)ing me)d dl;^at mix;];) longger in 
dbe folo'ing spesimen, iu order tu ki)p dt^e mater paralel. 






Heer and dhair a few Ingglish wurdz 
may be found, in dhe euzheuul orthografy, 
which leev no room for dout az too dhair 
pronansiaishun. Bat dhis iz qweit ecsep- 
shunul. Yet we ar shoor dhat our speling 
woz oridjinuly fonetic. It iz now propoazd 
too revurt too dhat prinsipl. But a di- 
vizhun ov opinyun haz arizn az too dhe 
moast seutabl leterz too employ. Dhe foloa- 
ing vurshunz ov dhis staitment sho dhe 
naiteur ov such ov dhe vairius propoazalz 
anlredy maid az cuud be conveenyently 
printed, eech az far az woz posibl in dhe 
orthoaepy ov its anther. In so short a 
paragraaf oanly dhe cheef points cuud be 
inclooded, but dhe alfabetic law iz j^neruly 
cleer, and dhe ey wil be aibl too judj prity 
wel whot dhe apeeruns wuud be in printed 
buuks. Meny planz involving raadher in- 
acsesibl teips had too be enteirly paast by. 
Hens dhe chois maid duz not impley a vur- 
diet. Dhe Egzekeutiv Comity wil select 
such methudz az dhay may think reqweir 
longger ilustraishun. Dhe Ingglish Spel- 
ing Reform Asoasiaishun, az a body, iz not 
responsibl for eny wun ov dheez skeemz. 

Hi)r and dhor a fyu) Ingglish wurdz 
me) bb found, in dhe ywzhual orthografi, 
hwich li)v AO) num for dout az tu dhor 
prouDnsioshon. But dhis iz kweit eksep- 
shonal. Yet wb ar 8hu)r dhat our speling 
woz originali fonetik. It iz nou propozd 
tu revert tu dhat prinsipel. But a di- 
vizhon ov opinyon haz arizen az tu dhe 
mo)st swtabel leterz tu emploi. Dhe folo*- 
ing vershonz ov dhis ste)tment sho) dhe 
ne)tyur ov siich ov dhe vorius propo)zalz 
aulredi mod az kud bi) konvi)nyentli 
printed, i>ch az far az woz posibel in dhe 
ortho)epi ov its author. In so) short a 
paragraf o)nli dhe chuf points kud bi) 
inklu)ded, but dhe alfabetik lau iz jenerali 
klbr, and dhe ei wil bu obel tu juj priti 
wel hwot dhe apurans wud bi) in printed 
buks. Meni planz involving nudher in- 
aksesibel teips had tu bi) enteirli past bei. 
Hens dhe chois me)d duz not implei a ver- 
dikt. Dhe Ekzekyutiv Komiti wil selekt 
such methodz az dhe) mo think rekweir 
longger ilustroshon. Dhe Ingglish Spel- 
ing Reform Aso)shie)shon, az a bodi, iz not 
responsibel for eni wun ov dhi)z ski)mz. 


From A. J. ELLIS, Esq., F.R.S. ets., 25 Argyll Road, Kensington, W.:— 

" I am afraid I doant leik yoor new and very injeenius modifeier. I luukt at dhe 
pasej befoar reeding yoor leter, and dhe apairently new teips *i) u) o) a) o* qweit perplext 
me. Dhe 'o) ' in espeshal luukt leik 'oo* or dhe oald 'oo,' and *u' leik yoor *u' doted. 
Perhaps turning ')' intoo *(*, az yoo doant euz 'c,* dhe efect meit be beter — * ic, uc, oc, 
ac, ec* — but dhis iz too much leik ' ic, uc,' ets. ; and * d, cu, co, (a, ce * wuud'nt doo at 
aul. I reeuly prefiir Preisez * i/, e/,* ets. It luuks neet entif in teip. 

" But yoo reeuly must get oaver av for au. In Dimidian and Glosic dhair iz no ob- 
jecshon too au ; but in yoor sistem it iz «+», which woant doo at aul. It iz evident 
dhat not, noit (whotever modifeier ; may expres, I euz it az 'not euzd) ar not, naut, 
and dhat yoo wont (say meerly az an egzaampl) o 0/ for prOpO/z. Yoo must go in for 
sics vouelz, if yoo apley dhe modifeier consistently. I am not shoor ov ei, oi, in dhis 
cais ; but surtinly ou woant hoald. 

** I aulso doant leik * folo'ing,' but perhaps dhat iz dew too my ens ov (*) for a stres 

[Hwen Mr. Elis ro/t, hi/ had o/nli si/n a pru/f ov dhe smaul-teip mater printed abuv, 
konte/ning dhe extemporeizd modifeierz stil left in it (hwich wer me^l from ** o" widh 
a feil). Hwedher hi/ wil leik dhe thiner, ni/ter, and speshali-kast form in dhe larj teip, 
or not, it iz at li/st an achi/vment tu hav me/d dhe grot expert in literal farmz fansi hi/ 
beheld nyu/ letebz in dhe impreshonz ov feiv diferent teips modifeid bei wun yu/ni- 
form adishon. Az for "au," it iz not evident hwei dhe advokets ov " Ingglish valyuz " 
shud hav dhe kompli/t monopoli ov yu/zing mi/r cxpi/dients in o/ld-leter sj)eling. Dhe 
sein an iz mo/r sujestiv tu '*nomik" ri^icrz dhau ao, and iz at li/st az fonetikali aproksi- 
met az eidher ao or an, hweil its yu/s li/vz dhe tu/ later seinz fri/ for expresin^ Ir ^Ia- 
grafikal nomz tu/ si)csifik varcictiz oy dhe sc/m tipikal lottxiv iMWiSiw^ <5f^mOcL\L^«^'\. ^iisssi 


Injfj^lish ou). In dhe prt'zont reitcr'z artikel on " In^^^Iish Short Voucl-soundz " {Fo» 
netik Jnmal^ Sept. 18 and 25 iHst), it iz cxplc^nd dhat dhu lon;c scinz in dr\,ma. rhnl, 
podent^Jl\:tent ar adveizcdli dercivd from dhe komon bri/f sonndz in drKmatik^ sLria/, 
impotent ^ njlvent, and not from dhe pcrkyiiyliarli Inijj^lish atopt soiindz in pat, pii, pot, 
put, hwich in An^glo-Komaiiik wud bi/ spcdhali inarkt for foran lernerz, so/ az phi, pit, 
pbt, pilt. In dhi8 8i>elin}; nbit nieit dhcvrfor hi/ ritoii instod ov navt, if it wer kwcit 
definitli dcseidcd (Jhat dhe voueJz in " not, nanjrht " ar a jwrfcktli ekzakt pc/r, cni mo/r 
dhan dho/z in "pull, pool/'-W. R. E.] 

[In refcrens tu dhe ln»t-meii«hond point, and tu dhe thin mr><lifeier () ), dhe folo'ing 
woz afterwardz re»i/vd from Mr. Kllis, shoin^ dhe efekt on a kritikal ei ov a »mai)l dif- 
erens in a literal fonn.] 

" Ov cors dhay [dhe vouel-soundz in not, na>if/ht'] ar not a pair : <?<? i, ai <•, aa a, 
au 6, 00 uu, ar nun ov dhem puirz ; and in my palioteip (dhis iz my oan wiird, and 1 

hav a reit too dirtait its pronunsiaishun) I doo not pair dhem, but diRtin^r^'ish 

1 think yoor [ ) ] wil doo. Its far dhe best inodifeier I hav seen ; and dhe distincshun 
(o, 0) [n(ot, no)t-=«//w^^/, note] may wurk, k'evin««: a indetenuinet. Dhat purl ) dux 
not egzaetly sent dhe seiz ov long-primer, iz au advaantcj." 

From Professor CANDY, Highficld, Ditton, (Cambridge : — 

" Scr, — r lik dhe luk ov Mr. Prisiz timid aksent beter dhan dhat ov y.ur modifrcr; 
bi)t r prefer dhep.iriod and turud p.iriod, bek.oz 1' kan ri t .0, 1', and U'. 1* did not 
no* dhat Q had cnithing ta d.u widh a ' gutter/ 1' woz dhat it iz a giitural. — 
Urz tr.uli, F. J. Candy." 

[Mr. Preis'cz sirapel form ov modifcicr wud no dout hi/ kli/rer and mo/r efektiv dhan 
our o/n (0 in smaul teip, and our apri/shie/shon ov it iz sho/u bei yii/zing it hi/r ; but dhe 
larjer diie teip, diic mo/r self-aserting, obtni/siv, and tuoknleik dnz dhis mark (/) api/r 
tu bekoin. Plcuti ov praktikali servisabel marks me/ bi/ deveizd or apleid tu distiii^- 
gwish dhe long vouel soundz ; bi»t wont ov enteir satisfakshon widh enitliing yet treid, 
having regard tu diferent «eizcz and vareietiz ov teip, Iiaz led tu anodher cxpcrimcDt in 
dhi/z pe/jez, widh dhe form [)]. Az for Mr. (Jandy'z preferena for dhe pi/riod and dhe 
tmnid pi/riod, beknuz hi/ kan yu/z .t .o .« (='u an w) and i' o' «* (=ei o/ yu^), dhe ac/m 
aort ov dislinkshon kud bi/ me'd widh mo/r efektiv and seitli marks, if it wer konsidcrd 
iulveizabel tu me/k it in a popyular orthografi ; but ex))i/riens in reiting and in pr iiting 
wud su/n sho/ dhe impraktikabiliti ov dJiis keind ov note/shou. Fonnz leik ** kwi'.itm, 
ti'.era, ko'.ival, gi-ndu'.et, priv.eshon, dur.eshon, d.iodoriz, s.iing, dek.eing,," 
wud bi/ iutolcrabel. Dhis koufyu/zing yu/a ov dots, tu uuirk dhe reprezente/shon ov in- 
kompatibel soundz bei dhe se/iu leter, wil not wurk. Az Mr. Candy o/nli trausiitere/ts a 
former and infl/rior development ov 31 r. Pitman'z nyu/-leter note/shon, it iz ])crm(sibel 
tu cxpres a prefereus for dhe later'z imj)ru/vd steil and for hiz o/u o/ld-leter translitcre/- 
shon ov 
(from Lat 

wnrd tu a sound hwich, houever kc/rfiili dhe word meit bi/ dikte/ted, kud not hi/ disting- 
gwisht in an unaksented silabcl from dhat in literal, lateral (hwc/raz dhat in litonit, 
pektoral meit), wi/ shud o/nli perpetre/t a fonetikali arbitrari and etimolojikali spyn/ritis 
speling in ** gwtnral. — W. II. E.] 

From dhe sc/m on resi/ving ** pnuf '* ov dhe abnv : — 

" I' objekt tuwun long vowel b.iing tr.ited diferently from dhe rest. .0 haz az much 
ri't tu a singel si'u az .A or .U. T and U' ar .olso' veri- konv.iuicnt. D.u u* konfai 
.ol nnaksented vowelz tugedher ? If not, I' wud pi. id for gvtmal konsonauts ; and for 
Prolesor, az mi' ti'tcl." 

[On dhe ferst point, it wil hi/ posiljel and agri/abel tu rai/t Mr. Candy *z vyu/ nckst 
month bei printing *'(o o)" for an oi. But if dhe experiment hi/ onsatisfalctori, dh» 
modern, ])ekj'U/liai', and infri/kwcnt sound in naught (kwolitativli distinggwisht bei Mr. 
Melville Bell from dhsU in nor) most stil put op widh dhe mc/kshift sein ati, Az tu 
konfounding a»l unaksented silabelz (hwich it iz priti evident iz not dun hi/r), dhat wud 
bi/ veri diferent from dekleiuing tu rekogneiz terminal '-vral in won irregj'iilar wnrd. 
llwen dhe yu/s ov -er for -or in verbal uounz having Ingglizh etimonz (Mr. Pitman*! 
plan) woz rliu/ted at dhe Filolojikal Soseicti, it si/md tu bi/ ra/dher jcnerali apnuvd.] 

Xoiidon ; Printed by W. R. Evans, 14 Gloucester Street, (Jueen Square, "NV.C. ; and 
Published by F. Pitiuan, 40 YaUmo^Vtt YVq>n,^.^. 




Nr. 4.] Desember, 1880. [Preis Id. 


♦^* Dhis Piiblikoshon iz a personal undertoking ov its kondivkter, and neidher eni 
i)dber individiual nor eni soseieti iz responsibel for its speling or opinionz. Its objekt 
iz tu wurk out ezperimentali a simpei, praktikal, efektiy, and akseptabel 8ki)m ov o)ld- 
leter reformd speling, (okziliari and sDbsidiari tu Mr. Eizak Pitman's niu-Ieter sistem. 
Komiunike)8honz for its pojez, bei we) ov remark, kritisizm, sujestion, or propo)zal, shud 
bi) adrest tu " 14 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, London, W.C." 

t|+ In dhis ishu dhe modifeier [ ) ], kast at dhe yu)zhual charj for such seinz az [ ' ] 
from matrisez (olredi ekzisting at teipfoundriz, iz exklu)8ivli yu)zd. Dhe simbol" (o " 
ezperimentali replosez **ai)'* for dhe vouel-soimd in "all, sought"; "n)'* 8iupersi)dz 
**ng** bcfo)r^, and iz (olso yu)zd analogDsli befo)r X: (az in "fin)ger, tin)ker) ; hweil 
dhe experimental, but not satisfaktori, " yu), yu " (az long and bri)f seinz) giv ple)8 tu 
"yu), iu " (az inishal and mi)dial seinz), dhe later ov hmch. iz konvi)nientli tri)ted az 
short for aksenttual purposez, leik dhe difthongz in " reAiausi, eiiienot, ami)UV/re)t." 



Sdm ri)derz ov dl?is pi)blike)st)on me) hav bbn inkleind tu sirapa- 
il)eiz widl? d\)e komplemt me)d bei " Q," in a ri)sent number, dl?at hi) 
had no) wurk tu du), and tu konsider fe)vorabli hiz oferd sends in a 
niu deigraf "nq," tu repie)s "ng"; but "Q."z gri)vans iz mi)rli a 
negativ wun, and konsidere)st)on ov it me) not pnri)zonabli bi) post- 
pond for dbe prezent. Mi)nhweil, it iz propozd hi)r tu giv si)rius 
atens^n tu hwot iz dbmd dfce mo)r presing ke)s ov a pu)r o)verwi)rkt 
leter, hwicl) iz eraploid in 0)ld and propozd niu ort^ografiz for meni 
ve)riios and inkompatibel fumksbonz, and kanot ri)zoiiabli bi) expekted 
tu perform dljem (ol satisfaktorili. Wi) ref^r tu dt/e leter '^ H," a mi)r 
skect) ov hu)z diversifeid emploiment iz given belo) : — 

Az an INDEPENDENT LETER, A expresez a distimkt sound, hwidl) 
iz dbat ov a sleit emisfcon ov simpei bretb befo)r a vouel-sound, az in 
had^ hit^ kound^ behest^ opho)ld; or after a vouel-sound in sum lam- 
gwejez, az it me) sumteimz bi) herd in dbe seiing or gasping uterans 
ov Imglish "Ah!" or "Oh I" But i)ven in dl)ia independent kapasiti 
h iz often me)d tu du) diuti for tii) diferent 0)riental aspirets, wun ov 
hwicl) iz stron)ger dban ourz, and meit wel bi) deno)ted bei A' in our 
teip, in priti klo)S analoji tu pdljer distin)ksl)onz adopted furdber on. 

Az an (OKZILIARI TU VOXJEL-LETERZ, aded h marks dbe natiural 
long sound ov dbe presi)ding leter in In)glislj oA, e^, oh (spo)ken in an 
ordinari to)n), or in translitere)ting 0)riental ne)mz ; it iz (olso mucl) 
yu)zd in Jerman for dl?is purpos widlj (ol dljQ iew ^o\3j^-^\aa^ V^o^xss. 


" bahn, fehl, ihn, lohn, nihin, = <):ir lam^ff^h i'ti^ h»n^ ru/ia); and it iz 
propO)zd Ixn vorius IiDfj^lisl) ortbojrrafik Hkiiiu-mokei'z tn mark eidl;^ 
d\)e natiural or dlje konvensljonal loiifj: soundz ov sum vouel-leterz in 
dins nianer. Odl)or fonetiHljanz. hoii»»v(»r, liav yiDzd h in dl>e)r spel*- 
ing tu deno)t vareietiz ov kwoliti in voiifl-soundz, irrespektiv ov d\)e 
len<:^b ov dt)i)Z. 

Az an (OKZILTARI TU KOX.SOXANTS, // iz eniploid in seven diferent 
we>z, i)V(Mi in okzisting" kurent ()i'tl;(>^rrafiz, az folo'Z: — 

1. Won yiDs niO)d ov A iz tn expr<*s a strong apu'ls or streiking ov 
a konsonant on a voiiel soksi)diiijL;* in dl)<' s(»)ni silabel, dbe efekt after 
hwispord or l>retl> koiis^onaiits (az in Sanskiit k/uina^p/tala) bi)iug 
mixib leik dl)at ov an intcrpokMtcd A, but after a voist konsonant (az 
in Sanskrit bhida^ ditu) onili apiiring tn niok dlje vonel enifatik bei 
its bi)ng uterd widb a stroiDpfcr explor/ljou ov vois. Dljis gadbering 
ov adisljonal bretb or vois bt^hcind dt)e obstnVktiv kontakts ov bret^ 
leterz leik ;?, U X*, or ov vois letei-z leik ^, d^ <j^ and explo)diiig ov 
SDcl^ extra bretb or vois on dl)e foloing vouel in dte 8e)m silabel, haz 
an efekt distin)kt from dl)at ov pronounsing h at dl)e begining ov a 
silabel in Iinglisl), after a konsonant ending wun. az in -' loophole, 
sweetheart, workhouse, abhor, adhere, childhood, staghom." 

2. A sekond yiDS ov aded h iz tn deno)t dte oltere)sl)on ov a nor- 
mali voist intu a koresponding hwisperd konsonant, az in our In)gli8t^ 
"whit," or dt>e Welsl) "rhai" (wid^ hwicb dt?e Gri)ko-Latin rh woz 
probabli not eidentikal — si) 5 belo)). Dl)is distin)ksl)on iz me)d bei 
eniiting i)nvo)kaleizd bretl? (hwici) iz liwot h reprez^nts) tbru dl^e 
pozisbon rekweird for d^)o ordinari voist konsonant. Dljns, in '*wbit" 
dbe organik pozistion for w iz asiiimd, and bretl) (reprezented bei A) iz 
puft tl^ni it befo)r voist uterans komensez on i ; hweil in " wit " it iz 
vo)kaleizd bretl^. or vois, dl?at iz enn'ted tl?ru dbe w apeitiur. Dt^or- 
for, " wheel " iz tu " weal " az '• feel *' iz tu " veal." 

3. Ani)dl)er and distiiDkt apIike)sbon ov A iz its adis^on tu dbe sein 
ov a hwisperd explo)dent or ••' mint " konsonant tu expres di?e sound 
ov a'fle)ted or "aspiroted" wun (hwicI? (olso iz hwisperd). d^o later 
bi)ing me)d bei a fiikativ emishon ov bret^) tbru a kontraksljon ov dte 
organz at or ni)r dl?e point liwe)r konipli)t kontakt, obstruksboii, and 
subsekwent explo)ztion ar efekted for dl)e koresp6nding explodent 
leter. Dt)us, wi) hav;?^ az a komon trauslitere)sl;on in modem lam- 
gwejez ov dOe Gn)k hwisperd and fle)ted le)bial (az in '' philosophy"), 
and az a ne)tiv simbol wid^) d^e se)m pouer in Welsl? and Ers ; hweil 
wi) (olso feiiid th az d^^e Latin translitere)sl?on ov dl)e Gri)k hwisperd 
and fle)ted dental konsonant, and reprezenting the som sound in 
vemakiular In)glisl) az wel az in Welsj) and Ers ; widb ch simboleiz- 
ing d^e koresponding Grl)k bak-palatal or guteral konsonant (pro- 
nounst leik h in Imglisl^, az " monarch "=monar^'), and yu)zd az a 
sein for d^e som sound in Jerman, Welsl), Ers, and udfeer lan)gwejez. 
Ov dbe last simbol hh iz mi)rli a konvi)nient vareieti in form, ymzd in 
translitere)ting 0)riental ne)mz in Imglisb, FrencI?, and pd^er Western 
lamgwejez in hwicb ch reprezents a diferent sound. In wh or rh wfa 
had a sound me)d widi) brotb, insted ov dbe vois ymzd in \v or ?\ but 


widbout cljemjing d^e pozis^on ov^ d^e organz ; h well in j?A, th^ and 
ch {kJi) \vi) hav a soimd me)d bei bretb bbing driven t^ru a parsl?al 
klo)z^ur ov d^^e organz, insted ov bimg expIo)ded sudenli from be- 
beind a kompli)t klo)zbur, az widb p^ U ^^ ^ (^')' ^^ ^^® forn^er kos 
h ment bretl? su'bstitiuted for vois.; in d^^e later it mi)nz fiikativ 
emiston ov bretb insted ov its explo)zbon. 

4. Les komonli h haz (olso bim aded tu voist explo)dents. tn form 
feimbolz for koresponding fle)ted or " aspire)ted " soundz. So) it iz 
ya)zd in dt;e ke)sez ov Ers hh{ — v)\ ov dh in transliteroting IIi)bru), 
Arabik, and Modem Gri)k, or in reprezentiug In)glisl) fo)netikali widi? 
old leterz ; and ov gh az an 0)ld Imglisb and an Ers simbol, or az a 
trarisliterativ sein in Arabik and udljer 0)rieijtal wurdz. IIi)r d^e h 
mi)ijz, not a substitiust)on ov bretb for vois (az wid^) ir//). or a fri)er 
emisbon ov bretb (az widi? />/<). but a fn)er emiston ov vois dl?au 
widt) dl?e explo)dent sound. In wh dte hevi sound w iz me)d leit ; in 
ph dt)e leit sound p iz mod leiter; in hh (r) dbe hevi sound h iz me)d 

5. Djje leter A iz (olso unsistematikali and kvveit konvens^onall 
yu)zd widt) konsonftnts tu mark spesl)al oiganik oltere)stonz or sub- 
stitiusI)onz ov sound, apart from mi)r bretl? or vois modifike)stonz. 
Dl?Ds, it expresez a palatal softening in dl}e Portiiigi)z Ih and nh 
( = Italian gl^ gn^ or m)rU d[)e soundz in In)gUsl) '' nii^/zon, min/on ");• 
a palatal softening widl) organik ve)rie)sljon ov sound in Spanish, 
Portiugi)z, and In)glisb ch (az in Sp. mucho^ P. chorar^ In)g. church);. 
a fordt^ar softening in FrencI? (and often in Portiugi)z) cA, or az in 
our 0)n Frencb derivativ "machine"; or a koresponding sound tu 
doat ov dte modifeid leter, but me^d in anudt>er organik pozisljon, in. 
Imglist? sh (kontrakted from scA, mi)ning a sibile)sl)on me)d in dlje 
8e)m part ov dfee mouti) az dl?e Jerman palatal " aspiret '' ch in ich); 
tu bwicb me) bi) aded zh^ yu)zd in onr pronounsing diksbonariz, in 
translitere)sl^on ov f oran wurdz, and in o)ld-leter f ometiks. And per- 
haps wi) meit ad hi)r d^e Latin yu)s ov rA az a translitere)sl?on ov 
6ri)k /9, hwicl^ probabli omli reprezented a trild az distin)gwisl?t from 
an untiild r (az in our " earring"); for it kud hardli hav bim hwis- 
perd folo'ing voist r, in a wurd leik Pyrrhns. 

6. J)\)e A iz aded tu a konsonant deseinedli widb dlje opozit pur- 
pOs ov prezerving its normal sound, in a koneksl)on in hwicl^ dljis 
wud udberweiz bi) cl^e)njd, az in Italian cAi = ki) (but ci - cbi)), Italian 
ghetto^ or Imglisb gherkin; or d^e leter haz nou dt)is efekt, dijo) orij- 
mali intended tu hav a diferent wun, az in ^^ monarcAical,** and posibli 
" burlier." 

7. Dbe aded A iz mi)r surplusej, not nou prodiusing, and in i^um 
kexsez perhaps never having prodiiist, eni efekt on dl)e presi)ding 
konsonant. So) it iz widb th in meni Jerman wurdz (az that^ muth\ 
in a fiu ov our 0)n (az thyme^ Thames), and in dlje Gri)k derivativz 
ov Jerman and sum ud^^er Kontinental lamgwejez; and so) widb gh 
in Imglisb ghost^ aghast^ or widl? rh and often wid^ ch in our Gii)k 
derivativz (az in rheumatism, chromatic), 

*^ [Tu bi) kontiniud.] 



No. 01. — ^Major Beniowski : Phrenoiypic (1845). 
hvr And thar a fiu inglish wqrdz ma bv fdnd, in thv inpal or^O£^- 
FAfv, which l«v n9 mm for dSt az tu thvr prdnqnsiashoD. but this 
iz kwyt eksepshonAl. iet wb af shur thAt Sir speliug woz enjiiiAlv 
fonetik. it iz u2 prapdzd tu mvert tu thAt prinsipl. bqt a diyiioa 
ov opinion bAZ Arizen az tu the mo^t siutAbI leterz ta emploi. the 
folding vershonz ov this statment nli^ the natiur ov sqch ov the va- 
riqs prapozAlz olredB mad az kud bo konvBnientI« printed, «ch ass 
fAr AZ woz posibl in thv onhocpB ov its jjhor. in sa short a pArAgriSf 
onlts the chvf points kud Xyb inkluded, bqt thB AlfAbetik lo iz jenerAlv 
klBf, And thB y wil bB abl tu jqj pritu wel whot tliB ApBFAns wud b« 
in printed buks. menB plAnz involving rather inaksesibl typs hAd ta 
bB entyrlB pXst by. hens the chois mad dqz not imply a verdikt. 
tliB egzekiutiv koniitB wil sBlekt sqch me4hodz az tha ma t^hink m- 
kwyr longer ilqstrashon. thB iuglish speling rBform aseeiashon az a 
bodB iz not nssponsibl for euB wqn ov thBZ skBmz. 

No. 02. — John FauldeR: Alphabetic English (1S47). 
Hlr and dher a f u Inglish wurdz me In fownd, in dhi fizhtial or- 
thografi, hwic liv no num for dowt az tw dher pronunsieshun. But 
dhis iz kwyt eksepshunal. let wi ar shnir dhut owr speling woz 
orijinali fonetik. It iz now pr6|)6zd tw rivurt tw dhat prinsipl. But 
a divizhun ov opiniun haz arizn az tw dhi most sutabl leturz tw em- 
ploi. Dhe folding vurshunz ov dhis stetment sho dhi netfir ov sue 
ov dhi verius pr6p6zalz olredi mod az kwd bl konvinientii printed, Ic 
az far az woz posibl in dhi orthoepi ov its othur. In s6 short a para- 
graf onli dhi cif points kwd bl inklmded, but dhi alfabetik lo iz jenu- 
rali klTr, and dhi y wil bi ebl tw juj priti wel hwot dhi aplruns wwd 
bi in printed bwks. Meni planz involving radhur inaksesibl typs 
had tw bi entyrli past by. Hens dhi cois med duz not imply a 
vurdikt. Dhi Egzekutiv Komiti wil silekt sue metlmdz az dhs m@ 
think rikwyr longer ilustreshun. Dhi Inglish Speling Reform Asd- 
sieshun az a bodi iz not risponsibl for eni wun ov dhiz sklmz. 

No. 03. — Stephen Pearl Andrews : Standard Phonetic (1876). 

Hir and dhaT a fiu In'glish wurdz me bi faund, in dhe yiuzhiial 
'orthografi, hwig liv no rum f'or daut az tu dha-r pronunsieshun. 
But dhis iz kwit eksepshunal. Yet wi ar shur dhat aur speling* woz 
orijinali fonetic. It iz nau propozd tu revurt tii dhat prinsipl. But 
a divizhun ov opinyun haz arizn az tu dhe most siutabl leterz tik 
empl'oi. Dhe folSing vurshunz ov dhis stetment sho dhe netyxur ov 
such ov dhe va'rius propozalz 'olredi med az cud bi convinyentii 
printed, ig az far az woz posibl in dhe 'orthoepi ov its *othur. In s5 
sh'ort a paragraf onli dhe gif p'oints cud bi included, but dhe alfa- 
betic I'O iz jenerali clir, and dhe ai wil bi ebl tii juj priti wel hwot 
dhe apirans wtid bi in printed buks. Meni planz involving r&dher 
inaksesibl tips had tu bi entirli past bi. Hens dhe ch'ois m^d doz 


not impli a vurdict. Dhe Egzekyutiv Commiti wil select such me- 
thodz az dhe me think rekwir lon'ger illustreshun. Dhe In'glish 
Speling" Ref 'orin Assosieshim az a bodi iz not responsibl f 'or eni wun 
ov dhiz skimz. 

No. 7*. — L. So AMES : Conciliation Scheme (1880). 

Hir and ther u feu Ingglish wudz me bi found, in thi euzhwul au- 
ttogrufi, which liv no r^m for dout az tw ther pronunsieshun. But 
this iz kwyt eksepshunul. let wi ar shwr that our speling woz orij- 
inuli fonetik. It iz nou pr6p6zd tw revut tw that prinsipl. But u 
divizhun ov dpiniun haz arizn az tw thi most seutubl letuz tw emploi. 
Thi folding vushunz ov this st^tmunt sho thi ndchur ov such ov thi 
v^rius propozulz aulredi med az] kwd bi kunvlniuntli printed, ich az 
far az woz posibl in thi auttoepi ov its auttur. In so shaut u paru- 
graf onli thi chif points kwd bi inkl^ded, but thi alfubetik lau iz 
jennili klir, and thi y wil bi ^bl tw juj priti wel whot thi apiruus 
wwd bi in printed bwks. Meni planz involving rS,thur inaksesibl 
typs had tw bi entyuli pftst by. Hens thi chois m6d duz not imply 
u vudikt. Thi Egzekeutiv Kumiti wil selekt such mettudz az the 
me ttingk rekwyr longgur ilustreshun. Thi Ingglish Speling Refaum 
Asoshieshun az u bodi iz not responsibl for eni wun ov thiz skimz. 

No. 10».— W. R. Evans : Anglo-Eomanic (1880). 
Hi)r and dl)e)r a fiu Imglisl^ wurdz me) bi) found, in dlje yu)zl?ual 
ortt)ografi, hwicl^ li)v no) nnm for dout az tu d^^or pronunsie)8t)on. 
But d^is iz kweit eksepsljonal. Yet wi) ar sl?u)r dbat our speling woz 
orijinali fo)netik. It iz nou propo)zd tu revert tu d^at prinsipel. But 
a divizbon ov opinion haz arizen az tu dbe most siutabel leterz tu 
emploi. Dl?e folo'ing vershonz ov dljis ste)tment s^o) dbe ne)tiur ov 
siX5b ov dbe ve)rii)S propo)zalz (olredi me)d az kud bi) konvi)nientIi 
printed, i)cl) az far az woz posibel in dlje ort^oepi ov its (otbor. In 
SO) short a paragraf onli dfce chi)f points kud bi) inklu)ded, but dhe 
alfabetik l(o iz jenerali kli)r, and dhe ei wil bi) e)bel tu juj priti wel 
hwot dl?e api)rans wud bi) in printed buks. Meni planz inv6lving 
ra)dher inaksesibel teips had tu bi) enteirii past bei. Hens dbe c^ois 
me)d duz not implei a verdikt. Dfce Ekzekiutiv Komfti wil selekt 
such methodz az dhe) me) thin)k rekweir lon)ger ilustrosbon. Dhe 
Imglish Speling Ref6rm Aso)shie)shon az a bodi iz not responsibel for 
eni wun ov dt)i)z ski)mz. 


From G. H. D. (on a po)8t-kard) : — 

" It shopld not be spelt dezeirabely prinsipel^ bnt the neutral vowel « shonld be used, 
instead of the final ^, in these words. No one says desirabel/e, principelh" 

[No dout, it iz dhe niutral vonel dhat iz herd betwi)n b and / in detirabte^ ets. ; but 
dhis iz not dhe distin)kt mikst vouel in bvik, eni mo)r dhan dhe sound in bell. lusted 
OY introdiusing a stre)nj sein for dhis obskiur Touel-sound, it iz th(ot beter tu folo 
dhe o)ld In)gli8h, Tiutonik, and Skandine)vian method ov reiting dhe komon endingz 
efy ety en. Ov ko)rs, no)bodi pronounsez detirabelle — or labelle/libelle, chapelle, par^ 
eelley eudgelU^ Michelle ^ traveller marvelle; and in rebSl, propSl,fo)riSl, az (olso in 
&/u)b^l, domb^lf or blvj-bel, dom-bel, dhe kli)r vonel kan bi) sho^ti. — ''^•'^,\kT\ 


From Mr. E. JONES, B.A., 4 AmlxTloy >tiTot, Liverpool:— 

" In respons too joor invitaishou fur rritidizinz, &c. for dhe Speli^g ExperinuMfer, 
I beg too submit dhe foloing, which I fccr, however, yoo wil not be aibl too insert, ai 
beeing too diainetricaly opoczd too sum ov yoor vewz. 

" In dhe first plais, I cannot admit dhat dhe prczent fonetic sistem or dhe Jntiuil 
haz eny just claim too be considerd dhe tietrntijir, consist 'nf, pf^f^t, eompleet skeem 
ov speling which it profesez too be, and which yoo apeer too maik dhe foundaishon or 
yoor argucment. 

" A perfect and complect sistem ov orth«)prafy must meet dhecz condishoni : — 

" 1. Jt must hav a scparet simbol for every siu<;<!l sound, and only wun; 

" 2. Every simbol miwt reprezent wun sound only ; 

" 3. Dhair shwd be a corespuudeus between dhe shuips ov sets ov simbolz reprezent- 
ing sets ov soundz. 

" Dhecz condishouz ar implied in yoor lien ov argucment, az dhay ar ecsprcst in 
substans by sieentific fonolojists. 

'' Yoor ])remiscz, in fact, cary yoo far beyond PitmanV. sistem, far, far away, and 
lojicaly laud yoo in sumthing lick Melville Bell'z si^tem ; and ecven dhis sistem ov 
UcU'z iz not siecntificaly perfect, we ar toeld by dhe ecspcrts. How much les so iz dhe 
Jurnal funetics, which, tried by dhe sevcer test which yoo aply too udhcr planz, is 
simply a bungling, pachwurk maikshift, and fwl ov auomaliz and inconsistensiz in dheex. 
respects : — 

1. In oily out y feud [fiud], eis (=ice), it employz too vowel Ictcrz for wun nluhL 

2. It pairz dhe vowel in but widh dhe o in o/^^ which ar no pairz at aul. 

3. It resolvz dhe vowel difthoufi^z t, v, dhe component parts ov which ar points or 
debait, but leevz j and g [ch] az compouudz, dhe elements ov which ar unmistaikabl. 

" 4. It taiks away u from its moest comon Engglish fuucshon, for a simbol for a> 
sound which iz hardly noen in euy langgwej but Eugglish, and very rairly ecven dhair. 
Yoo say it iz dhe orijinal sound ! 

" 5. And, lastly, it employz y and /, too simbolz for wun sound, acording too yoor" 
oen testimony, in yam, yon, yel,s=\Vil-«am, pin-/on, span-zel. 

" A sistem widh so mcny anomaliz and contradicshonz haz no claim too be considerd 
perfect, eompleet, and sieentific. 

" Yoo wil say dhat aul dhecz ar conseshonz ncsesary in uezing dhe imperfect Roman, 
alfabet, and for secnering dhe comou lejibility ov dhe old and dhe new speling. Granted. 
But dhis iz dhe very prinsipl which yoo so strongly condcm in udher skcemz. 

" Yoo hav not shoen dhat Mr Pitman'z sistem iz moer lojical, or moer consistent, 
dhan meny skeemz widhout new leterz. Yoo hav shocn dhat dhe practical dificultiz ov< 
new leterz ar aulmoest insurmountabl : hens yoor modifierz. 

" Whot practical or theoretical advantej iz gaind by yoor new 1) modifier P 

" Whot advantcg, and too hoom, doo yoo profes in speling ' vorioshonz,* radher dhan 
* vairiaishonz,* for variations? Iz it bcter for dhe forener? for dhe printer? for dhe 
reeder ? for dhe rieter ? for enybody ? — Yoor candid critic, E. Jones." 

[Mr. Jones ni)d hav felt no) misgiving az tu dhe iusershon ov hiz komiunikc)shon in 
dhe Experimenter. Wi) ra)dher than)k him for giving ws dhe oportiuniti ov publishing 
hi)r hiz formiulcjted objekshonz tu dhe orthografi ov dhe Fojneiii Jvrnal and dhe 0)ld- 
leter imitoshon ov it yu}zd in dhi)z pe)jez. 

In dhe ferst ple)3 (tu folo our kritik), wi) shud leik tu no) in hwot publisht Teitiag 
ov ourz Mr. Pitman'z alfabet or sistem ov speling iz deskrcibd az " perfekt,'* or i)veii 
az "seientifik;" for wi) demiyr, at dhe outset, tu kritisizm founded on cxpreshionz or 
termz hwich dhe kritik haz evdlvd from hiz 0)n iner konshnsnes. Dhe 0)ld siudo-lojikal 
trik ov mis-defeining an opo)ncnt's pozishon, and dhen ataking dhe fikshon ov wim'i 
0)n krioshon, iz often suksesful tu a scrten extent agenst absent personz or inexpi)rienii 
novisez ; but dhe prinsipal reiter, dhe editer, and dhe printer ov dhis litel pDblikQ)8hon, . 
bi)ing o)nli wpn humbel individiual, kanot afo)rd tu indu'lj in abscnti)izm, hweil hi) iz not 



unfaiDiliar widh Mr. Jones' ez steil ov argiument. Yu)zing epithets, houever, not in a 
preseis and absolQ)t, but in a konvenshonal and relativ maner, wi) hav no) hezite)8hon in 
non s€)ing, sins wi) ar chalenjd tu expres our viuz, dhat eidJier Mr. Pitnian'z prezent 
orthografi or its ri)fleks in dhi)z pojez iz seientifik and perfekt in (or beyond) kompari- 
8on widh eni speling for hwich Mr. Jones haz ever bi)n responsibel. And, lest wi) shud 
hi) th(ot beiast or egotistik, wi) me) bi) permitcd tu ad dhat wi) shud not ventiur tu me)k 
SDch diskrimine)shon betwi)n our 0)n and meni ndher orthografik 8ki)mz. 

Widh regard tu dhe Jvrnd alfabet and sistem ov speling, fol wi) hav ever kontended 
for iz, dhat dhe wim iz snfishentli kompli)t, and dhe i)dher snfishentli konsistent, for 
dhe popiular reprezente)shon ov In)glish proni)nsie)shon. Az dhat alfabet haz 36 separct 
leterz, and az Mr. Jones haz just publisht hwot hi) k(olz " Dhe Compleet Engglish 
Alfabet,'* kontoning o)nli 24 separet leterz, hi) meit tolere)t dhe kwolifeid dezigne)shon 
O.V dhe former az kompli)t, in dhe sens just menshond. Tru), dhe ro)netik Alfabet haz 
0)nli 41 simpel or korapound seinz tu reprezent 41 simpel or kompound soundz (beseidz 
pozishonal vareietiz), hweil Mr. Jones'ez Alfabet haz 44 seinz, and hiz speling at li)8t a 
duzcn mo)r, or 56 in (ol, tu expres dhe 88 soundz hwich hi) nou rekogneizez in In)glish 
spi)ch. Hi) me) dhorfor bi) permited tu be)r dhe pa)m for an alfabet kompli)t tu rephV 
shon' But az hi) repreze'nts dhe se)m sound bei diiferent seinz, and yu)zez dhe se)m sein 
for diferent soundz, in preseisli similar konekshonz, dhe les sed about hiz " konsistensi," 
dhe beter. (Witnes in dhe abuv kompozishon — " btf«ng, theoretical — o<?n, nfl<?n, rmly 
— t/?<ld, old — stVentific, diametrical, modifier — represent, re*olv— si'^yyl, bundling: — 
simply, aply — c^mon, Roman, component — l/>k, modif/>r — strow^Iy, bu»yling."*) 

Mr. Jones prosi)dz formali tu ste)t dhe koudishouz hwich hi) thin)ks " a perfekt and 
kompli)t sistem ov orthografi must mi)t " (dhe sekond ov hiz thri) kondishonz bi)ing 
inkluded widhin dhe later kloz ov dhe ferst) : and dhen hi) sez, " Dhi)z kondishonz ar 
impleid in yu)r lein ov argiument." Wei, hi;r iz a veri ri)sent and a for sampel ov dhe 
leiu ov argiument in hwich Mr. Jones konsiderz hiz kondishonz tu bi) impleid : — 

• *' Dhe jeueral prinsipelz bei hwich dhe reiter haz iolwe)z bi)n geided in hiz atempts tu 
prodius a reformd orthografi, hwich, widh dhe li)st amount ov inovoshon kompatibel 
widh thuro efektivnes, shal bo)th indike)t pronunsioshon and minimeiz dhe speling difi- 
kulti, me) bi) dhus bri)fli stoted : — 

1. Tu reton everi ave)labcl simbol ov dhe 0)ld speling in its mo)r ordinari and jene- 

ral yu)s ; 
2 Tu expres everi sound bei its ekzisting speshal simbol, liwen it haz wnn ; 

3. Tu kontiniu ekzisting yu)sez ov o)ld simbolz tu reprezent sleitli diferent valiuz, 
hwen dhi)z kan bi) pozitivli determind bei pozishon, and speling hi) dhus sim- 
plifeid ^idhout fo)netik sertcnti bi)ing sakrifeizd ; 

4. Tu proveid for soundz having no) speshal or avolabel reprezentoshonz niu sim- 
bolz in analoji widh seinz yu)zd for reloted soundz." — {Sp. Ejrp., p. 14 ) 

Such ar dhe premisez hwich Mr. Jones sez *' kari yu) far beyond Pitman'z sistem, far, 
far awe), and lojikali land yu) in sumthing leik Melville Bell'z sistem." Wi) must li)v it 
tu ri)derz konversant widh dhe materz under diskushon, and hu) hav had poshens tu 
folo us SO) far, hwedher our wud-bi) kritik haz ri)ali direkted hiz obzerve)8hons tu our 
viuz on dhe subjekt ov In)glish speling reform, or haz bi)n dr(oing on hiz imajine)shon. • 

Hwen Mr. Jones fcindz dhat hiz impo)rted Amerikan klok ge)nz wun de) and lu)zez 
dhe nekst, gets its haudz stuk everi nou and dhen, and rekweirz proping ferst in wun 
pozishon and dhen in anu'dher, widh fri)kwent shoking, worming, or oiling, tu me)k it 
go) i)ven in a desultori and spazmodik fashon, — it wil not beter hiz ke)s tu karp at hiz 
nobor Pitman'z stedi and trustwurdhi ln)glish-me)d teimki)per bek(oz it duz not pozes 
dhe ekzakt presizhon ov a seientifik kronometer. Mr. Pitman, Mr. Jones, and mo)st 
udher In)gli8h speling reformerz, wud unhezitotingli subskreib tu our kondishonz (abuv 
kwo)ted) az expresing dhe rekweirmeuts ov demotik speling reform, and wud diverj in 
opinion o)nli az tu dhe praktikal aplikoshou ov such kondishonz, At (ol events, Mr. 
Jones folo'z out, akording tu hiz o)n leit, (ol fo)r ov dhi)z kondishonz (i)ven tu proveiding 
dht zhy az niu simbolz " for soundz having no) speshal or avolabel reprezente)shonz '*), 
hweil Mr. Pitman sertenli in no point go)z beyond such kondishonz. Let us, dhorfor, 

* A jprintedj)ru)f ov Mr. Jones'ez komiunikoshon woz sent tu him for verifikoshon, 
and woz returnd widh dhe endorsment, " Very good indeed — not a singgl corecahovL." 





toMt Mr. Jonifs'rr. kritisizin and hiz iH)zi>hon Ihm dhiz kondishoni n)dher dhan bei hii 
0)11 faktiiihiM wuiiz. 

Mr JoiirH sti'-td imtler fciv linlz dhe pArtikiidarz hwich hi, koiiaiderz tu render an 
orthoprafi In* A u|>on Uo niniiik formz and yn,zfjez " a bungling, pachwurk maiksliift, 
fwl ov anoinaliz and inri)n>>i9*t('n'<iz :'* — 

1. ¥o notipi, imdrr our Ut kondiithon, reto nz az ave label dbe diflhon gal lirabolz in 
aii and out, and, nndfr unr 4th kondishon, provcidz in ^ii tkjidjiud {not/emd) td) nin 
siinbolz in analoji widh siMnz yu zd for relr.ted soundz, dhi>8 puting difthong-no^toahon 
in In'glidh on dhe sv m futin<; az in ol ixlher Ian gwcjez riten widh Roman leten. On 
hiz part, Mr. Jones n'its oi and ou for dhe fonner ivLi difthongz, widh dhe ekwivalents 
oy and 0w, fortiiiituali yu zd az in dhe o>ld speling ; hweil hiz simbolz for dhe later tui 
diflhougz ar n^spektivli n<», », eu, ^w, and t>, i, y, ei (dho in eidher ke)s hi) puts o.nli 
dhe ferst sinibol in hiz alfulM't). Snfeiz it hi r tu stet dhat our kritik yu)zez dhiyz sim- 
bolz in au arbitrari WC) for dhe abuv soundz, and ol ov dhem widh udher ini>ningz. 

2. Dhe " pe)rin;^," for dh(^ avoiid pnrpos ov mi<r tabiidar konvi)nien8, ov dhe Tooel 
in but widh dhat in o/d kau noi mo.r afrkt dhe working ov dhe **JDrnaf fo netiks " dhan 
Mr. Kllis'ez analojrus tabiulr,i)hon ov dhe tut soundz in Dimidian lescnz dhe valiu 0¥ hiz 
speling, or {mapna componfr^ parris) dhan Mr. Joues*ez yo^king ov dhe noondz in «# 
and ut^ wud ov itself prekluid efektiv noteshon. 

8. Wi) ar not goring tu diski>'s dhe analisis ov onr difthongz hi-r, or dhe best maner 
ov reiting dhem, having ri^sentli dim so) in dhe Fonetik Jurnal\ but wi) wil jiist remark 
dhnt az Mr. Jones aknolojez dhe simbolz ei and ^m, and frijkwentli yu)zez ew, in adishon 
tu hiz prejiostcnis and enteirli Diiworkabel ie and u^, hi) niid not hi) so) intolerant ov 
analitikal and praktikal ei and ttf, uiiles hi) wonts mo r niu leterz az subjekts for hiz 
obJDrge)shon. Jt mo si;m stremj tu him, dhat hweil dhe analisis ov dhi)z id) difthongz 
api)rz kweit kli)r tu us, wi> du) not feind dhe elements ov ch vi^j tu bi) iinmi8te)kabeir 

4. Az for dhe alejd misapro/prieshon ov «, our anser iz a simpel deneial, and our 
pra)f me) hi) found in dhe komparativli fri^kweut yujs ov u in dhis speling for a n)al U- 
sound, and ov v (u) for dhe mikst vouel in ton or mn. ^Vi) dii) konsid^ u in. pui dhe 
orijinal In)gli8h short sound ov », and a mi^r spesifik vareieti ov dhe tipikal anojenenl 
U-soimd. llwot iz Mr. Jones'ez om aktiual no.shou about dhis sound api)rz tu U) veri 
doutful, hwcn wi) feind him karaktereizing it abuv az " a sound hwich iz hardli nonin 
eni lau;gwej but Imglish," and yet se)ing in a retiiiirk apendcd tu hiz ri)8entli-pi)bli8ht 
alfabctik ski^m, " ' W in ' we ' iz treeted in mcny langgwcjcz and by meny fonolojists 
az ecwivalent tu ' u ' in ' put,' and iz so uezd heer az dhe best availabl sinibol." It 
wud bi) interesting tu no; hwich ar dhe laiiigwcjcz, and Iiui ar dhe fo)nolojist8 ala)ded to, 
and hou Mr Jones rekonscilz dhis stcitment widh dhe fo)rgO)ing wun. 

5. Dhe most cxpi)dient mauer ov praktikali reprezenting, bei mi)nz ov dhe id) Ro)man 
leterz t and y, hwot fo)nolojists leik lillis, Sweet, and Hell rekogneiz az thri) or fo)r diie- 
rent soundz, iz tu) dcliket a kwestion tu diskiys widh a wud-bi) orthografist hu) reits 
" familiar " twcis widhin dhe som fo)r leinz az ** ecspeedyents '* and " inconvenyent," 
and hu) immi)dietli opozit haz "' eespeeryenz cwolifying " az konsekiutiv wurdz. (Si) 
Mr. Jones'ez last " Paiper," pp. 4 and 5, bo)th at fut.) 

Dhen Mr. Jones konsixlz^dhe expijdicnsi ov (ol dhe Fo)notipik adopshonz oy avejla* 
bei Ro)manik no}te)shon, proveided wi) aksept hiz inkongm)itiz az ov dhe 8e)m karakter ; 
dhat iz, wi) me; luk O/Ver dhe hcj, if wi) wil win)k at him sti)ling dhe hors. 

If our " kandid kritik " wil we)t for dhe konklu)ding po)rshon ov dhe artikel promiit 
on our ezperimcntali introdiusing a deigrafik h, hi) wil feind hwot wi) hav tu se) on it. 

Feinali, az regardz " ve)rie)3honz," our speling haz not bi)n speshaU are)i^d for dhe 
konvi)niens ov foranerz ; but konsidering dhat a Welshman or eni foraner (ekaept per- 
haps a Frenchman) wud atach tu ai a br(od difthon)gal sound, and dhat a Welshman or 
em foraner (inklu)ding a Frenchman) wud reprezent dhe simpel vouel-sound in kwestion 
bei e, wi) thin)k ** ve)rie)8hoiiz " wud bi) advante)jus tu dhe foraner. Tn dhe printer it 
wud hi) indiferent hwedhcr hi) pikt up " ai " or " e)," but dhe niu Icter tu hwich dbe 
later li)dz wud bi) ekonomikal in teipografi. Az for dhe ri)der, it wud depend on nolej 
and te)st hwich simbol hi) preferd. In regard tu dhe reiter, az our siks markt vonelz ar 
riten bei sin)gcl and simpel karakterz, dhe advantej wud bi) deseided. Tn everibodi, in 
fakt, wi) thin)k dhat dhe reit leter in dhe reit f>le)s wud bi) mo)st advantegns. — ^W.R.S ] 

London : Printed by W. R. Evans, 14 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, W.C. ; aid 

Published by F. Pitman, 20 PatcTivoatex ^on«,1&.C1. 




Nr. 5.] - Janiuart, 1881. [Preis \d. 


At dbis suzon ov retrospekt and ov antisipe)sl7on, wi) glans bak 
at dbe bri)f kari)r ov d^^is litel publike)8lK>n, and indu'lj in dbe fond 
ho)p dbat its ekzistens haz not bim enteirli yu)8le8. Bei mbnz ov its 
pe)jez wi) hav bi)n e)bel personali tu test, if o)nli tu rejekt, eidi)az ov 
our o)n ; and it iz wel tu bring i)ven unsatisfaktori propo)zalz tu dbe 
test ov praktikal experiment, so) dl?at, bei dbe)r rejekstH>D9 ground 
me) bi) kli)rd for dl?e treial ov sumtbing els. Wi) trust, tu), dl?at sum 
pozitiv rezu'its hav bi)n acbi)vd, in 8l?0)ing dl?e kapasiti ov dbe o)ld 
printing leterz, asfsted bei tii) or tbri) niu formz, for provizbonal yu)8 
in dl^e fo)netik expresl)on ov dl)e Imglisl) lan)gwej ; and (olso dl)at 
wi) hav at li)st renderd mo)r evident dl?e ho)l problem tu bi) solvd, 
espesl;)ali widl) regard tu dhe nesesiti and praktikabiliti ov an efektiv 
aksentiual sistem. In our eforts wi) hav not had so) mucl) adveis or 
asistans az wb wer san)gwin enu'f tu expekt, from dbe jeneral bodi 
ov Speliug Reformerz ; but wi) hav bi)n konso)ld for dbis deprive)- 
shon (olmo)st az much bei dl;^e karping kritisizm ov a Jones az bei 
dbe simpathetik interest ov an Ellis. 

Houever, wi) fi)l dispo)zd tu weiden dhe sko)p ov dhis publike)shon 
az an Expetnmenter^ and, widbout personali diver jing from our atach- 
ment tu d\)e prinsipelz ov Mr. EiZAK PiTMAN'z Fo)notipi, tu ofer 
spe)s for d\)e eksibishon ov propo)za1z not (oltug^dber in ak6rd widh 
dhat sistem. Wi) ar d\)e mo)r inkleind tu dhis ko)rs, bek(oz it haz 
bi)n sujested, in hwot mo)st Speling Reformerz wud rekogneiz az an 
influenshal, if not an (oth6ritativ kworter, dhat dhis publike)shon shud 
bb me)d dhe mi)dium for such experimental eksibishon ov ortbografik 
ski)mz az kanot fitli bi) permited in a magazf)n intended for jeneral 
serkiuloshon. It iz, houever, obviusli not tu bi) expekted dt)at a 
jurnal, dl?e serkiule)shon ov hwich iz cbi)fli gratiuitus, sbud bi) me)n- 
te)nd bei wun person, ov slender pekiuniari mi)nz, tu advokot viuz 
divers from and, probabli ad vers tu hiz 0)n. Dbe aktiual kost ov 
prodiiisiug a muntbli ishu ov dhis publike)shon, in muni pe)d out ov 


poket and in teim at JDraiman piinter*z we)jez, iz about £2, and d|>e 
net retu'm iz leikli tu reniem insignifikant. It iz d|>e)rfor propo)zd 
d^at ort^o{n*&fist8 wishing tu me>k yu)s ov dbis jumal for dbe serkia- 
le)8tK)n ov formiuIe)ted 8ki)mz, insted ov penng for d^e printiiig^ ov 
independent sl^i)ts, st^ud kontnbiut to)rdz d|>e kost ov its produkslKNi 
65. per pe)j for spe)8 okiopeid in it, its kondu'kter i}uderte)king ta fur- 
nish, az hidt)ertu, kopiz for fri) distribiusl>on tu (ol memberz ov d|^ 
Speiing Refonn^ie)sl;K>n. 



Vowels, — The symbols a*, «*, r, o*, w (capitals A*, E*, I', O*, U*) 
stapd for the 7ia/;i«-80unds of the several letters, except that «• is 00, 
and not the ordinary long u as in we. This latter sound is expressed 
by w*/ and the sound ov a m father and /or by a* (capitals U% A*). 

The vowels a, e, t, 0, u are sounded as in pat^ pet^ pit^ pot^ put. 
For the sound of u in but^ I), u (cut from D, p), italics L>, », are used. 

The combinations ar^ or are to be pronounced as aV, aur^ unless a 
vowel follows, e.g. art^ arid — orb^ oinjin. The combinations a-r^ ot 
are to be sounded as aeV, oar^ not as ai.r, oa,r. 

The symbols er are, in combination, pronounced as vr. The former 
will be used in weak syllables, and the latter in strong, as is done 
with respect to er and ur in Mr. Ellis's " Dunidian." 

The digrafs at*, ow, oi are sounded as in laud, loud, void. Wheo 
they are absolutely final, aw, ow, oy may be used instead. Id like 
case (and also before i) y and y may be used for 1 and r ; e.g*. pity 
pitying, reply, replying. 

The digrafs ai and ee may be used for a* and e' in strong syllables ; 
and when the former is absolutely final, or precedes 1, ay may be 
substituted for it, e.g. May, nay, stay, staying. 

It is proposed that the word '.' eye " shall be exceptionally spelt 
ey. The plural would be eiz, and the verb " eyed " would be eid; 
but "eyeing" would be eying, following the rule that^ is substituted 
for i when the latter precedes another i. 

The words " you " and " youth " and their derivatives are spelt 
yw and ywth, &c., and not u\ tHrh, 

Consonants, — The symbol N', w, is used for ng before g and it, e.g. 
Jin'ger, for Jlngger. iV*, n' may be used for the French nasal sound 
in en, on, an, un, &c. 

T7i, th are used for the " voiced " sound of th, as in THEN, then ; 
and rh, th for the " breath " sound, as in FHIN, thin. The new 
forms in these symbols are cut from F, f . 



The objekt which iz saut tu be* obtaind by meenz ov the U*tility 
Alfabet and the prer seeding ru'lz iz a graiter rezemblans tu the spel- 
ing now in fashun than iz posibl with an eekwaly konsfstent u's ov 
an alfabet ekst^nded by di'grafs meerly or by nu' formz ov tips. 

It iz konseeded that the braiks in the midl ov wprdz ar very dis- 
agreeabl tu eiz akustumd tu the kompaktnes ov ordinery print. 
Thay ar, houever, ov grait advantej tu the lurner by so* obviusly 
indikaiting the modified sound ov the leter imeedietly pre'seeding 
the braik. The disjointed apeerans ov the wurdz kan ov kors be* 
avoided by the u'niform u's ov di-grafs, az in " poast, moast, eideea 
(i'de-a), euneiting (u'ni'ting)," or by adopting nu* formz ov sin'gl 
ti'ps. Mo-st pursunz, houever, objekt tu ad tu the number ov leterz 
in eny very komun wurdz, Thay ar not satisfi'd with the ashu'rans 
that on the ho'l the number ov leterz iz not inkreest. 

On the uther hand, the inkouveeniens and ekspens ov intro'du'sing 
nu* ti'ps tu eny larj ekstent ar very grait. Eventu'aly, houever, nu' 
ti'ps may be* kauld for, and thay kud moT eeziiy taik the plais ov 
modifi'd leterz than ov di'grafs. That iz tu say, thair wud be* far 
ies disarainjment in printing ofisez, and disturbans tu the eiz and 
habits ov reederz, in the wun kais than in the uther. 

With referens tu the chois ov simbulz for the soundz ov th^ it may 
be* remarkt that eny sistem ov reformd speling iz heviiy handikapt 
az regardz popu'ler faiver which rekwirz the akseptaus ov the spel- 
ingz faadher, mudher^ brudher (fa'ther, muther, bruther, in the sti'l ov 
speling now be'ing ilustraited). 

It iz hi'ly probabl that sum reederz wil feel dispo'zd tu say that 
eny sistem iz aulso* heviiy handikapt which adopts such spelingz az 
'' popu'ler faiver," insted ov " popu'lar faivor." It must, houever, 
be* born in mi-nd that kwestiunz ov ortho'epy ar kwi-t distfnkt from 
tho'z relaiting tu the chois ov simbulz. 

The i'de-a ov u'zing the tumd peeriud (•) az a di-akritikal mark iz 
boro'd from Mr. Ellis's Glosik, whair, houever, it iz u'zd, az aulso* in 
Dimidian, tu indikait stres or emfasis. It iz not intended that the 
dots shal be* u'zd in manu'skript, az modifi'd formz ov egzisting 
manu'skript leterz kan eeziiy be* eksp^rimented upon, and ad6pted 
after tri*al. 

The U'tflity Alfabet iz submited for konsideraishun az a baisis for 
posibl kompromi'z between nu' and o'ld leter skeemz. 




Wl) hav 8i)n dbat d\)e leter h iz yiDzd for tii) diferent Aouiidz az an 
independent leter, hweil it iz apleid in tii) we)z az a vouel-kw6lifeier, 
and in seven az a konsonant-m6difeier — me)king eleven apIike).sbonz 
in (ol, sum ov hwicb ar kweit inkompatibel widb i)cl) ixll^r. But wi) 
hav nou spesbali tu di)l widb dt^ yu)sez propo)zd tu bi) ine)d ot A in 
niu sistemz ov fo)netik speiing. Natiurali, everibodi wud retem dbe 
leter for its om proper sound in he^ prehensile, cohere; and, on akoniit 
ov its often sujesting dlj^at sound hwen yu)zd az a vouel-kw6lifeier, 
SO) fiu personz prop())Z tu emploi d^ leter in dbis kapasiti, dbat it iz 
hardli wurtb hweil tu disku's dl)e point hi)r. Az a inodifeier ov kon- 
sonants, mo)st propo)zerz ov ortbografik ski)mz wud retem h in d|^ 
0)ld deigrafs wh (ekzemplifeiing dl)e sekoiid yu)s ste)ted in part 1 ov 
d^is artikel), th (dl;K) tl^erd yu)8), ch and sh (dl)e fiftb yu)s). Ta d\}iyz 
mo)st ortbografists wud ad zh ((olso fiftb yu)s), az d\)e voist korelativ 
ov »h; and meni leikweiz dh (fo)rtb yu)s), az d^ voist korelativ ov 
th. For its sikstb yu)S after konsonants (az in chemist^ gherkin) h iz 
not ave)label,if it wer rekweird,in Lugllsb fo)netik speling; and veri 
fiu personz propo)z tu retem it in its seveiitl) kapasiti ov a yu)sle8 
mint leter (az in ghost^ rhetoric)^ Dijer yet reme)nz, hou^ver, its ferst 
yu)S az a konsonant-modifeier, ekzeinpUfeid in sucb Indian wurdz az 
bheestie^ Thug^ghee. 

Wi) feind, dl)en, dbat it iz propo)zd, or wud bi) rek weird, ta yn)z h 
az an (okziliari for feiv diferent purposez; and it iz important tu in- 
kweir hwicl^ ov di)i)z ar inkompatibel widb i)cb udber, or wid^ dt)e 
preimari emploiment ov dl^e leter for a dist{n)kt sound. Te)king dbe 
(okziliari aplike)slK)nz in order, ph^ th^ kh^ for " po)st-aspire)ted " p^ <, k^ 
meit bi) regarded az vertiuali korekt, and hh^ dh^ gh^ analogusli yu)zd 
for *'po)st-aspire)ted" i, rf, ^, az praktikali sei'visabel reprezente)- 
slK)nz, just az similar no)t«)sl^on iz found tu bi) in reiting Hinda8ta)ni 
widJ) A'rabik leterz. But dher iz dl^is markt diferens widb regard 
tu di)e In)glisb translitere)st)on az kompe)rd wid^ dl)e A'rabik, dbat 
wi) komonli yu)z ph and th az deigrafs widlj udljer valiuz in our ver- 
nakiular wurdz or Gri)k derivativz, and siniilarli M, gh^ and sumteimz 
fA, dh^ in translitere)ting 0)riental wurdz, for i)cl) ov hwict) deigrafs 
dbe A'i*abik haz a separet sin)gel leter. In our kurent reprezente)- 
st)on ov 0)riental ne)mz, it iz imposibel tu no) from dl)e speling itself 
hwedber th^ dh^ kh^ gh^ ar intended for d^e dental and gutei*al fle)ted 
soundz (az in " thm^ then" and Jerman " sac/te. sa^e ") or for " po)st- 
dspire)ted " f, c?, k^ g. Eni speling, dijorfor, hwicb yu)zez A-deigrafs 
for dt)e former soundz sbud hav sum di8tfn)ktiv mo)d ov reprez^nting 
dbe later ; and dl^er kanot wel bi) deveizd a mo)r simpel, praktikal, 
and ef^ktiv no)te)sbon dban Mr. Ellis haz propo)zd for po)st-aspire)ted 
konsonants — ^p' b' t' d' k' g' (az T'vg^ g^mt), 

Nekst wi) kum tu dl>e adis$on ov h tu expres dbe hwisperd korela- 
tiv ov a komonli voist sound (az in In)glisb when^ or Wels^ rhag\ 


IIi)r h simpli mi)nz (Hjat bretl), iiisted ov vois, iz tu bi) emited tferu 
dl)e komprest apeitiur ov dl?e konsoiiant; and it iz kli)r, d^orfor, 
dljat dt;e indeks-leter meit bi) ple)st befo)r or after, abwv or belo), dl>e 
wun hu)z modifeid souud it marks, so) lon^ az in eni wun ov dl>i)z 
pozisbonz its yu)s duz not kouflfkt widl> its aplikosbon in a similar 
pozist^on for an inkompatibel puipos. Non, d^^er iz no) konflikt but 
0)nli diversiti,in adingA tu (olredi hwisperd konsonants foradiferent 
objekt, az tu nie)k widt> p, f, k simbolz for hwisperd kontiniuant, in- 
stM ov hwisperd expIo)dent soundz ; but dl^er wud bi) a konflikt if, 
hweil ading h tu deno)t modifike)sl?ou ov voist soundz tu udt)er voist 
soundz, wi) ro>t loh^ w az reprezenting a koresp6nding pe)r ov soundz 
leik/, v, bek(oz, bei analoji, rA, v sl^ud bi)=/, v, and hh^ b =p, i, hweil 
dh^ d and zh^ z st)ud respektivli bi) o)nli ekwivalent expresljonz for 
<, d and «, z. If, dl?e)rfor, wi) wont dh and zh for kweit ud^er soundz 
d^)an t and », and if (olso wi) wont tu obton eni kore8p6ndens betwi)n 
hwisperd w in '^ wheeze " and hwisperd y in " hues," it behu)vz us tu 
te)k advantej ov dt>e opslK)n ov kolokosbon hi)r, and tu re8to)r d^e 
0)ld ImglisI? hw, widt> hy (or hi) az a koresponding sein; for it wil 
sertenli bi) i)zier tu du) d^is dban tu get Messrs. Hughes, Hewett, 
Hewson, ets, tu reit dl?e)r ne)mz " Yhu)z, Yhu)et, Yhu)son." ets. In 
Imglisb speling dl?e li (for Ih) and rh ov Welsb ne)mz wil dt)en bi) 
exprest bei hi and Ar, az sucl) soundz wer bei our Sakson ansestorz. 
Az for dl?e Welsl? mh^ nh^ and ngh (in " fy mhen, fy uliad, fy ngha- 
lon "), dl?e h si)mz hi)r tu bi) j^nerali pronounst independent^, widi? or 
widhout dbe cl)e)nj ov m, », and ng tu bretb konsonants. But, bi) dl)is 
az it me), sucb soundz ar in Welsh (olmo)st konfeind tu gramatikal 
inflekshon ; and az, in dbe fiu proper ne)mz in hwicb dbe) meit oku'r, 
dbe) wud bi) mo)8t apr6ksimetli exprest bei mJi^ ets. in In)glish speling 
(in hwicb dbi)z literal kombine)sbonz ar not wonted for deigrafs), dbe 
no)te)sbon ov dbi)z soundz ske)rsU k(olz for atensbon hi)r. 

Having proveided a substitiut for h widb po)st-aspire)ted konso- 
nants in Indian wurdz, and having ple)st dbe (okziliari leter befo)r 
tv^ y, /, and r hwen it signifeiz dbe cbe)nj ov dbi)z voist tu hwisperd 
soundz, wi) kum tu dbe yu)s ov h tu mark dbe substitiusbon ov a 
hwisperd kontiniuant for a hwisperd explo)dent sound. Wi) kanot 
avoid dbis, perhaps dbe 0)ldest and mo)8t (otboritativ (okziliari yu)s 
ov dbe leter (dbe tberd mensbond abuv); and if wi) rekogneiz jo/i, <//, 
and kh az servisabel simbolz for fle)ted bretb-souridz, dber iz no) giid 
ri)zon hwei wi) sbud not analogusli reit bh^ dh^ and gh for dbe kore- 
sponding fle)ted voLs-soundz, sins wi) avoid inkon)gruus no)te)sbon 
bei prefiksing h (in hw^ hy^ hl^ hr) tu mark cbe)nj from vois tu hwis- 
per — it bi)ing understud dbat ph and bh reprezeut piur le)bial fle)ted 
soundz, in distimksbou from labio-dental/and v. In tran8litere)sbon 
wi) kanot dispens widb mucb-depreke)ted dh^ for no) wun wud tbin)k 
ov yu)zing eni udber deigraf for A'rabik dhal or Modem Gri)k dhdta; 
hweil in In)glisb speling (ol sucb flimzi distimksbonz az " thm reeth^ 
then ree^A," "<'^in reet% then reefA," or "fAin reeth^ tflen reetfi" hav 
dbe karakter ov mi)r su'bterfiujez tu satisfei dbe konsbensez ov or- 
tbografists, and not ov obviusli signifikant and p^rmaneutlv 9ftYN\s»- 


alxjl iiO)te)s^()nz. For dt)e later, dt>er iz no) resors but tu reit " thia 
reet/i^ (l/mu recv///," or, in our o)ii Hteil, " tl?iii rbtb, dljou rixib." 

DOe oaili praktikal ob8takel tu 8ix*.b a(liHlK)u ov h tu mark fle)ted 
bfetb or voi.s soundz, iz dl;)at wi) hav serteii speliii^ leik ^^ uphold, 
outhouse, workhouse, abhor, adhere, staghoni,*' wid<) h reprezeoting 
its o)ii proper soimd in a separet silabel (hweii it iz pronounst at (ol). 
Wi) must ine)k up our meiiidz, dt)e)rf()r, eidl>er 8kru)piulu8li tu dtveid 
d\)e h of from dl^e konsonant hwen^ver neparetli pronouiist (az in 
cheild'hnd^ 8hort'hand\ omitiiig it hwoii not pronounst (az in Stretam^ 
0)ldiim\ or tu hav sum spes^al form ov d^^e leter in deigrafs. Widft 
a viu tu d.\)Q later expi)dient, dl)e form ^^ (^ " (a mi)r adapte)8bon ov 
dl^e 0)ld Gotl;)ik h) haz bi)n experimentali treid hi)r, az a snKol leter 
and in wun seiz o v teip ; but dl^e deveis iz bei no) mi)nz insfsted on. 
It involvz a uiu leter tu dt>e printer, if not tu d|)e ri)der, and perhaps 
wud o)nii sekiur a tbi)oretikal advautej in proveiding distuuktiv seinz 
for serten konsonaut-soundz, and in avoiding an ugli diviztK>n noa 
and dl;)en. D\)q detenmne)s^on ov dl^is point iz mo)r a mater ov te)0t 
dl)au ov priiisipel ; but, tu help d^e ri)der in forming a jujment, it iz 
proper tu mensl?on dljat our *' b " iz a sleitli imperfekt teip, its pimcl^ 
not having bi)n hard enu'f tu streik a kli)r matiiks. 

Kuniiug tu dl^e fiftl) yu)s ov A az a konsonantal (okziliari, wi) s^ai 
feind dl?at wi) pozitivli kanot hav fi)zibei and iutelijibel 0)ld-leter 
fo)iietik speling widl)out ch and ah, D1;k) modifike)slK)nz hi)r, diferent 
wun from dl)e udt^er, ar (olso bo)tI) diferent from dijat in th; but wb 
hav no) konflikt ov no)te)sbon, az in i)cl) ke)S wun hwisperd sound iz 
reple)st bei anudl^er. Paralel tu sh wud bi) zh^ az (iA iz tu th; am 
dijat " infuse, infusion " wud beku'm tnfiuzy infiuzhon^ just az " coerce, 
coercion " beku'm koers, koershon (dbus avoiding sucb anomalus and 
inefektiv no)te)sbon az confuze^ confu'sflon), Tu d^e prezent reiter, 
and hi) wud 8upo)z tu meni udljer personz, dlje cl)i)f objeksbon tu dh 
and zh haz hid$ertu bi)n, d^at, analogusli tu dbe efekt in rh and t&A, 
d\)e valiuz ov dl)i)z seinz wud bi)— {/A=< and zh—B, But wb get rid 
ov d^at objeksbon bei reiting hw^ ets. 

Az for dlje sikstb and dl?e seventl? yu)S ov A no)ted abuv, wb dis- 
pens widt) dljem in enit^ing dezerving tu bi) k(old fo)netik speling; 
SO) d^at wi) ar left widi) dl?e folo'ing are)njment : — 

Indian Po)st'aspire)ted Konsonants — p', b', f", d', ch', j', k', g*. 

Voist Konsonants ckemjd tu Ilwtsperd — hw, hy (hi), hi, hr. 

Explo)ded chemjd tu Fk)ted — ^ph, bh, th, dh, kh, gh. 

Speshali-modifeid Konsonants — ch, sh, zh. 

Separet H-sound — p*h, bh, t'h, d*h, kh, g*h, s-h, z'h. 

A'rahik Strong H — h' or 'h. 


From E. JONES, Esq., B.A., Liverpool:^ 

" I acscpt widhoat dhe leest hezitaishon, az a fair and corect ecspreshon ot my 
sentiments on dhe subject, dhe wurding ov yoor formuela az to ' dhe jeneral prinsiplf 
by which dhe rieter haz aulwayz been gieded in hiz atempts to produes a reformd or- 


thografy, which, widh dhe leest amount ov inovaishon compatibl widh thuro cfectivncs, 
shal boeth indicait pronunsiaishon and minimiez dhe speling dificalty.' Dhe mateerial 
points ar: — *To retain every availabl simbol ov dhe oeld speling in its moer ordinary 
and jeneral nes/ and * To pro vied for soundz having no speshal or availabl reprezen- 
taishonz new simbolz in analojy widh sienz uezd for relaited soundz.' In dhis, dhen, 
we ar agreed. Taiking dheez wurdz in dhair natneral and comon-sens meening, my 
dificulty iz to comprehend by whoi proses ov reezoning yoo conect dhe speling adopted 
in dhe Ensp'-rimenter widh dhe baisis laid doun. My dificulty iz not remoovd, but 
radher increest, when I see dhat in dhe Fontttic Jurnaf, p. 592, yob cwestion if dhe 
long vowel soundz in ' fate, note, feel, fool,' wer ever herd in Latin, and say dhat dhe 
soundz in ' soul ' and * veil ' ar litl herd in Continental langgwegez. ' Dhay ar our oen 
pecueliar shaid soundz.' 

" Yoo adopt, in comon widh meny speling reformerz, dhe compleet set ov Consonant 
Diegrafs, eh, dh, thy th, zh, ng — dh and zh being acseptcd az new simbolz in harmony 
widh dhe simbolz for dhair relaited soundz. 

" Contrary, however, to yoor avowd prinsipl ov * retaining dhe availabl simbolz ov 
dhe oeld speling,' yoo reject dhe long-establisht and perfectly practical long vowel 
diegrafs ai, a», ee, t>, oe, oo, ue ; and yoo atcmpt to set up, in plais ov dheez familiar 
simbolz, sienz ov yoor oen inventhon, ov a sort for which dhair iz sertainly no analojy 
in Engglish speling. 

" Az dhe long vowel diegrafs ar not * my invenshon,' I doo not consider it to be eny 
put ov my biznes to discus, to defend, or to justify dhe^tnes ov dheez sienz, found 
to our hand, for dhe soundz dhay moest comonly reprezent in dhe curent speling. 
Dhe burden ov proof ov heter ^tnes ov simbolz for soundz, I talk it, rests widh dhoez 
hoo inovaii. I wwd az soon atempt to justify dhe fitnes ov b for its sound, az eny ov 
dhe vowel diegrafs for dhair soundz. \)\it fitnes ov sertain leterz or combinaishonz to 
reprezent sertain soundz, I deem to be a problem outsied dhe provins ov practical fo> 
neticd baist upon dhe Roman alfab^t. 

" Yoo, az much az dhe rest ov us, insist upon dhe nesesity ov secuering dhe comon 
lejibility ov dhe oeld and a new speling, and ov avoiding dhe needles clashing ov meen- 
ingz. Yoo efect dhis object by distorting dhe perfectly consistent spelingz * may, be, 
leev (leave), room,* &c. into whot widhout yoor misleeding modifier wil be red az * me, 
bi (hi), liv, rum,* &c.I 

[Mr. Jones sez hi) aksepts widhout hezitoshon dhe wurding ov our kondishonz for 
dhe ri)konstn)kshon ov In)glish orthografi, and dhen hi) prosi)dz tu selekt tu) out ov 
dhe fo)r kondishonz az " mati)rial points.** Tu our o)n meind dhe ndher tu) points ar 
i)kwali mati)rial. Az wi) fi)l bound " tn rete)n everi avolabel simbol ov dhe 0)ld speling 
in its mo)r ordinari and jeneral yu)s '* (kondishon 1), so) wi) du) " tu expres everi sound 
bei its o)n ekzisting speshal simbol, hwen it haz wnn ** (kond. 2) ; dhat iz, after selekt- 
ing our simbolz tu dhe best ov our jujment, tu emploi dhem konsistentli. Dhus, hweil 
Tete)ning » az an avolabel simbol, wi) aplei it in its mo)r ordinari and jeneral yu)s* tu 
expres dhe praktikali eidentikal sound in " pudding, inflatence, ground,** and fi)l bound 
(olwe)z tu reprezent dhis sound bei dhat wnn simbol, and bei no) udher. On hiz part, 
Mr. Jones rete)nz u for dhe tu) iiikompatibel soundz in " dall ** and " dual,** yu)zez for 
dhe later (olso u^, ^», eWy and reprezents dhe radikal sound ov U ve)rii)sli, az in " mio, 
good, shield, respectfuly, uezhual.** "Wi) thin)k it (olso nesesari, hweil yu)zing seinz for 
diferent valiuz tu simplifci speling, dhat dhijz valiuz shud hi) pozitivli determinabel bei 
pozishon, and dhat fo)netik sertenti shud not bi) sakrifeizd (kond. 3) ; bnt Mr. Jones 
di)mz it unnesesari tu put eni such limite)shonz upon hiz emploiment ov simbolz for 
diferrnt valiuz, and komplosentli reits, seid bei seid — " no, to (tu) — comou, ^waaxL— 


rrtain, sortaiii — inrloud, good — ^jiwtify, orthogrtfy — luodiAer, recwicr," widh dhe eidi)t 
dhat it iz fojiietik niieling hi) iz prodiu«ingl 

Mr. Jones sez, " lu dhe Fojitffit Juriia/, p. 592, yii) Icwestion if dhe long Yond- 
souiidz in * fate, note, feci, fool,' wer ever hcnl in I^in, and ac) dhat dhe soandz in 
' veil ' and ' soul ' ar lite! herd in Kontinental Ian>fpi«'ejex." This iz iiiE uiaiier ot mis- 
Dnderstanding or iqisrrprezenting — " Ei kwcstion if dhe komon In)gli8h aoundz in 
' fate' and 'note' wer ever henl at <oI in I^tin, eni nio)r dhan dhe wcid ij and mj hwich 
sum spi.kerz pnniouns in ' feel, fool,' az wel az in ' fill, full.' .... It iz mei impreshon 
dhat our komon kolo kwial vouel-soundz in ' veil ' and ' soul ' ar litel herd in Konti- 
nental lan>gi«'ejez az ataeht tu dhe simpel leterz e and o" Wi) 8po)k gardedli and widh 
kwolifike)8honz on a subjekt ov hwich wi) du) no) sumthiug : Mr. Jones haz atribinted 
tu im lan)g:wcj (tLniilarli (liktato)rial tu dhat hwich hi) yn^zcz widhout evinsing eni nolej 
tu exkiiiz it. It wnd hi) az yusles, prhaps, tu explem tu him dhetru) bearing ov our 
abiyv-kwo.tcd renuirks, az it wud bi) siui)crflui)s widh respekt tu personz for huDm dhe) 
wer riten. Hut hwcdher dhe vouel-Hound in " note," for instans, woz herd in Latin or 
not, hou kan dhat afckt dhe kweKtion hwedher its fomctik uiu simbol, in analqji widh 
dhe re.le)tcd sound in " not," shul bi) oa, o/r, oo, on, ow, ok, o, <f, 6, o', ot, or O) ? 

Our kritik si)Uiz tu bi) kwcit unawor dhat siks long vonel-soundz and tu) difthongz 

ov our modem spi^ch hav no) speshal reprczente)shonz in dhe kurent speling, simpli be- 

k(Oz niu soundz hav vcri larjli, but neidher inve)riabli nor regiularli, sinperi)ded dhe 0)ld 

wuuz hwich dhe speling ri)ali rcprezcnts. Konfeiuiug ourselvz hi)r tudhe vooel-sound in 

* note,' and its reprezcntoshon bei a deigraf, wi) feind cibel fo)netishauz at ye)rian8, not 

o)nli widh i)ch udher, but often widhm dhor o)n meindz, hwedher it wad bi).beter tn 

re8to)r tu its primitiv yu)8 dhe onshent and (olmo^st natiural simbol in " brooch," or tn 

jeneraleiz dhe aplikoshon ov dhe siksti)nth-sentiuri substitiut in " boat/' or tu aproH 

prie)t dhe apruksimctli analitikal simbol in " soul " or " bowl," or, agen, tu adopt dhe 

sujcstiv " oh." But Mr. Jones iz abuv (ol such pcti konsidere)shonz az dhe fitaes or 

dhe simbolz in s^Milingz leik " noot, noat, nout, nowf , uoht," and solvz dhe difikulti bei 

rciting " noet," widh dhe disilabik no)te)8hon ov "poet," a8hu)ring ds dhat " poetent" 

" poctabl " ar analojikal In)glish spelingz, and dhat " poetry " iz a mi)r anomali, Idk 

" jifocst, gonth, pocr." 

Diskarding (oltugcdher, az hi) duz, " dhe fitucs ov serten leterz or kombine)8honz tn 
reprezcnt serten soundz," Mr. Jones perpetre)ts abu'v dhe folo'ing spelingz az pekioliar 
tu hiz o)n "sistcni," dhe restov hiz orthografl bi)ing jenerali eidentikal widh dl^y t ov 
several udher 8ki)mz : — 

" Rieter, gieded, minimiez, provied, sienz (3), diegrafs (4), outsied, ocn (8), boeth, 
oeld (8), moer, moest, dhoez, formucla, produes, ues, uezd, natueral, pecueliar, 
secuering, wwd." 

Hi)r ar therti rekurensez ov Mr. Jones'ez o)n pekiuliar simbolz. In i)ch instans, dhe 
speling iz niu, kontrari tu dhe natiural pouerz ov dhe Ro)man leterz, unworanted bei 
eni striktli analogns form in dhe o)ld speling, and mo)r or Ics sujestiv ov disilabik aonnd, 
dhe reprezcntoshon ov hwich iz apro)prie)ted widhout its bi)ing di3po)zabl. Wel me) our 
ase)lant deklein tu justifci dhe fitnes ov hiz simbolz, dho) hi) deklorz, at dhe sou teim, 
dhat dhe burden ov pni)f rests widh dho)z hu) inove)t ! 

If our kritik ri)ali wonts tu trei dhe merits ov hiz speling agenst dho)Z ov our o)n, 
wi) inveit him tu send us ha)f a poj (about 850 wurdz) ov dhe mo)8t kru)sial test sen- 
tensez hi) kan konstriykt, i)ch sentcns bi)ing independent and kompli)t in gramatiksl 
sens. Wi) wil ad a leik kwontiti ov similar mater, and publish dhe ho)l, in fiie komon 
speling, in our nekst number, on dhe understanding, and widh dhe printed intinie)shon, 
dhat i)ch parti enge)jez tu suplei hiz vershon ov dhe enteir mater for dhe folo iug ishn 
ov dhis publike)shon. Our spe)s iz tu) limited tu kontiniu tu devo)t it tu an indeseisiv 
kontest ov wufdz at long ronj, such az Mr. Jones api)rz inkleiud tu kari on. — ^W.R.B ] 

London : Printed by W. R. Evans, 3 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, W.C. ; and' 
Published by F. Pitman, 20 Paternoster Row, E.G. 




{Not issued by the Eyiglish Spelling Reform Association,) 

London: P. PITMAN, 20 Patkrnosteb Row. 

No. 6] FEBRUARY, 1881. iPrice Id. 



Vauelz — ShoH — i - e (se) a o - oe u 
Loq — ii (eh) ee - aa oo oh - uu 

Difthoqz — (ei) ai oi au (ou) iu 

Jntermiidiets and Aspei' — y w wh * 

Konsotiants — p b t d ch j k g 

f V th dh 8 z sh zh 
r 1 m n q 

In mai Paliotaip ai atemted tu solv dhi problem ov inventiq a 
saientifikali akiuret alfabet widh eenshent taips, alauiq miself dhi 
ins ov Eohman, Italik, and Smool Kapital leterz, direkt or toemd. 
Dhi objekt woz simpli tu form a konviinient instrument for dhi 
miniut fonetik diskoeshoenz nesesen in mai (Erli Iqglish Proncensiee^ 
sh<Bn, for A^hich it ^az aanserd pcerfektli. BcBt it iz obvioes dhat 
soech niiniutnes woz inaplikabl for ordineri raitiq, and dhat a miks- 
tiur ov faunts woz tohtali imposibl for ordineri printiq. Ai nekst 
tcBmd mai atenshcBu tu dhi speshal pcerpces ov raitiq Iqglish Daia- 
lekts. ^lir it bikeem kliir xihat noh mikstiur ov faunts and noh 
toernd leterz wud bi endiufabl. And whail in mai saientifik Paliotaip 
a Latin beesiz woz neseseri for dhi valiuz ov dhi vauelz, it woz 
iikwali neseseri tu 'av an Iqglish beesis for Iqglish daialekts. Dhi 
Glosik Alfabet, which ai konstrodkted widh dhis objekt in viu, ^az 
aanserd veri wel, and ^az bin iuzd ekstensivli. It iz aplikabl iivu 
for ordineri Iqglish pcerpoesez, and iz, ai beliiv, dhi ohnii skiim on 
an Iqglish beesis which iz thoeroli konsistent. Indiid, woen ov dhi 
prinsipal objekshcBnz tu its ius woz its tuu greet konsistensi. In 
mai Dimidian Speliq ai endeverd tu remidi dhis difekt, and folohd 
dhi analojiz ov ordineri speliq stil moor klohsli, alauiq ov scBrtin 
ambigiuitiz, regiuleeted bai strikt ruulz, and meni dcBbl simbolizee- 
shoeuz, similerli restrikted. Glosik and Dimidian ar soliushoenz ov 
dhi problem : tu provaid a fonetik alfabet for Iqglish, imiidietli apli- 
kabl tu orJineri ius, widh noh niu, toernd, miutileeted.^ or ddAAkxN^^ka^ 
aksented leterz, on an Iqglish vauel bee?\a. TUVv^^t ^t^'^wv^n^x^w^.- 


meroBS speliq riformerz tu 'uuin dlii Iqglish vauel beesis is disteest^ 
ful, and ^a dezair tu sii dhi Latin or Kontinental sistemi introdiust* 
Dhohz 'u noli enithiq abaut Kontinental 'abits ov spiich ar aweer 
dhat dhis iz iruposibl widliaut uiiimeroes slait iiiakiuresiz, or meni 
niu leterz. Ai 'av, 'auever, set miself dhi problem : tu faind a prak- 
tikal skiim ov raitiq Iqglish widh ordineri Rohman leterz, on a Kon- 
tinental beesis, alauiq slait inkonsistensiz. Dhi rizoelt iz dhi prezeut 
luropik propohzal, which ai prosiid tu ekspleen veri briifli. Dhi 'ohl 
artikl bii'iq ritn in dhi methocd socjested, dhi riider kan at woens 
joej ov its printed efekt. 

Loq vauel z ar diraivd from short vauelz bai ridiuptikeeshoen. 
Dhis iz a veii ohld aidiia. Boet, oenfortiunetli, dhi Iqgiish laqgwej 
lendz itself tn it veri badli. Ai woz eebl tu iuz it striktli in Paliotaip. 
In luropik ai iuz it laksli. Dha>s dhi Iqglish valiuz ov t, «, a, o, «, 'iir 
asiumd, ar not prisaisli dhi Latin, nor dhi Italyau, nor dhi Spwiisb, 
nor dhi French, nor dhi Joerman, nor dhi Da>ch, aiid as iz not iuzd in 
its Joei-man sens egzaktli. (When dhi printer roenz short ov dhi 
oeniuzhiual leter a?, 4i moest iuz a, a toernd e.) Agen, noen ov dhi 
peerz ov loq and short vauelz ar egzakt, and tuu vauelz ar cen- 
peerd. Eksepshoenz teeku tu loq ee mee bi remidid in tuu weez, a? 
dheer vehl^ or veil, if dhis loq saund shud bi konsiderd properli dif- 
thoqgal. For dhis seem riizn on mait bi iuzd in Iqglish for oh. And 
dhiiz 62, ou^ or ehi^ ohu^ moest bi iuzd (at Hist okeezhonali) when dhi 
Iqglish loq vauelz hav tu bi distiqgwisht from dhi Kontinental. 
Oolsoh M moest bi iuzd for Iqgiish a in hat^ when enithiq laik Kon- 
tinental 'abits ar ngarded. 

For dhi konsonants, dhi meen novelti iz dhi ins ov a toernd kama(*) 
az a soebstitiut for dhi Griik spHiittis a^per tu reprizeut dhi aspiret in 
ool keesez. In raitiq, dhis wud huk itself on tu dhi folohiq vauel. 
Dhis sets h frii for a modifaier, tu bi iuzd in its iuzhual laks maner, 
in ah (brooder dhan aa\ M, ih (Roeshan), oA, uh (Swiidish), wh^ ch^ 
th^ dh^ sh^ zh. In mai Paliotaip ai emploid II for dhi aspiret, boet 
dhis introdiusez a mikstiur ov faunts. Dhi r iz triited az in Dimidian, 
dhat iz, it iz vohkal when not folohd bai a vauel, and dhi kombinee- 
shoenz iir^ eer^ ar^ en* {aar^ oor or ohr^ if dezaird), wwr, 'av dheer modi- 
faid sensez. In plees ov ng ai iuz q^ which yiirz ov ekspiiriens in 
Paliotaip shoh tu bi eminentli wel adapted for dhi poerpoes. It iz, 
in fakt, a miir neezalizeeshoen ov dhi ordineri saund ov q, 

Aksents kan bi iuzd az in Dhnidian, dhat iz, dhi toernd piirioed 
kan bi iuzd for kapitalz, or wheer thrii leterz ov dhi seem form wud 
konkoer, az bii'iq (wheer, 'auever, a dai'iiresis niait bi iuzd, az hiiiq^ 
hai'iq^ and similerli kopiiq^ nitereet^ miniushi'i^ az iz koestoeuieri in soech 
keesez), and after silablz konteeniq. oe, ^jov N\\i\d\ uoh aksent \% 


kaast; boet «r, ei^ mee, az 4ir, bi iuzd (az dhi Dimidian wr, e?-) in 
aksented and CBnaksented silablz respektivli. In oedher keesez dhi 
iuzhual akiut aksent mark mee bi emploid, and bi renderd infiiikwent 
bai ruul. In dhis briif peeper ai 'av seldoem iuzd eni aksent at ooL 
Dhi oenaksented a, o, 'av bin emploid in a doebl sens, az iz iuzhiual ; 
boet «, oh ar tu hand, if dizaird. Ai 'av ritn fainal oenaksented -a/, 
-an in plees ov -cel^ -cen^ which ai prifoer, az ai duu not wish tu reez 
kweschoenz (-tyoenz) ov orthohipi ; boet ai 'av riteend -obii for -on, 

Ai veri moech prifoer a sistem ov raitiq on an Iqglish vauel beesis* 
konvinst dhat it wud best sikiur dhi endz ov a Speliq Riforra, and 
espeshali dhi transizhoen tu buks in dhi ordineri speliq. Boet ai 'av 
noh objekshoen tu dhi adopshoen ov a Latin beesis, provaided nob 
niu leterz whotever ar emploid, az in dhis soejested luropik form. 
Dhi neem luropik iz a kontrakshoen ov dhi Griik form luropeeik^ and 
iz emploid tu avoid dhi iuzhiual form luropiian^ and yet tu soejest dhat 
dhi beesis iz not insiuler. It wud bi absoliutli neseseri tu soepliment 
dhis alfabet for dhi indispensabl foren woerdz which konstantli okoer 
in Iqglish. 'Ens e-^ 6 66^ it uii^ in loher-kees, moest bi iuzd for French 
" miuto-goeteral e" Joerman o, w, and French and Doech 6w, u (in 
kapitalz dhi iuzhual EU, OE, UE wud hav tu bi iuzd for bohth loq 
and short vauelz) ; and M, gh for dhi goeteral konsonants. Dhi 
French neezal vauelz mee bi reprizented bai an adapteeshoen ov dhi 
Pohlish formz, a^ o^ e^ os^ widh toernd apostrofi, az 0^ di k-ce^n a^ fa^ 
va^ du ve^ {On dit qu'un enfant vend du vin), Wi moest 'av soemthiq, 
or wi kaant iivn took ov an eed de ka^ (aide de camp\ or kompleen 
ov bii'iq afekted widh a^niii (ennuiy Ai konkluud bai raitiq dhi 
test paragraaf ov dhi Speliq Riform Asohsieeshon, az far az posibl 
in Mr. Aizak Pitman'z orthohipi, in order dhat hiz tuu skiimz mee bi 
direktli kontraasted widh dhis; boet ai 'av bin oeneebl tu analaiz hiz 
difthoqz ei, ow, for which ai dheerfor rait ai, au : — 

" 'lir and dheer a fiu Iqglish woerdz mee bii faund in dhe yuuzhual 
orthografi, 'wich liiv noh ruum for dant az tu dheer pronoensieeshon. 
Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshonal. Yet wii ar shuur dhat aur speliq 
woz orijinali fohnetik. It iz nau propohzd tu revert tu dhat prinsi- 
pel. Boet a divizhon ov opinion 'az arizen az tu dhe mohst siiitabel 
leterz tu emploi. Dhe folohiq vershonz ov dhis steetment shoh dhe 
neetiur ov soech ov dhe veerioes propolizalz oolredi meed az kud bii 
konviinientli printed, iich az far az woz posibel in dhe orthohepi ov 
its oothor. In soh short a paragraf ohnli dhe chiif points kud bii 
inkluuded, boet dhe alfabetik loo iz jenerali kliir, and dhe ai wil bii 
eebel tu joej priti wel 'wot dhe apiirans wud bii in printed buks. 
Meni planz involviq raadher inaksesibel taips had tu bii entairli past 
bai. 'Ens dhe chois meed doez not implai a verdikt. Dhe Ekzekiutiv 
Komiti wil selekt soech methodz az dhee mee thiqk rekwair loqger 
iloestreeshon. Dhe Iqglish Speliq Reform Asohshieeshon az a bodi 
iz not responsibel for eni woen ov dhiiz skiimz." 

Aleksaander Jon Elis. 

25 Argail Eolid, Xenziqtom, 
12 Janiueri^ 1881. 



I CONSIDER dhat dhe diflcushou ov dhe fundamental prinsiplz and 
dhe detailz ov dhe vairius propoezalz for Speling Reform in dhe 
Expef-itnenter wil be ov grait advantej in dhe prezent staij ov dhe 
moovment. lu order to giv point and definitnes to dheez discnshonz, 
it wil be nesesary for eech author to stait distinctly for whot parpos 
hiz skeem iz intended, dhe baisis upon which it iz fraimd, and dhe 
meenz by which it iz propoezd to secuer dhe adopshou ov dhe 

Dhe purpos for which dhe prezent skeem iz intended iz for leech- 
ing reeding and speling in scoolz and for jeneral ues, independently 
ov eny ultimet skeem. 

Dhe baisis upon which it iz fraimd iz dhe prezent Engglish ues ov 
dhe Roman Alfabet, widhout referens to eny udher langgwej, or to 
eny former peeriod ov dhe Engglish langgwej. 

Dhe meenz propoezd to secuer its adopshon iz by invieting dhe 
keenest discushon on every prinsipl and on every detail from Speling 
Reformerz, so az, by adopting such modificaishonz az may be jeneraly 
agreed upon, aplicaishon may be maid for dhe sancshon ov dhe 
Eduecaishon Department for dhe ues ov a comon sistem ov reformd 
speling not to be naimd after eny individual. 

Dhe fundamental prinsipl iz : — 

Dhe simbol for eech recogniezd sound in dhe langgfwej shal be 
dhat leter or diegraf by which it iz reprezented ofenest in dhe 
curent speling, dh and zh beeing dhe only new simbolz recwierd, and 
dheez ar in harmony widh dhe coresponding simbolz, th^ «&, for dhe 
relaited soundz. 

For obvius reezonz, a second simbol iz retaind for sum ov dhe 
soundz in defiend pozishonz ; i.e. — 

k for c befoer e, t, and y^ and at dhe end ov monosilablz ; 
y „ t befoer vowelz and at dhe end ov wurdz. 

At dhe end ov wurdz, in formativz from dhe saim, and befoer 
vowelz in dhe midl ov a wurd— 

ay for ai — pay, payer, payee, payment, payabl ; 
oy „ 01— joy, boyish, loyal, toying, joyful ; 
aw „ au — saw, sawing, sawyer, lawful ; 
ow „ ot^— cow, coward, power, vowel, bowing. 

Jeneral RueL 
A vowel not foloed by a consonant haz its long or nazm sound. 

Speshcd Aplicaishon, 

1. At dhe end ov wurdz : be^ she^ go^ no^ sJw^ my^ by ; 

2. A vowel befoer anudher vowel in dhe midl ov a wurd iz long ; 
dhus — deist^ trials dual. 


A sistem ov speling on dheez lienz, it iz submited, secuerz dbe 

macsimum ov advantej widh dhe minimum ov chaiuj. It iz eezy to 

print, eezy to riet, eezy to reed in print and in manuscript, eezy to 

' teech, and eezy for transizhon to reeding in dhe cureut speling. 

Whot moer iz wonted ? 

Dhe rieter disclaimz eny credit for himself az to orijinality in dhe 
sujestionz heer maid. Hiz object iz to endevor to bring into har- 
mony dhe best and moest practical iedeaz ov dhe leeding Speling 
Reformerz. It iz deemd to be a far moer agreeabl task to seek for 
points ov agreement between Speling Reformerz dhau to emfasiez 
points ov diferens. 

It iz pleezing to see so much agreement between Messrs. Ellis, 
Pitman, Fleay, Evans, and udherz, az tu dhe practical nesesity ov a 
reformd sistem ov Engglish Speling widhout new leterz. 

Mr. Pitman and Mr. Evans hav laitly proovd to demonstraishon, 
dhat to giv to dhe vowel leterz, a, «, t, o, m, dher long or Continental 
soundz in a sistem ov reformd speling for Engglish, wwd be imprac- 
ticabl and absurd, a point long insisted upon by Mr. Ellis. 

Dhe dificulty ov establishing' eny corespondens in dhe shwps ov 
leterz for relaited soundz iz found to be insueperabl. Moe^t skeemz 
having swoloed dhe camel ov Engglish valuez, and widhout referens 
to eny corespondens in dhe shaips ov pairz ov leterz for pairz ov 
soundz, in such consonants az j and c^, wil not strain at dhe nat in 
dhe vowel soundz. 

Mr. Fleay haz reesently cauld tiemly atenshon to a point insisted 
on by Prof. Max MtiUer sum tiem ago, to dhe efect dhat lang- 
gwej woz not maid for etimolojists and filolojists. Liuggwists and 
stuedents ov comparativ filolojy can sertainly talk cair ov dhemselvz 
in deviezing simbolz for ues in dher investigaishonz. It iz not nese- 
zary dhat dhe satm simholz shwd be uezd in a popular skeem az in a 
sistem for linggwistic purposez, which wil only be needed by 1 in 
10,000 ov dhe former. 

Mr. Fleay haz aulso very properly protested against dhe too 
sweeping condemnaishon by sum advocaits ov Speling Reform ov 
dhe auomaliz ov dhe prezent speling. It haz been repeeted a thou- 
zand tiemz widhin dhe past thirty yeera, dhat oenly about wun wurd 
in a thouzand iz spelt foneticaly in dhe curent orthografy. Dhe 
ecstravagans ov such a staitment may be jujd from dhe fact dhat 
in dhe test spesimenz prezented to dhe Skeemz Comitee such thuro- 
going reformerz az Mr. Pitman and Mr. Evans retain dhe curent 
speling at dhe rait ov from 150 to 300 wurdz per 1,000. 


Ou dho jeneral polisy ov S|K?ling Refonnera, I wwd moest hartily 
endors dhe wurdz" ov Mr. Evans, dhat " Speling Reformerz wil 
hav wurk enuf to luaik n(H»dfuI, uesful, aiid practical chaliijezi 
widhout invieting opozishon by atempting unnesesary, uesles, and 
capriHhus wunz." Aiilso, " Meerly dhat aul difthongz [and vowelz?] 
shwd be plaist on dhe Hahii theoretical fwting, iz realy trivyal in 
comparison widh dlie consideraishon in behaaf ov retaining^ dhe oeld 

Az to dhe standard ov prouunsiaishon, I am dispoezd tu adopt 
dhe vew ov Prof. Max Miiller, when he sayz, "If eny atempt wer 
maid to employ dhe minuet fotografy ov spoeken soundz, dhe hair- 
spliting machinery, in which sum ecsel, dher wwd be fifty diferent 
wayz ov speling Engglish, and dhe confuezhon wwd be graiter dhan 
it iz now." Mr. Ellis aulso telz us dhat dher ar meny diferent wayz 
ov pronounsing Engglish corecthj. I wwd myself eeven suport dhe 
vew dhat in sertain doutful caisez dhe pronunsiaishon shwd bend to 
dhe speling, notably in such wurdz az hook^foot^ &c. 

Widh dheez vewz, I shal be very glad to discus prinsiplz and 
detailz widh Mr. Evans or eny wun in dhe Experimenter^ not in a 
caiping or capshus spirit, but widh a sinseer dezier to ariev at sum 
comon agreement. It wil be uesesaiy, however, in order dhat dis- 
cushon shwd be ov sum practical benefit, dhat eech shwd stait ecs- 
pUsitly hiz aimz and methodz, az I hav endevord to doo. It wwd 
be meer waist ov tiem to discus points ov pronunsiaishon at dhis 
staij, or misprints. 

I feel widh Mr. Evans dhat it iz hy tiem speling reformerz shwd 
cum to dhe point, and agree upon sumthing^ els we shal soon becum 
dhe lafing-stok ov dhe enemy. For me, to wait fifty yeerz til we 
can get whot iz cauld " a thuro sistem," iz by far too long a rainj. 
I see no object in seeking to fiend whot woz dhe pronunsiaishon ov 
dhe ainsheiit Romanz or dhe Anglo-Saxonz. I wozn't dher to heer, 
nor can I fiend enybody to giv me pozitiv, definit informaishon dhat 
may be practicaly aplied to dhe problem ov Engglish Speling Re- 
form. VVhot soundz dhe vairius langgwejez ov Europe or dhe 
wurld giv to dhe Roman leterz, iz a problem beyond my reech. 
Widh Mr. Evans, I consider we hav a big job before us to efect eny 
improovment whotever in Engglish speling, and let every udher tub 
stand on its oen botom. 

Dhe preeching ov Speling Reform in eny shaip, and to eny degree, 
wil be to pedants a stumbling-blok, and to etimolojists foolishues. 
Eeven if aul Speling Refoimerz pwld togedher, dher task wwd be 
dificult enuf; widh divieded counselz, dhe pasiv rezistans wil be 
moer dhan a mach for us. 

E. Jones. 

4 Amherley Street^ Liverpool^ 
14 January^ 1881. 







Long — 

II (lY) 



■ ■■ ■ ■■ I — ■ - ■ ■■..—-I-. -— ■■■■ ■ -- ■ ■■■ I . n il..- ^ja..— . — — 



No Niw^ Tcernd^ or Miutileited Taijps; No Aksent boet dhi Akiut. 

A (E U 

pat pot hui put 

patrol pt;tat^ aflweut 

AA AO OA UU(uw) 

balm havA boar boon (^lew) 

Difthongz— Al (AY) EI(EY) 01 (OY) AU (AW) OU(OW) lU (IW) 
b'te (b«y) vein (obey) boil ^boy) noun {note) soul (show) nwde {new) 


P, B, T, D, J, K, G (get), F, V, S (souse), Z, M, N, L, R, Y, W, H, 

and CH, SH, NG, iich widh its moust komou pauer. 
TH az in thin ; DH az th in then ; ZH az s in vision ; X = ks, 


I. Dhe pauerz ov dhe simpl vauel-leterz, az stopt or briif, ar determind bai pozishon, 
chiifly in releishon tu aksent. 

2 JT iz yiuzd for simpl short i at dhi end or a woerd, or befoar ancedher i-saund ; 
e.g. kopy^ kopyinffy miidyiival; hwail, konversly, fainal i iz ritn after y, KLtkayi^ kleyi, 

8. Dhe litl woerdz 7ni, wi, dhi (thee), ys hi, shi, di, no, to, dho (tho'), lo I hoi ! 
yUy hu (relativ), du (ogziliary), tu, thru (thro'), folo dhi analojy ov egzisting spelingz in 
biying ritn widh briif vauelz, hwich expres dhe moar ordinary oeterans ov dhe woerdz in 
spiich ; dho soem ov dhem mey hav long vauelz hwen emfatik, az " Ask him, not miy** 

4. Dhe y formz ov daigrafs ar employ d befoar i in dhe midl ov a wcerd, az in ihiyitt, 
tpontaniyity, leyik (laic), kwayiitosi (quietus), trayiun, dayiutoernal. 

0. Bouth dhe y and dhe w formz ov daigrafs ar ritn at dhi end- ov woerdz and befoar 
afiksez, az kiy, kiyz — low, lower, lowest — plfy, pleyd, pleyer, pleyfal — niw, niwiy — 
dow (dough), dowy. Dhoes meny homonimz ar konviiniently distinggwisht in speling; 
Q.g. friiz, friyz (freeze, fi*ees) — weit, weyt (wait, weight) — groun, grown (groan, — ) 
— bruuz, bruwz (bruise, brews) — taid, tayd (tide, tied) — alaud, alawi (aloud, allowed) 
— yitiz, yiwz (use, yews) . 

6. In analojy widh dhe provizhon meid in rud 3, and in korespondens widh abrii- 
vieited formz in dhe komon speling, ar ritn dhe litl and jeneraly oenaksented woerdz at, 
mat, dhai, bai (\, my, thy, by) ; aolso dhau (thou). 

7. Hwen dhe kompounent leterz ov dhe daigrafs ai and oi ar rekwaird for separet 
sauudz, dhey ar divaided dhoes — Hiibraizm, folo'i/ig , ko' inside nt. Similarly mrest bi 
divaided okeizhonal aoi, az in sao'itig, and rser aai, az in soffaa ing or Jiudn'aiz. 

8. Aksented ar, or ( = aar, aor), er, oer, not prsiiding vauelz, hav dhe speshal valiwz 
in debar, abhor, defer, denioe'r, and dhi r iz doebld befoar vauel afiksez, az in debarring. 

9. L)he konsonant daigrafs ar, hwen nesesary, divaided in dhe seim wey az dhe vauei 
daigrafs ; e.g. nait hud, ad'hiir, mis' hap, en'greiv {n biying dhe dental ncizal). 

10. iVG^ (not «•) iz yiuzd for dhe goeteral neizal befoar k or g komensing anoedhcr 
silabl, az in angk-'r, anggrtr. 

II. NK'xn woei silabl iz ekwivalent tu ttgk, az iu bmk, banker, 

12. X iz yiuzd for ks in dhe priifiks ex bafoar kou^ouauU, ax exklelm, extkcker. 



Dhe 8peflhal objekt saot in dhis speling iz tu kombain, az far 
praktikaU, familiar IiiggfUsh orthogiufik formz widh a restoreishon 
ov dhe Latiu vauel-valiwz, bai miiuz ov woen simpl and re^^alar stall 
ov noteishon, adapted tu expres dhe reniivd pronoeusieishoa ov dhe 
dey, and in kiipiug widh dhe jeneral employment ov Roumaa leterz 
thruaut dhe woerld. Ilidheilu dhe moar prominent, or at liist moar 
praktikal and w(£rkabl In^glish orthografik skiimz, hav biin freimd 
aidher on a naro aplikeishon ov Latin valiwz tu an Italian-laik stail 
ov speling, or on hwot mey bi termd a braod yius ov simbolz faund 
in dhi establislit orthografy az parshaly ko-insident widh (dho not 
reprezenting) uiw saundz developt sins dhe noteishon woz setld. 

Hens a divizhon ov S|)eling Reformerz intu tuw sekshonz, hwich 
it iz thaot mey bi draon tugedher bai a skiim, dhat puts dhe rait 
tipikal vauel-sain in pleis ov dhe rong wodn in iby, pleif^ druw^ ets., 
and yet reteinz dhe ^^glaid" simbol, konsfderd bai eminent aothoritiz 
tu bi yiusful, or iivu uesesary. Bai dhoes prezerving dhe konsonant- 
laik finish tu simbolz for aur long vauel-saundz, dhe distinktiv form 
and individiuality ov meny wcBrdz iz at woens renderd apaerent, 
hwail divers saundz, az in ^*dew, drew," ar shown bai dhe simpl 
introdoekshon ov dhe rait vauel-sain, az in diw^ druw. 

Tu akomplish dhoes a konipliit and efektiual renoveishon ov aur 
orthografy, it haz biin nasesary tu dispeus widh daigrafs laik ee^ ooj 
hwich hav bekoe'm irrezistibly soejestiv ov serten saundz widhaat 
biying aveilabl az jeneral reprezeutativz ov dhem, — ^tu restoar ta 
dhsBr proper foenkshonz soem indispensabl daigrafs, az at, au^ — ^tu 
iiitrodius dhe (in Inglish) niw daigrafs tV, uii, fonnd on dhe seim 
prinsipl az dhi ould ee, <9o, — and tu yiuz as for moar analitikal, boet 
les aveilabl ea. Dhoes a riialy fonetik and intermiidial speling haz 
bim prodiiist, iizy tu riid or rait, and pniited widhaut sp^shal taips. 

Test Taracjraf ov dhe Speling Reform AsousieUhon, 

Hiir and dhser a fiw Ingglish woerdz mey bi faimd in dhe yiozhoal 
orthografy, hwich liiv no ruum for daut az tu dhssr pronoensieishon. 
Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshonal. Yet wi ar shuur dhat aur speling 
woz oii jinaly fonetik. It iz naw propouzd tu revert tu dhat prinsipL 
Boet a divizhon ov opinion haz anzn az tu dhe moust siutabl leten 
tu employ. Dhe folo'ing vershonz ov dhis steitment show dhe 
neitiur ov soech ov dhe vaerioes propouzalz aolredy meid az kad bi 
konviiniently printed, iich az far az woz posibl in dhi orthouepy ov 
its aother. In so short a paragraf ounly dhe chiif points kud bi 
inkluuded, boet dhi alfabetik lao iz jeueraly kliir, and dhi ay wil bi 
eibl tu joej prity wel hwot dhi apiirans wud bi in printed .buks. 
Meny planz involving raadher inaksesibl taips had tu bi ehtairly past 
bai. Hens dhe chois meid doez not implay a verdikt. Dhi Egzekiutiv 
Komity wil selekt soech methodz az dhey mey think rekwair longgiT 
ilcesti-eishon. Dhi Ingglish Speling Keform Asousieishon az a body 
iz not respoasibl for eny woen ov dhiiz skiimz. 


Printed by W. K. Evans, 3 Gloucester Slteel, ^jxeeTi^«^vMttt,\AAAa\i,\ia^ 




{Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association.) 

London: P. PITMAN, 20 Paternoster Row. 

No. 7] MARCH, 1881. iPriee \cL 

* * 


_ To assist in defraying the expense of this Publication, the circniation of which 
is chiefly gratuitous (to the extent of hundreds of copies per month), ht. per page is 
charged for inserting articles propounding or advocating particular schemes of spelling. 
For such articles their authors alone are responsible. 



4 Amberletf Street^ Liverpool, 

Eny repliez to dhe foloing cwestionz, widh eny remarks ou dhe 
subject ov dheiu, sent to dhe abuv adres, wil be thankfuly reseevd. 

Dhe Simbolz Th, Dh. 

1. Iz dher eny beter practical method ov diferenshiaiting dhe 
soundz ov th in thin^ then^ dhan by adopting th, dh — thin, dhen f 

It iz claimd for dh, dhat it iz distinctiv, sujestiv, eezy to print, e^zy 
to riet, eezy to reed in print and in manuscript. 

Dhe oenly objecshon to it iz dhe " look ov dhe thing." But duz 

not dhe saim objecshon aply, widh eecwal or widh graiter fors, to 

eny udher method sujested, togedher widh meny udher objecshouz 

in adishon f 

Dhe Simholfor dhe Vowel in Put. 

2. Iz dher eny beter practical simbol for dhe vowel sound in put 
dhan w ? (Pwt, shwd, cwd, &c.) 

It iz held dhat dhe vowel sound in put and dhe first soimd in we 
ar iedentical, or very neerly so, dhe diferens beeing dhat in put=pwt 
a consonant sound foloez, and m we z, vowel sound foloez, dhe too 
soundz in dhe later beeing comprest into wun uterans by a singgl 
emishon ov breth. 

Dhe French oui, ouest, pour, ar very neerly ecwivalent in sound to 
we, west, poor ; and in Welsh dhe saim leter w iz uezd for dhis sound 
whedher foloed by a consonant or a vowel ; e.g. gwn, gwr-gwin, gwir. 
In a similar way dhe sound ov y in yard, yam, yon, yell, iz iedentical 
widh / in pon-iard, Will-iam, pin-ion, span-ieL It iz cuerius to noet 
dhat dhe Jerman jahr, Welsh iar, and Eng. yar-d ar iedentical in 
sound, dho eech langgwej haz its diferent simbol. 


— - ■ — - 

Continental Valiiezfor Vbwelz, 

3. Iz it practical to giv to dhe vowel leterz a, e, i, o, u dher loii^ 
or Continental soundz, az in alins^fete^ uiachine^ gold^ pool^ in a sistem 
ov reformd speling for Engglish ? 

Dhe efect ov carying out dhe Continental valuez for dhe vowelz, 
in dhe test pasej ov dhe Skeeraz Comitee wwd be to leev 5 wurdz 
oenly in dher prezent apeling — i.e. no^ most^far^ so^past — every wun 
ov dhe 186 wurdz beeing aulterd in dher speling, ecsept dhe fiev 
wurdz abuv given. (See Mr. Pagliardini'z skeein.) 

Dhe clashing ov meeningz on dhe Continental plan wwd be very 
confuezing. Dhus — peep wwd be pip; deep, dip; sleep, slip; sheep, 
ship; feet, fit; seen, sin; pain, pen; main, men; poop, pup; room, 
rum; boon, bun, &c. &c. 

4. Whot advantej iz it to dhe " forener," or to enybody, to adopt 
a profesedly Continental baisis, az in Mr. Pitman*z skeem and sum 
udherz, whiel in reality giving dhe Engglish soundz to dhe vowel 
leterz a, ^, i, o, u ? 

Dhus Mr. Pitman givz to dheez leterz, not dher long or Continental 
soundz, but dher short or Engglish soundz, and for dhe Continental 
soundz proper he givz a set ov new leterz said to corespond in sbaip 
widh dhe shaips ov dhe leterz for dhe coresponding short vowelz. 
Iz not dhis a contradicslion ? 

New Leterz. 

Nobody objects to new leterz in theory^ and yet dher ar few hoo 
doo not feel dhe grait practical dificultiz and inconveenyensez in dhe 
way ov dher adopshon. 

5. Wwd it not be a hevy pnes to pay for dhe theoretical advantej 
ov New Jjeterz, to see dhe foloing constantly recuring litl wurdz, 
which ar perfectly fonetic and consistent az dhay stand, disgiezd so 
az to be scairsly recognisabl by dhe substitueshon ov two new leterz 
in eech for dhe prezent familiar diegrafs ? 

Three, sheep, sheet, beech, speech, teeth, faith, chain, thing, thaw, 
length, strength, tooth, chair, &c. 

Practicaly^ dherfor, dhe advantej iz aultogedher on dhe sied ov 
dhe ecsisting diegrafs, az against new leterz. For Teeching^ diegrafs 
ar beter dhan new leterz, becauz teecherz ar aul familiar widh dheez 
combinaishouz and dher powerz. For tranzishon to dhe comon 
orthografy, which must be efected in aul public scoolz until fonetic 
speling becumz jeneral, diegrafs ar vastly preferabl. 

In Welsh, which haz dhe moest fonetic and consistent orthografy 
ov eny langgwej in Europe, dher ar seven consonant diegrafs — cA, 
dd^ ff^ 11^ ng^ ph^ th. No practical dificulty iz felt eedher in Printing, 
Teeching, or Rieting, and everybody can reed. In Jerman, widh 
meny diegrafs, dhe saim iz dhe cais. 

Dhe Simbolfor Long i m " Tried." 
For dUis sound dhe best availabl simbol iz ie — 
1. Becauz dhis iz dhe ueniversal simbol for dhis sound in iofleo- 
shonz, az cvied^ apfied^ denied. 


2. Becauz until now dhe elements ov dhis difthoug ar dubaltabl 
and debaited points. 

3. Becauz no reezon haz yet been given why vowel difthongz shvvd 
be ecsprest by dher elements, and not consonant difthongz, az^, cA. 


2b tAe Conductor of the " SpelUtig Experimenter*'* 

Sir, — Being an admirer of Mr. E. Jones's zeal in the canse of Spelling Reform, of 
kid endeavours to give a practical rather than a theoretical direction to the movement, 
and even of his long persistence in advocating substantially the same style of spelling, 
I have sometimes felt scandalized at your rather cavalier way of treating this eminent 
reformer. But I feel even more disquieted when some phonetic friends of mine, who 
bow to BeU, elevate Ellis, or swear by Sweet, describe Mr. Jones's spelling as the long 
since exploded scheme of an American lady, which she has herself abandoned as imprac* 
ticable, and which my said friends insist will only work in the hands of a person that 
has the. selection of his own words. They pretend that Mr. Jones cannot consistently 
and tolerably write, according to his system, a number of sentences which they have 
constructed in order to test it, and which they declare the old orthography intelligibly 
represents to any reader of it. Not being able myself to demonstrate the invalidity of 
such aspersions, probably through being unacquainted with the latent resources of Mr. 
Jones's system, I send you a sufficient sample of the sentences, for insertion in your 
periodical, in order to give that gentleman a public opportunity of silencing his critics. 
— Yours, &c., Fiat Exi^bkimextum. 

Sample of Test Sentences rrfurrfd to above. 

The cook could not have put good sugar in the pudding. — Sucty Christmas pudding 
and spiced meats are not quite the diet suited for weakly digestions. — A rural policeman 
is usually more mindful for the security of the squire's hares than for that of a cottier's 
pullets. — In Germany the Jews are now injudiciously persecuted as an alien race exer- 
cising a malign influence on society. — A sower is often sore vexed, as he sees the birds 
seize his seed, and soar away with it. — Yesterday the highest-priced articles experienced 
by far the readiest sale in the bazaar. — ^The tight-rope dancer quietly exhibited her 
great feat with the dexterity acquired by nightly experience. — No ancient poet ever 
wrote such poems as " I'm afloat on the Ocean Wave," or " Home, sweet Home."^ 
The requiem was performed in slower time than that denoted in the composer's score. — 
Mohammed admitted only males within the pale of his religion. — The woman would not 
use the wool of the two ewes which the wolf slew in the wood. — ^The Prince of W ales 
is the son and heir of a potentate ruling over a mightier empire than that of ancient 
Rome. — Many occupiers of Irish land aspire to the happier condition of downright pro- 
prietorship. — Napoleon III. was a hale man when he began to reign; but ere his over- 
throw he had become a weakly invalid. — The rowers of the winning boat reached the 
goal amid a roar, that poured forth like a roll of thunder from their recently disquieted, 
but now delighted admirers on the shore.—- Adam was the first made of the human 
race, and Eve^the second. — Neuralgia is only a new name for an old nuisance. — The 
sapient attorney and his new client improved their incipient acquaintance in a quiet way 
over a pint of light wine. — The spires of our mighty cathedrals testify to the piety of 
afluent founders amid the rude society of medieval times.— Auctioneers and valuers find 
profit in other people's failures. — If thou subduest thy passions, thou wilt exhibit truer 
grandeur than one who has reduced a nation to servitude. — Geographical explorers and 
scientific inquirers, as well as the followers of commerce, are now busier than their pre- 
decessors in earlier times — The direr Job's affliction grew, and the sorer his sutfering, 
the purer became his resignation, and the surer his faith. — If a cabman charges hi<j:her 
than his lawful hire, the hirer can prosecute him. — The good man both goeth the way 
he knoweth to be right, and showeth it to others. — Sloth groweth apace, and its growth 
only rendereth its victim less able and more loath to rcs'st it. — One man despises, ex- 
poses, and abuses what another prizes, proposes, and diOuses. — Exploded fallacius are 
derided even by those whom they once deluded. 



To the Conductor of the " Spelling Experimenter** 
Dear Sir. — A few weeks ago I sent to Mr. Pitman my version 
of the specimen paragraph given out by the English Spelling Reform 
Association, together with a short explanation of my system of 
spelling (see Phonetic Journal^ 29 January, 1881). I shall feel 
obliged if you will kindly publish the following somewhat simplified 
rendering in your valuable periodical. While preserving the cha- 
racteristic features of my Approximation Scheme as given in the 
Phonetic Journal^ viz. the three semivowels y (orj), u;, and a (respec- 
tively corresponding to Continental i, w, and a), and the two spiritus 
borrowed from the Greek alphabet, — I use only one sign, 9 (or, if you 
like better, o), for accented o as well as unaccented 9 ; and instead 
of f , i5, and «, z with a superscribed " v " (replaced in the Phonetic 
Journal by the corresponding four new types of Mr. Pitman's alpha- 
bet), I propose «^, c?^, 5^, z^^ as also n^ for ng in ••' sing," thus making a 
turned apostrophe (in writing, a loop below the line), or one of the 
semivowel-signs, play the part of your " modifier " or " b ". 

Specimen of Old-letter ^^Approximation" Spelling, 
'Iat 9n d^eAT 9 f juw 'In^glis^ waAdz mej bi fawnd in d^e juwz^ual 
OAtjOgrafi, 'wits^ lijv now ruwm fa dawt 8bz to d^eA pranansjejs^on. 

Bat d^is iz kwait ikseps^anal. Jet wi a s^ua d^at owa spelin^ waz 
oridz^inali fonetik. 'It iz naw prapowzd ta rivaAt ta d^set prinsipal. 
Bat a diviz^an av apinjan az arizan sez ta d^a mowst sjuwtabal letaz 
tu imploj. D^a foloin^ vaAS^anz av djs stejtraant s^ow d^a nejts^ar 
9v sats^ av d^a veArjas prapowzalz olredi mejd az kud bi kanvij- 
njantli printid, 'ijts^ az faAr az waz posabal 'in dj OAt^owipi av its 
'oAt^a. 'In sow s^OAt a paeragraAf 'ownli d^e ts^ijf pojnts kad bij 
inkluwdid, bat d^i selfabetik Ioa iz dz^enrali kliA, 'dn d j aj al bi 'ejbal 
ta dz^adz^ priti wel 'wot d j apiArans ad bij in printid buks. Meni 
plsenz involvin^ raAd^ar inaksesabal tajps 'aed ta bi intaJAli paAst baj. 
'Ens d^a ts^ojs mejd daz ant implaj a vaAdikt. D^i igzekjutiv kamiti 
al silekt sats, met^adz az d^ej mej t^in^k rikwaJA lon^gar ilastrejs^an. 
DJ 'In^glis^ spelin^ rifoAm 'asowsj'ejs^an az a bodi iz not risponsabal 
far eui wan av d^ijz skijmz. 

Yours very truly, 

Wiesbaden^ 5 Feb, 1881. WiLHELM ViETOB. 

[In sending a prauf ta Dr. Victor, wi expr^t dhi opinion, dhat, dho hiz speiing 
reprezented a raadher kolonkwial and in scBm respekts afekted proncensieuthoii, and 
dho dhe stail ov noteishon wud sksersly bi akseptabl in Tngglishmen, yet wi konsiderd 
dlie skiim an ekselent WGen for Occstreiting lugglish spiich in Tintonik or SkandineiTiaa 
atiudents, hwail dhe leter ov dhe koerent speiing wud niuti*alaiz eny laksity in dhi 


oithoaepy adopted. Tu dhiiz obzenreishonz, az wel az ta soem cedherz, dhe lerned and 
dbl Doktor retoemd a replay from hwich wi ar pennited tu transleit and pceblish dhe 
folo'ing : — 

" Dbo ai atentivly red yunr artikl cepon ' Ingglisli Long Vanel-saandz * at dhe taim 
ov its f^iirans, and fiumd in it mcech dhat woz niw, yet ai woz not konshoes, in kon- 
stroekting mai ' Aproksimeishon ' Speling, dhat ai had dhser aolredy met widh wcerd- 
formz hiik kUft prey, eta., az wel az bear, hoAf, It iz singginlar dhat ai hapnd to hit 
oepon dhe seim sain az yuw chonz for dhe therd semivanel. Ai ferst trayd '«, a, a/ 
befoar ai desaided on dhe moar konviiniently-ritn 'a' (a) fiz a simbol for censilabik a, 
and reteind 'a' in dhe seim sens in hwich Mr. Sweet yiuzez it. Ai, however, agen de- 
User explisiUy, dhat, nekst tu Ellis and Sweet, ai hav tu thank yuw for a beter cender- 
standing ov dhe releishonship ov Ingglish sanndz, and dhat thru yuur ekselent raitingz 
in dhe Fonetik Joernal ai ferst bekeim kliir cepon dhi Ingglish difthongz and so-kaold 
long vauelz. . . . 

" ' Yinnion Speling ' immiidietly pliizd mi very mcech. Aolredy dhi aidiia had okoe'rd 
tu miy tu endevor tu efekt a rekonsilieishon ov vsrices sistemz. If yuur ' Yinnion ' 
orthografy wer introdidst, very mcech wud hi achiivd. Ai wud wilingly sakrifEUZ for it 
mai 'Aproksimeishon' meikshift sistem. With tcemd leterz and dhi inverted apostrofy, 
ncething in emest kan bi komenst. Dhey ounly show dhe pleisez hwar niw leterz ar 
indiepemabl (unentbehrlich), hwen woens a strict fonetik raiting haz biin introdidst, 
heist on dhe prinsipl, * For every saund ween simbol.' 

" Ov ce for 9 ai aolso thaot, boet woz afreid dhat it wnd scejest tnw greit an aproksi- 
meishon tu Jerman o or oe. In mai litl ' Englische Schnlgrammatik ' (Leipzig, Teubner, 
1879 — ^kons^ming hwich Profesor Sayce rout : * Ai wish wiy had haaf az gud an intro- 
doekshon tu dhe stcedy ov Jerman az yuw hav givn tu yuur koentrymen for dhe stcedy 
ov Ingglish'), ai reprezent dhe saund in kwestion bai 'd' — dhat iz, onpn o. Ai aolso 
rait dhser ai (or raadher tu) for i in like, and aU for ou in foul. Bai loa ai dount 
miin dhe vcelgar lor widh haaf-trild (halb-*gerollten*) r, beet simply lo -«• dhe semivanel 
ova. Similarly, tor far ai rait befoar a konsonant/o^, boet befoar a vauel/<i«r.**] 



Dns Sbb, — Ai shud bi an eksepshon amoeng aol dhouz personz hu ar experimenting 
toardz dhe prodoekshon ov a gud wcerkabl fonetik speling for aur langgwej, if ai did not 
soemtaimz cheinj mai viwz regarding dhe moust expiidient maner ov simbolaizing serten 
saundz, espeshaly hwen endevoring tu dispeus wicQi dhi asistans ov niw leterz. Az ai 
am avawedly an " experimenter " in mai oun litl siirial, ai hav no niid tu apolojaiz tu 
its riiderz for eny cheinjez ov noteishon ai mey introdius in its peijez ; beet sins in yuur 
Joernal ai hav advokeited soem methodz ov noteishon hwich ai naw think mey not bi 
dhe moust efektiv, or at liist dhe moust konviinient or ekonomikal widh referens tu dhe 
resoarsez at komand, ai ow soem explaneishon tu yuurself and tu yuur riiderz. 

In dhe ferst pleis, ai hav biin dnvn tu dhe konkluuzhon dhat a profesedly onld-leter 
speling shud konfain itself absoliutly tu ould taips, bekaoz dhi introdoekshon ov iivn tuw 
or thriy niw literal formz prevents riiprodoekshon in an ordinary printing-ofis az efek- 
tiualy az dhe fill komplement ov niw leterz wud duw. Ai hav had expiiriens ov dhis 
in siying atempts tu riiprodius, in Ingglish, Amerikan, or Jerman piiriodikalz, notei- 
shonz ov mai oun involving dhe yius ov niw taips. Mai niw formz biying inadekwetly 
reprezented, prejudis woz dautles eksaited agenst dhe propouzd speling hweer noen mait 
cedherwaiz hav biin felt. Ai wish tu avoid dhis for dhe fiutiur, bai yiuzing a noteishon 
dhat kan bi printed enyhwser widh komon taips. Dhis iz doen bai dhi Ingglish valiu 
skuul ov fonetishanz, hn dhoes hav dhi advantej, az regardz taipografikal praktikability, 
in puting dheir skiimz befoar dhe poeblik. Dhe konvikshon haz grown oepon miy, dhat 


it kau aolso bi dGen on dhe prinsipl ov orijinal and jcneral valiuz, widhant rezurting til 
eny eksentrik yius ov leterz — az c for chy q for ng, x for shy z for M, ets. — and dhat it 
kan bi dcen aol dhe bcter and moar cfektiualy bai avoiding seech pekialiaritiz. 

At dhe klouz ov last yiir, hwcn yaw wer in Laendon, ai toidd yn dhat u intended tu 
giv cep dhe form " u," and tu revert tu "(c," hwich ai had yiuzd in a skiim yiirz agow 
(az mey bi siin on dhe last jieij ov mai ** Pliy "). Mai expiiriens haz biin, dhat *' w,*' 
laik mai cedher devais, "t" (in "th"), iz not a soefishently distinktiv form, espeshaly 
in smaol taip, and dhat it iz moar satisfaktory tn dhi orthografer dhan helpfiil tu dh<! 
riider ; hwail ai faund dhe taim and kser rckwaird tu meik a sceplay for eny feumt moar 
dhan it woz laikly ordinary printerz wud or kud devout tu dhe task. It mey bi wcerth 
hwail tu meushon, az an ekzemplifikeishon, dhat dhi editer ov a foren piiriodikal sent tu 
miy for soem ov dhe taips. tu yiuz in giving spesimenz ov mai speling ; boet az Ingglish 
taip w ud not mach hiz samplz in hayt or saiz, ai gciv dirckshon haw tnmeik dhe formz 
'* U, w" from ** D, p." Neverdheles, a tosmd leter woz yiuzd az hwot ai konsiderd an 
oensatisfBkktory sccbstitiut. 

Az regardz " ee " and *' oe " (dhe tuw sainz mey az wel bi konsiderd dhccs in kon- 
jfsnkshon, az niirly dhe seim remarks ar aplikabi tu bouth), ai mey steit, for dhi infer- 
meishon ov dhouz not akweinted widh dhe fakt, dhat dhiiz ar not properly Latin forniz 
at aol, and ar naw diskarded az barbarizmz from skolarly riiprints ov dhe Latin klasiks. 
Dhey hav for eijez biin yiuzd, and wer probably orijinaly dezaind, tu rcprezent tiiw 
Tiutonik and Skandiueivian vauel-saundz, woen ov hwich iz dhat in " bear/' and dhe 
cedher very niirly dhat in " but ** or '* bum." In " bajr " wi shud restoar dhe Sakson 
simbol, and in " boern ** wi shud expres a mikst vaucl betwiin dhouz in *' net, not '* bai 
az soejestiv a sain az kud wel bi devaizd. Dhis simbol haz biin adopted for dhe saund 
in kwestion bai Mr. Ellis in hiz " luropik Alfabet," and Mr. Sweet apruuvz ov it az 
a praktikal scebstitiut for hiz ** 3," widh hwich it iz vertiualy intcrcheinjabl in soem ov 
hiz nashonal Braod Roumik noteishonz. Mr. Cayley aolso haz rekomended it in dhe 
Fonetik Josrnal. Hiir, ai think, iz scefishent aothority for yiutilaizing dhis ould and 
everyhwscr ekzisting taip, insted ov introdiusing eny niw form. 

Boet a moar important fiitiur in dhis stall ov speling dhan dhe miir soebstitiushon ov 
an aveilabl and distinktiv ould for a les servisabl niw form, iz dhe yius ov at, au for dhe 
difthongz in ** file, foul," and ov eiy ou for dhe vauel-saundz in '* veil, soul." In dhi» 
areinjrnent ov noteishon, ai sakrifaiz mai oun predilekshon, for ai woz thoeroly in eniest 
in sncporting dhe Founotipik yius ov «, ou (az in "eis-hous). Rekognaizing dhe tuw 
respektiv inishal elements ov dhiiz difthongz tu bi dhe mikst vauelz ^, €b (az in " fern, 
burn"), klously releited tu dhe paralel kliir vauelz tf, o, ai woz persweided it woz beter 
tu rait dhe difthongz severaly bai dhiiz later, in dhe familiar dai^^*afs eiy ouy dhan aidiier 
tu introdius seech sainz az ^t, ceUy or tu adopt dhe tipikal aiy au. Beet several konsiderei- 
shonz hav sins konvinst mi ov dhe iuexpiidiensy ov dhoes aplaying dhe daigrafs ei, ou. 

Ferst, ai mcest aknolej dhat mai oun ould-fashond Ingglish pronaensieishon ov dhiiz 
tuw difthongz iz bekceming raadhcr antikweited amceng bouth Ingglish and Amerikan 
spiikerz in Lcendon, and dhat saundz mcech niirer dhe Kontinental aiy an ar jeneraly 
yiuzd in polait sosaiety bai aol boet dhi elderly. Dhe natiural tendcnsy ov dhiiz dif- 
thongz, hwich orijineijted in a miir scekseshon ov dhe naro i and u tu dhe waid t and u 
respektivly (az btindy buund)y woz tu bekoe'm dileited in dheir inishal elements, oentil in 
bouth keiscz a fainal rest iz maid on dhe oupn saund a. Beet, independently ov seech 
cheinj ov pronaensieishon, ai du not faind dhat iivn tu Ingglish piipl ei iz az soejestiv az 
ai ov dhe woen difthonggal saund ; hwail forcnerz tel mi dhat eiy im ar not apriifshiabl 
bai dhem az yiuzd in Fonotipy, and raadher soejest dhe vauel-saundz in " bail, bowl." 
Dhe preferens for ai az an efektiv reprezenteishon ov dhe difthoug in "fine" iz evinst 
bai Jermanz az wel az bai Italianz, bouth ignoaring eny esenshal diferens between Kon- 
tinental ai and aur Ingglish difthong. Wi aolso faind Jerman fonetik raiterz aidenti- 
faying dheir ould "ei" and "ai" cender dhe woen simbol ai in reformd orthografiz 
(distinkshon betwiin dhem having siist tu bi jeneral or imperativ); so dhat wi ar luuzing 
aur chiif Kontinental soeport for «. Foerdher, if wi dezair tu fit our langgwej for yiu- 
niversal kcerensy (hwich doez not involv exkluusiv prevalens), wi nicest bi kontent tu 
yiuz for aur vauel-saundz a braod praktikal noteishon everyhwacr soejestiv ov inteiijibl 
pronccnsicishon, and tu rait dhe jeneral tipikal difthong-sainz in haify baut (bite, bout), 
az wi du dhe tipikal vauel-sain a in bfiy bataliotiy pronaunsing aiu: oun wey, and liiving 
forenerz tu pronauns dhcirz, if opnwiliug or oeneibl tu lern aurz. Ilwot iz important. 


from an intemaslional point ov viw, iz dhat moust Yiuropiianz dhat yiuz Rouman leterz 
wud pronaons buitt baut intelijibly for *' bite, bout/' hwieraz dhey wud ceter beitf bout 
moar laik aur woerdz " bate (bait), boat." 

If, dhserfor, wi siik for riizonably permanent and waidly intelijibl noteishon, it wud 
bi wel tu regard dhe tendensy ov prezent proncensieishon bouth in dhis kocntry and in 
Amerika, and tn indikeit tu forenerz tipikal aidentity ov saund, insted ov traying tu 
mark spesifik varaiety ov ceterans. Bekaoz wi rait aiy au, it doez not folo dhat wi intend 
dhe ful Italian a tu bi pronannst in dhiiz tuw difthongz, eny moar dhan in dhe wicrd 
"Italian" its^. If piipl objekt tu dhe normal «, dbey hav ounly tu pronauns dhe 
seim a at dhe begining az at dhi end ov aiota (iota), and dheir proncensieidhon wil yet 
remein thceroly Ingglish. In mai onn analisis ov dhe tuw difthongz, ai tuk e in ''fern" 
az dhi inishal element ov ween, and u in "bum" az dhat ov dhi cedher. Mr. Sweet 
doez vertinaly dhe seim in hiz presais and saientifik Naro Roumik noteishon, in hwich 
hi raits " «hth, ofhAw {=9i^ ceu niirly) ; boet stil hi thinks ai^ an dhe proper braod and 
praktikal noteishon. Mr. Ellis, tuw, hwail steiting in hiz Dimidian pamflet dhat u in 
" but " iz dhi inishal element in hiz pronoensieishon ov " isle, owl," yet konsiderz it 
expiidient tu yinz at, au in hiz Yiuropik alfabet. Hwen dhiiz tuw eminent aothoritiz 
agriy so very niirly in dheir saientifik analisis ov dhe difthongs in kwestion, and foerdher, 
in raiting widh jeneral vauel-valiuz, agriy tu reprezent dhe saundz konvenshonaly bai 
dhe tipikal sainz ai^ au, it apiirz tu miy dhat in dhis mater dheir yiunaited jcejment 
mait wel bi alawd tu preveil. Yuur oun viw ov dliiiz difthongz iz dautles kor^t, dhat 
bouth mey bi intelijibly and inofensivly pronannst widh very briif [aksented] a, e, », o, 
or d? az dhe inishal element, respektivly folo'd bai raadher prolongd [beet cenaksented] 
t or u ; beet if a chaild or a forener hapnd tu dwel on dhi inishal element, in leming a 
niw wcerd, ai think ai, au wud soejest dhe moust intelijibl and Hist ofcnsiv ceterans 

Dher iz anoedher strong riizon hway wi shud employ ai, au for dhe tuw difthongz in 
" ice house," — neimly, dihat in ould-leter fonetiks wi wont ei, ou for dhe vauelz (or 
difthongz) in " sail, soul." Mr, Sweet and veerioes oedher Ingglish or foren fonolojisls 
konsider dhiiz Ingglish saundz tu bi cendautedly difthonggal (dhi inishal elements ov 
dhe kompaundz biying hiir prolongd, and dhe fainal wcenz meid very briif, az " veil, 
Boiil," pronannst in ween silabl) ; hwail Mr. Ellis and oedherz prefer tu regard dhem az 
monofthonggal. Beet, laik aol aur orthouepists for dhe last hcendrcd yiirz, dhe later 
jentlman iz oblaijd tu aknolej, if ounly tu deprekeit, dhi prevalens, in resiivd Ingglish 
spiich, ov dhi difthonggal pronoensieishon ov dhiiz tuw saundz. In hiz " Pronoensiei- 
shon for Singerz," hi repiits, in meny diferent konekshonz, dhat French, Jerman, or 
Italian long e and long o ar tu bi pronannst az simpl vauelz, and not az in Ingglish, 
widh dhe vanishing » or «. Hi sez aolso dhat in hiz " luropik " speling ei and ou wud 
bi nesesary (insted ov hiz ee and oK) tu reprezent Ingglish pronoensieishon tu forenerz ; 
hwail it mey perhaps bi remarkt widhaut indiskreshon dhat Mr. Ellis, laik oedher Ing- 
glishmen, komonly yiuzez dhe difthonggal saundz in spiiking. Soech konsidereishonz 
az dhiiz revaiv mai oun former noushon, dhat in ould-leter fonetiks wi mey bi alawd, if 
Mri ar not oblaijd, tu teik advantej ov long-prevalent idiomatik pronoensieishouz in dis- 
pouzing ov dhe skanty miinz ov noteishon at aur komand. It iz admited bai aol, dhat 
dhe noteishon in "vein, mould" iz efektiv, if not indispensabl, for forenerz; and it iz 
woerth siirioes konsidereishon hwedher ei, ou (espeshaly widh ey, ow az fainal sainz) 
wud not bi dhe moust konviinieut and liist objekshonabl daigrafik noteishon tu Ingglish 
piipl. It apiirz tu miy dhat ei (fy) iz dhe very simbol bai miinz ov hwich tu soermauut 
dhe greit difikoelty ov liiding Ingglishmen tu an ^noteishon ov dhe vauel-saund herd in 
" male, sail, veil, prey;" hwail ou {ow) iz preferabl tu oa, and inkomparably siupiirior tu 
disilabik oe, for dhe vauel-saund in " hole, goal, soul, show." If dhe jeneral and tipikal 
sainz ai, au ar adopted in dhe Fonetik Alfabet (az hiir yiuzd), ei, ou wil bi left for dis- 
pouzal in ould-leter fonetiks ; and dhoes dhi ounly saundz abaut hwich dher iz eny prak- 
tikal difikoelty in a daigrafik alfabet wil bi provaided widh sainz. livn dhouz personz 
ha insist moust strongly on dhe monofthonjik neitiur ov dhiiz saundz wud expiiriens no 
difikoelty in Tudinf^ peil, poul (for "pale, pole") widh dhe seim vauelz dhat dhey naw 
yiuz in " veil, soul." 

Ai hav not dhe slaitest dezair or intenshon tu roen kaunter tu Fonotipy ; boet ai wish 
dhe sistem put oepon dhe best posibl fiiting for dhe fiutiur expreshon ov aur toeng tu aur 
oun koentrymen, tu aur Amerikan kinzmen, and tu foren lernerz. Soemhwot expensiv 
and oenpalatabl expiiriens haz konvinst mi dliat niw leterz kanot bi meid aut ov ould 


woenz bai pleising litl marks oaver or opnder, befoar or after dhem, and haz taot mi dhil 
in oold-taip reprezeateishon dhe adishooal simbolz rekwaird for vaaelz, Uuk dhonz for 
konsonants, mcest bi daigrafik. A doted e (.e or e) wil no moar daw for yuur b dhan 
a markt i {»* or «,) wad for yuor /; best dhe wceu mait bi reprezented bai ei az wel az 
dhi cedher iz bai tk. Oold-leter fonotipy moest bi komparativly boelky and kloemzj 
(dho bai no miinz moar so dhan dhe koerent orthografy), and mcest not atempt tu raivid 
the kompaktnes and niitnes ov niw-leter noteishon. Ai konsiiv, tnw, dhat, in folfOing 
dhe fcenkshon ov Hiding tu a moar biutifol, ekonomik, and konsistent niw-leter aistem, 
it mey bi beter for dhe oold-leter meikshift tu retein a regiuleited diupliket 'reprezen- 
teishon ov dhe long vauelz and difthongz, in order, not ounly tu konsilieit dhe prejadie 
ov dhi ay, boet matiirialy tu help dhi ordinary riider, bai prezerving dhe jeneral apiirans 
ov wcerdz az far az mey bi konsistent widh fonetik sertenty. Ai siy no riizon hwotever 
hway aa^ n {a)^ iiy cm, ou {oa)^ »», widh y and w varaietiz ov dhi i and u formz, shad 
not bi rekognaizd az semifonetik ekwivalents ov dhe siks niw leterz for dhe long vaaelz. 
Beet ai am bai no miinz inklaind tu insist on dhe y and w diuplikets. Ai omdj aceb- 
mit dhat dhey ar praktikaly very helpful tu riiderz ov dhe komon speling, az ai hav 
iaund bai aktiual expiiriens; and ai prezium dhat dhey wud tend tu konsilieit " InggUsh- 
yaliu" reformerz tu aksept a speling fiEiunded on orijinal and jeneral valiuz. 

For komparison, hauever, ai rait widhaut dhe terminal diuplikets in meiking a fiu 
konkluuding remarks oepon a komparativli trivial mater ov orthouepi — dhi omishon ov 
dhe vauel fh)m dhi obskiur terminal silablz «/, en (az dhei ar ritn in Fonotipi). Ai hav 
no fansi for dhiiz cenvoukalaizd silablz, and shud prefer (eksept perhaps in polisilablz) 
tu rait e/, en; boet ai am geting tu think dhat dhe koerent ov fiiling in dhi oedher direk- 
shon iz tun strong for oes hiir. Moust orthografik skiim-meikerz omit dhe vauel, and 
dhe Kilolojikal Sosaieti haz doen so aolso in its veri parshal and inadekwet skiim for im- 
pruuving Ingglish speling. Hwot, hauever, Influensez mi moar dhan enything els in a 
mater ov dhis kaind iz dhi apriishieishon ov non-fonetik riiderz, and ai faind dhem jene- 
rali les troebld bai droping e dhan bai transpouzing it. It iz not veri kliir tu mii hwai 
en shud konform tu le (and okeizhonal «/), hwail oenaksented er iz left in pozeshon ov 
ov its vauel. Beet dhiiz ar riiali trivial materz, dhat mait bi left tu individiual teist for 
dhe prezent : and dhei ar sertenli not tu bi kompeerd widh dhi ould-leter noteishon ov 
dhe long vauelz and difthongz, hwich moest aidher bi areinjd bai oes on a komprehensiv 
and praktikal plan, or bi left tu dhe tender mersiz ov foren raiterz and printerz hu mel 
rekwair, widh komon taips, tu giv kwoteishonz from fonotipikali-printed Ingglish buks. 

Widh diip respekt, truuli yuurz, W. R. EVANZ. 


Wi wer ankshoes tu hav Mr. Sweet's opinion on dhis orthografik skiim, hwich, dho 
larjly draon from an ould woen ov aur oun (siy Fon. Jeem. 16 Julay, 1877), or from 
veerioes soarsez, haz bekoe'm in efekt soemthing very laik a "dimidianizing" ov Braod 
Roumik. Wi akordingly sent a spesimen ov dhe speling tu Mr. Sweet, hu rout bak : — 

" I think your 'Union' alphabet is a good beginning in what I consider the only 
sound way of reform — namely, a return to the original Roman values. So many re- 
formers have come over to the Roman principle, that the only argument that can be 
urged in favor of English values — ^namely, that they conciliate prejudices — ^falls to the 

" There is only one point on which I disagree slightly. You keep the a in man. If 
this is ment to be provisional, I do not object so far. But we must make up oar minds 
to some time or other restoring a to that value, and restricting a to that of the vowel 
in father. You appropriate a for dhe long open vowel in bear, while using ao for 
the corresponding long open o in bawL Why not write ae parallel to ao, thus leaving 
the application of a fr«e for dhe present ? Otherwise, I think such a scheme aa yours 
would be an excellent beginning." 

Tu a sekond leter from oes Mr. Sweet responded : — 

" Please make any use you like of my letter. The a question is not of any great 

Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, Qjiieen Square, London, W,C. 




(^N^ot mued by the English Spelling Reform Association,) 

London: F. PITMAN, 20 PATERxosTEtt Row. 

No. 8] APRIL, 1881. iPrice Id. 

*n,* To assist in defi*ayiug the expense of this Publication, the circulation of which 
18 chiefly gratuitous (to the extent of hundreds of copies per mouth), ^s. per page is 
charged for inserting articles propounding or advocating particular schemes of spelling. 
For such ai'ticlcs their authors alone are responsible. 




1 (y) e 

a o 



uu (oo) 

ee ai (ay) 

ah(ar) au(aw,or) 




11 (iy) ahy 

oi (oy) ou (ow) 




p b t 

d ch j 



f V th 

dh s z 

sh . 




n ng ngg 



n-k nc) 

ECSEPT in dhi fohr caisez uaderliiud, ww, iV, dh, zh^ for hwich noh 
sujestiv siinz cuud bi found dhat it woz not nesesary too employ in 
mohr sujestiv sensez, dhi abuv alfabet seemz too sujest dhi soundz 
ov wurdz too a nomik reeder mohr compleetly dhan eny udher ohld 
leter alfabet on an Ingglish baisis. It iz ov cohrs a ridukshon ov 
miy Dimidian, prinsipaly difering from it in dhi yoos ov ah, oh, ii, yoo 
for dhi Dimidian aa, oa^ ei, en, dhi absens ov tch, dj, ck, q, cq, x, dhi 
emploiment ov 'A for dhi aspiret h wen not inishal, and consicweut 
simplificaishon ov meny roolz ov pozishon. Not too raiz cwestyonz 
ov orthohipy, Iy hav heer folohd dhi convenshonal sistem yoozd biy 
mohst speling riformerz, ecsept dhat Iy distinggwish i, oh, az short 
ohpn ee, oh, from e, o. But too shoh dhi aplicability ov dhi sistem 
too ecstreem caisez, Iy ad dhi test egzahmpl ov dhi Asohsiaishou in 
bohth Mr. lizak Pitmanz orthohipy and Mr. Sweets, az shohn in dhi 
"Twenty- seven Spesimenz ov Prohpohzd Orthohgrafik Skeemz 
silekted, az posibl too print widh avail abl tiips, from neerly fifty 
under dhi coiisideraishon ov dhi Ingglish Speling Riform Asohsiai- 
shou." Mr. Pitmanz orthohipy iz not cwiit deer in dhi wurd dhe, 
hwich may meen dhee or dhu, and hwich Iy hav dhairfor left az dhe. 
Mr. Sweets hid dhe? shud liyv inkluwdid mei pr9pouzd dhcet wdddz ar 
ment too reprizeut dhi saim soundz prisiisly az dhi sujestiv heer 
dhair shoor leev incloodid may prupohzd dJiat wv^rd^^ and hens, widh 



similar wurdz, ar heer soh spelt. Aulsoh dhi silablz, hwich ar veiy 
diferently groopt, ar restohrd t^ dhair yoozhooai distribyooshon, 
Capitalz ar liicwiiz restohrd. Acsents ar left unmarkt. 

Ahfier Mr. 1 1. Pitman. 
Heer uid dhair a fyoo Ingglish wurdz 
maj bee found in dhe yoozhooai orth(^- 
rafj, hwich kev noh room for dout az tun 
dhair prouunuaishon. Bat dhk iz cwiit 
ecsepshonal. Yet wee ar shoor dhat our 
speling woz orijinaly fohnetik. It iz now 
propohzd tnn revert tun dhat prinsipel. 
But a divizbon ov opinion haz arizen az 
tun dhe mohst syootabel leterz tnu employ. 
Dhe folohing vershonz ov dhis staitmcnt 
sboh dhe naityoor ov such ov dhe vairius 
propohzalz auJredy maid az cuud bee con- 
veeniently printed, eech az far az woz pos- 
ibel in dhe orthohepy ov its author. In 
aoh short a paragraf ohnly dhe cheef points 
cuud bee inclooded, but dhe alfabetik law 
iz jeneraly cleer, and dlie iy wil bee aibel 
tuu ji\j prtty wel hwot dhe apeerans wuud 
bee in printed bunks. Mcny planz involv- 
ing rahdher inacsesibel tiips had tnu bee 
euttirly past biy. Hens dhe chois maid 
duz not impliy a verdict. Dhe Eczecyoo- 
tiv Comity wil select such methodz az 
dhay may think recwiir longger ilustrai- 
shon. Dhe Ingglish Speling Reform Asoh- 
siaishon az a body iz not re3[K>nsibel for 
eiiy wun ov dlieez skeemz. 

15 March, 1881. 

Altfter Mb. Swirr. 
Heer an dhair n iyoo Ingglish wurdz 
may hi found in dhu yoozhooul aathog- 
rufy, hwich leev noh ruum fu dout az tu 
dhair prunonsiaishan. But dhis iz cwiit 
ecsepshunnl. Yet wi u shoor dhut our 
speling wuz urginuly fonetik. Its now 
prupohzd tu rivurt tu dhat prinsipl. Bat 
n divizhun uv upinyun nz nrizn az tu dhu 
mohst syootubl letuz too imploj. Dhi 
folo'ing vurshunz nv dhis staitmunt sboh 
dhu naichur uv such uv dhu vairius pru- 
pohzlz olredy maid bz cuud hi conveen- 
yently printid, eech uz fiur uz wuz posnbl 
in dhi anthohipy uv its authu. In soh 
shaut u parugrahf ohnly dhu cheef points 
cud bee incloodid, but dhi alfobetik law 
iz jenruly cleer, un dhi iy ul soon hi aibl tu 
jig prity wel hwot dhi upeerens ud bee in 
printid buucs. Meny planz involving rah- 
dher inacsesubl tiips ad tu hi iutiirly 
paast biy. Hens dhu chois maid duznt 
impliy u verdict. Dhi Igzecyootiv Cumity 
ul silect such methudz nz dhay may think 
ricwiir longgur ilustraishun. Dhi Ingglish 
Sjieling Rifaum Usohsiaishun oz u body 
iz not ri^nsnbl fur eny wun uv dheez 

Alecsaander Jon Elis. 


[Our contributor who signs himself " Fiat Experimentum/' and-who describes and 
further illustrates his spelling in oar Correspondence, wishes us to exhibit the following 
specimen in our larger type. J 

Hiir and dhaer a fia Ingglish woerdz mse bi found in dhe yuuzhual 
orthografy, hwich liiv no ruum for dout az tu dhaer pronoensisBshon. 
Boet dhis iz kweit eksepshonal. Yet wi ar shuur dhat our speling 
woz orfjinaly fohnetik. It iz nou propohzd tu revert tu dhat prinsipl. 
Boet a divizhon ov opinion haz anzn az tu dhe mohst siutabl leterz 
tu emploi. Dhe folo-in^j^ vershonz ov dhis staetment shoh dhe nsBtiur 
ov soech ov dhe vaerioes propohzalz olredy masd az kud bi konvii- 
nieutly printed, iich az far az woz posibl in dhi ortho'epy ov its 
author. In so short a paragraf ohnly dhe chiif points kud bi in- 
kluuded, boet dhi alfabetik lau iz jeneraly kliir, and dhi ei wil bi aebl 
tu joej prity wel hwot dhi apiirans wud bi in printed buks. Meny 
planz involving raadher iuaksesibl teips had tu bi enteirly past bei. 
Hens dhe chois msed doez not implei a verdikt. Dhi Ekzekiutiv 
Koniity wil selekt soech methodz az dhse mse think rekweir longger 
iloestraeshon. Dhi Ingglish Speling Reform Asohsiseshon az a body 
iz not responsibl for eny woen ov dhiiz skiimz. 




Deb mei siim, at ferst sait, tu bi sosm inkonsistensi betwiin t$e 
folo'ing tuu pasejez, extrakted from fie niu edishon ov Profesor 
Max MuUer'z esei ^^ On Speling/' hwich haz leitli biin isiud in gra- 
diueited Fo'notipi (Lcendon, F. Pitman) ; b<&t, on konsidereishon, it 
wil bi rekognaizd ^at iSe eminent ao]K>r simpli defainz from opozit 
saidz hwot iz at wcBns rekwizit and praktikabl in popiular speling 
reform. De speling in hwich t$e pasejez ar presented is scebetanshau 
in akordans wit5 ^ir spirit; boet He mater iz meid tuiloestreit taipo-* 
grafikaii He efekt ov Angglo-Sakson ^^ ]>, t$," for aur tk^ dk. Seech 
a revaival mait bi harmles in ^e raer keis ov 15e taips bii'ing aveilabl, 
boet wud hardli bi woer]> eni expens or troebl tu efekt. It wil bi siin 
t$at ^^ \> " haz a veri streinj and censcejestiv efekt ; and it shud bi 
konsiderd «at " « " iz miirli A.-S. " 6 " (d) wi« a tik bru it ; so «at 
He riiali analogoes form in aur taip wud bi ^^ d " similarli markt : — 

^^ It mait bi sed, t$at Mr. Pitman'z sistem, bii'ing entairli fo*netik, 
iz tuu radikal a reform, and t$at meni and t$e woerst irregiularitiz in 
Ingglish speling kud bi remuuvd wi^Saut gouing kwait so far. De 
prinsipi, ^hat haaf a louf iz beter t$an no bred, iz not wiSaut soem 
truu]7, and in meni keisez wi nou HaX a polisi ov kompromaiz haz biin 
prodiektiv ov veri gud rezoelts. Boet, on He oetJer hand, dhis haaf- 
harted polisi haz ofn retarded a riial and kompliit reform ov ekzisting 
abiusez ; and in He keis ov a ref6rm in speling, ai aolmoust daut 
hweder He difikoeltiz inhiirent in haaf mezhurz ar not az greit az ^e 
difikcBltiz ov kari*ing a kompliit reform. If ^e woerld iz not redi for 
reform, let oes weit. It siimz far beter, and at aol events far moar 
onest, tu weit til it iz redi, Ha,\i tu kari He reloektant woerld wiH yu a 
litl wei, and Hen tu faind Sat aol He impoelsiv foars iz spent, and He 
greiter part ov Hi abiusez establisht on former graund Hon ever." 

" Ilwot ai laik in Mr. Pitman'z sistem ov speling iz ekzaktU hwot 
ai nou haz biin faund faolt wi^ bai oetSerz — neimli, Sat hi doez not 
atempt tu refain tuu moech, and tu expres in raiting Souz endles 
sheidz ov pronoensieishon, hwich mei bi ov He greitest interest tu He 
stiudent ov akaustiks, or ov fo-netiks, az aplaid tu He stoedi ov living 
daialekts, beet hwich for praktikal az wel az for saientifik filolojikal 
poerposez, mcest bi entairli ignoard. Raiting woz never intended tu 
foutograf spoukn langgwejez : it woz ment tu indikeit, not tu point, 
saundz. If Voltaire sez, " L'ecriture c'est la peinture de la voix," hi 
iz rait; boet hwen hi gouz on tu sei, " Plus elle est ressemblante, 
meilleure elle est," ai am not serten Sat, az in a piktiur ov a landskep, 
prii-Raafelait miniutnes mei not destroi Se veri objekt ov Se piktiur. 
Langgwej diilz in braod koelorz, and raiting aot tu folo Se ekzampl 
ov langgwej, hwich. Sou it alauz an endles varaieti ov pronoensiei- 
shon, restrfkts itself for its oun poerpos, for Se poerpos ov expresing 
)>aot in aol its modifikeishonz, tu a veri limited noember ov tipikal 
vauelz and konsonants." — On Speling^ pp. 19 & 37. 



To the Conductor of the Spelling Experimenter. 

From E. JONES, Esq., 4 Amberley Street, Liverpool : — 

Sir, — I am very much obliejd to yoo for giving me dhe oportoenity or shoing yoor 
caq>ing and capshus critic, "Fiat Experimcntiim," dhat Mr. Jones's sistem can be con*' 
sistently and tolerably riten, eeven widh a number ov sentensez constructed in order io 
test it. May I be alowd to say dhat in yoor corespondent I fansy I see an ocld hand, 
a master ov sarcastic epigraraz, hoo in fonetics haz been — 

*' Every thing by turnz, and nuthing long, 
To dhe vrun thing constant never." 
Prom snch a cwortcr I esteem it dhe hieest compliment to be toeld ot my "long 
persistens in advocaiting substanshaly dhe saim stiel ov speling;" and espeshaly'ov my 
" endevorz to giv a practical raadher dlian a theoretical direcshon to dhe moovment," 
from wun hoo, if I ges riet, haz bilt so mcny '* caslz in dhe air,'* which ar no sooner 
set up dhan dhay tambl about hiz eerz. 

" Fiat Experimentnm " iz probably wun ov dhoez cuning ** inventorz," hoo, widh a' 
grait sho and profeshon ov lerning, triez to mistify and obfuscait a very »ifflpl and plain 
subject, and fiending it dificult to scwair sum ov dhe ecscpshonal wurdz in dhe langgwtj 
widh hiz fien-spun theoriz, he haz dhe vanity to think every body iz in dhe saim predi- 
cament widh himself, remicndiug wun ov dhe cuplet — 

" Dher'z wun thing moest shoorly betoekenz a fool : 
He goez by ecsepshonz, insted ov by rool." 

It wil be seen, dhen, dhat widhout modifierz, cut or »^k?, or acsented leterz, dhe test 
wurdz and sentensez concocted by '' Fiat " ar riten eezily, in acordans widh dhe few 
simpl roolz which ar '" substanshaly dhe saim az I hav long advocaited." 


S'mboh. — Dhe simbol for eech recogniezd sound in dhe langgwej iz dhat leter or die- 
graf by which it iz reprezcnted ofenest in dhe curent speling, dh and zh being dhe oenly 
new simbolz, and dheez ar in harmony widh M, sh, dhe simbolz for relaited soandz. 

Pronunaiaishon. — Dhe pronunsiaishon ov dhe standard dicshonariz iz adopted, widh 
a leening to dhe curent speling. Corect pronunsiaishon iz not considerd to be a mono* 
poly ov London Sosieety or ov dhoez hoo afect its stiel ov speech. 

Ecunvalents — C and k ar retaind wher dhay ar uezd at prezent, i.e. befoer tf, >, andy, 
and at dlie end ov monosilablz ; y = i befoer vowelz and at dhe end ov wurdz. 

Litl wurdz liek me, go, by, ar retaind in dher curent speling. 

Az an oeld scoolmaster, I shwd consider him a very dul scolar, and fit for dhe dunsez' 
cap, hoo cwd not master dhis sistem after a very litl ecsplanaishon and practis. 

In concloozhon, let me be permited to ask ** Fiat" to riet dhe saim pasej in eny 
skeem he preferz, and to sho in whot respect, for whot purpos, and fw boom, dhat 
skeem iz beter dhan dhe wun heer given. No gwd purpos iz servd by piking faults, 
which may be found in eny and every sistem ; but let dhe critic submit a skeem dhat iz 
beter in dhe main, if he can. 

From " FIAT EXPERIMENTUM," in rejoinder to the above :— 

Diir Ser, — Ei thank yu for sending mi a pruuf ov Mr. Jones' ez replei tn mei leter 
in yur last noember, dhces enaebling mi tu mtek mei rejoinder at woens. Mr. J. siimz 
tu tsek mi for soem konspikiuoes personej in dhe fohnetik woerld — perhaps iivn for yur- 
self [*] Hiz hit meit not hav biin a bad ween, if hi had not feird at dhe rong target. 
Dhe direkshon ov hiz sem iz, honever, kweit intelijibl. Anggry men ar very apt tu hi 
impetiuoes, and tu vent dhaer temper on dhe ferst objekt at hand. Beet if Mr. J. woz 

[* Hardly so. Mr. Jones spoke of one who in phonetics had been " everything by 
turns, and nothing long," whereas he must be aware of oni- long and persistent support 
of Mr. Pitman's Phonotypy. Mr. Jones also obviously implies that he considers the 
object of his resentment to be "a fool;" but the former has recently been quoting ns as 
having "wisely said" this or that which he thought favorable to his own argument. 
He is too consistent to blow hot and cold within a few weeks. i>o if the cap doea iMt 
fit " Fiat," perhaps somebody else will try it on. — "VT. R.E.J - ' • 


rf ■ — - — ^ — • — ' ■ 

anggry, ei kan exkiiiz him, and ei am shaur yar riiderz aulso wil bi inkleind tu msek 
alouans for him, in konsidersshon ov hwot it moest h&v kost him tu perpetnet so meny 
kwiir and cenparaldd spelingz. Bi komizerset dhi aflikshon hi moBst hav endidrd, thm 
having, in every instans, eksepshonaly tu intrand hiz '* ie, oe, ne " for monosikbik 
flomid, and prepostercesly tu disiigiur dhe reprezent«eshon for dhe disilabjk pronoensiie- 
ahon komonly ko'insident widh ie, oe, ue in dhe kfrrent speling, — dhoes bringing him- 
self fender hiz ohn apleid dezignseshon for Wien hn " gohz bei eksepshon insted ov bei 

Boet Mr. Jones iz not so defishent in intelijens az soem personz meit soejjohz from hiz 
ateil ov speling. If ei ms bi permited tu aplei a popiular adcg, hi iz " tan ohld a herd 
tu bi kaut wic& chaf.'' So ei mse az wel admit dhat mei former leter looz intended tu 
bi in a bantering tohn, boet ei dohnt think ei shohd meiself " karping and kapshces," 
or indoeljd in " sarkastik epigramz." If Mr. J. leiks tu tsk az a kompliment mei 
askripffhon tu him ov stolid persistens in advokseting an impraktikabl and cxplohded 
sistem ov speling, hi iz welkcem tn duu so. Dhis mte ohnly shoh dhat in orthograiik 
materz hi iz leik dhe Buurbouz in politikal afeerz — inkscpabl ov lemiug az ov forgeting. 
Ei sed " scebstanshaly dhe stem sistem," bekauz, oldhoh its propounder haz pacht and 
tinkerd it friikwently, it haz aulwez remsnd dlie ssm liiky vesel; and nou dhat hi haz 
treid tu msek it riialy wauter-teit, its bocht apiirans moest bi simply hidices in dhi eiz . 
Qv an orth(^rafik kraftsman. Seech ei dohnt pretend tu bi; boet ei hav manejd tu nok. 
oep a skiim for dhi okeezhon, hwich ei noh wil hohld wauter, and hwich ei dohnt shrink 
from ekzibiting in komparison widh Mr. Jones'ez. 

£i shud menshon dhat ei prefer Mr. Eizak Pitman'z alfabet for yuus in skunlz, hwen 
wi get fohnetik speling admited az an introdoekshon tu dhe komon orthografy. Dhat 
jentlman haz plenty ov gud leson-buks tu start widh, and fohnetik teips ar tu bi had at 
dhe seem preis az ordinary woenz, ei beliiv, tu print kompiiting poeblikeeshonz. Hiz 
spdling, anlso, jeneraly reprezents mei eidiial ov dhe fiutiur nashonal reprezentteshon ov 
our langgwej. Boet az an ohld-leter fohnetik orthografy mee bi konviinient for varices 
poerposez, ei ofer woen, hwich ei term — 


Dhe feiv komon vouel-leterz ar emploid az in Fohnotipy {pat, pefy pif, pot, put or 

push), and as iz ritn for dhe sound in " but " {bee/) ; boet y iz yuiizd for dhe 

feinal weid sound in distinkshon from naro i (az bteby, bi), and dhis y iz retsend 

befohr an afix komensing widh t (az in babyUk). 
Dhe long vouelz ar aa, a, ii (>'), au, oh {o'), uu, emploid widh dhe ssem valiuz az 

dhe Fohnotipik niu leterz — i' for ii b^ing ritn befohr anoedher >, and o' for oh 

go*ing befohr eny oedher vouel. 

Note. — At dhi end ov oe^em&tik monosilablz dhe briif vouelz i, 0, m ar ritn 

insted ov ii, oh, mm, az " W» herd ju sie m.'* 
Dhe difthongz ar ei, oi, ou, iu, az in Fohnotipy ; boet ey and oy ar ritn befohr a 

folo'ing i, az in teying, toying. 
Dhe singgl konsonants ar emploid az in Fohnotipy, widh dhe deigrafs eh, th, dh, 

zh, zh, ng, and hvo in dhi ordinary seusez. 
Hwen tun leterz, komonly forming a deigraf, ar tu bi red in separet silablz, dhte 

ar parted bei a dot, az in ri'iterat, miidl'iivaf, koitiddent, ko'Uval, soro'iny, 

mit'hdp, neit'hud, ad'hiir, kon'gratiulat. 
Dhi aksent iz ritn hwen its pozishon kanot bi indikseted bei simpl ruulz. 

Nou, widh dhis improviizd boet not oenkonsiderd notseshon, ei hav no hezitseshon in 
giving mei rendering ov dhe Test Sentensez ; and ei soebmit, dhat hweil, leik its Fohno- 
tipik ekzemplar, it reteenz aul dhat iz konsistent and avnelabi in dhi ordinary speling, it 
proveidz rekwizit niu simbolz dhat ar redily intelijibl and in kiiping widh dhe jeneral 
yuus ov Rohman leterz thruout dhe wcerld. Mr. Jones'ez notteshon, on dhe kontraryr 
obleijez him tu olter moech dhat iz perfektly satisfuktory in kcBrent speling, in order tn 
get for oenreprezented soundz simbolz dhat ar mohstly niisliiding, and for hiz emploi- 
ment ov hwich no presedent kan bi found in dhi orthografy ov our ohn toeng at eny 
piiriod, or in dhat ov eny cedlicr langgwej on ei-th. 

Widh Mr. Jones'ez pruuf and mei ohu kopy befohr mi, ci hav meed an analisis ov dhe 
t(iu speliogz,. hwich ei send for yur inspekshon. It mae interest yu tu ekzamin it, Uva 
if ya dohnt think it woerth hweil tu print it. 



Mk. Jonbs's Spbllino. 

Dhe cwk cwd not hav pwt gwd shwgar 
in dhe pwding. — Sneety Crismas pwding 
and spiest meets ar not cwiet dhe dieet 
sneted for weekly dijestyonz. — A rooral 
poleesman iz uezhualy moer miendful for 
dhe secuerity ov dhe sewier'z hairz dhan for 
dhat ov a cotyer'z pwlets.— In Jermany dhe 
Jnez ar now iigaeduhnaly peraecueted ai an 
ailyen rais ecsersiezing a maiien inflooens 
on sosieety. — A soeer iz ofon soer vecst, ai 
he seez birdz seez hiz seed, and soer away 
widh it. — Yesterday dhe hieest-priest arti- 
clz ecspeeryenst by for dhe redyest sail at 
dhe bazaar. — Dhe tiet-roep danser cwieetly 
ecshibited her grait feet widh dhe decster- 
ity acwierd by nietly ecspeerycns. — No 
ainshent poeet ever roet such poeemz az 
" I'm afloet on dhe Oeshan Waiv," or 
"Hoem, sweet Hoem." — Dhe recwycm 
woz perforrad in sloeer tiem dhan dhat 
denoeted in dhe compoezer'z scoer. — Mo- 
hamed admited oenly mailz widhin dhe 
pail ov hiz rel^on. — Dhe wwman wwd not 
uez dhe wwl ov dhe too nez which dhe 
wwlf sine in dhe wwd. — Dhe Prins ov 
Wailz iz dhe snn and air ov a poetentait 
rooling oever a mietyer empier dhan dhat 
ov ainshent Roem. — Meny ocuepieerz ov 
lerish laud aspier to dhe hapyer condi^on 
ov dounriet proprieetorship. — Napoleon 
III. woz a hail man when he began to 
raiu, but air hiz oeverthro he had becum 
a weekly iuvaleed.— Dhe roeerz ov dhe 
wiuiiig boet rcecht dhe goel amid a roer, 
dhat pocrd foerth liek a roel ov thunder 
from dher reesently discwieeted, but now 
delieted admiererz on dhe shoer. — Adam 
woz dhe first maid ov dhe hueman rais, 
and £ev dhe second. — Nueraljya iz oenly 
a nue naim for an oeld nuesans. — Dhe sai- 
pyent atomay and hiz nue clieent improovd 
dher insipyent acwaiutans in a cwieet way 
oever a pient ov liet wien. — Dhe spierz ov 
our miety cathedralz testifie to dhe pieety 
ov aflooent founderz amid dhe rued sosieety 
ov meedyeeval tiemz. — Aucshoneerz and 
valueerz fiend profit in udher peepl'z fail- 
uerz. — If dhou subdueest dhy pashonz, 
dhon wilt ecshibit trueer grandyur dhan 
wun hoo haz reduest a naishon to servi- 
tued. — Jeografical ecsploererz and sieenti- 
file incwiererz, az wel az dhe foloeerz ov 
comers, ar now bizyer dhan dher prede- 
sesorz iu erlyer tiemz. — Dhe dierer Joeb'z 
aflicshon groo, and dhe soerer hiz sufering, 
dhe puerer becaim hiz rezignaishon, and 
dhe shoorer hiz faith. — If a cabman charjez 
hieer dhan hiz lawful hier, dhe hierer can 
prosecuet him.— Dhe gwd man boeth goe- 
0th dhe way he itoeeth to be riet, and 

"Pboumatb" Sfkluno. 

Dhe kuk knd not hav put gud shtigar in 
dhe poding. — Sioety Krismas pudiiig and 
speist miits ar not kweit dhe deiet tinted 
for wiikly dijestionz. — A mural poUisman 
iz yuuzhualy mohr meindfid for dhe aekin- 
rity ov dhe skweir'z hsrz dhan for dhat ov 
a kotier'z pulets. — In Jermany dhe Jnuz ar 
nou ii^udishoesly persekinted az an selien 
nes ^serseizing a malein influens on so* 
sdety. — A so'er iz ofh sohr vekst, az hi 
siiz berdz sHz hiz siid, and sohr awie widh 
it. — Yesterdse dhe heiest-preist artiklz ex* 
piirieust bei for dhe rediest stel at dhe 
bazar. — Dhe teit-rohp danser kweietljek- 
zibited her greet ftit widh dhe deksterity 
ak weird bei neitly expiiriens.— No lenshent 
po'et ever roht scBch po'emz az " £i'm 
alloht on dhi Ohshau Wev," or " Hohm, 
swiit Hohm." — Dhe riikwiem woz per- 
formd in slo'er teim dhan dhat denohted 
in dhe kompohzer'z skohr. — Mohammed 
admited ohnly mslz widhin dhe peel ov hiz 
relgon. — Dhe wnman wnd not ynuz dhe 
wul ov dhe tdu vuuz hwich dhe waif sluu 
in dhe wud — Dhe Prins ov Wselz iz dhe 
seen and eer ov a pohtenteet moling ohver 
a meitier empeir dhan dhat ov senshent 
Rohm.— Meny okinpeierz ov Eirish land 
aspeir tn dhe hapier kondishon ov doun- 
reit propreietorship. — Napohlion III. woz 
a htel man hwen hi began tn rscn ; beet 
ter hiz ohverthro hi had bekoe'm a wiikly 
invaliid. — Dhe ro'erz ov dhe wining boht 
riicht dhe gohl amid a rohr, dhat pohrd 
forth leik a rohl ov thoeuder from dhtcr 
riisently diskweieted, buet nou deleited ad* 
meirerz on dhe shohr. — Adam woz dhe 
ferst meed ov dhe hiuman rses, and liv dhe 
sekond. — Niun4jia iz ohnly a niu nsem for 
an ohld niusans. — Dhe ssepieut atoeray and 
hiz niu kleient imprauvd dhier insi pient 
akwsentans in a kweiet w(e ohver a peint 
ov leit wein. — Dhe speirz ov our meity 
kathiidralz testifei tu dhe peiety ov afiuent 
founderz amid dhe mud soseiety ov miidi- 
iival teimz.-Aukshoniirz and valiuerz feind 
profit in {edher^piipPz fseliurz. — If dhou 
snebditiest dhei pashonz, dhou wilt ekzibit 
truuer grandiur dhan ween hu haz rediiist 
a naeshon tu servitiud. — Jiografikal ex- 
plohrerz and seientifik inkweirerz, az wel 
az dhe foloerz ov komers, ar nou bizier 
dhan dhser predesesorz in erlier teimz. — 
Dhe deirer Johb'z aflikshon grau, and dhe 
sohrer hiz scefering, dhe piurer bckeem hiz 
rczignrshon, and dhe shuurer hiz ficth. — 
If a kabinau charjez hcicr dhan hiz lauful 
heir, dhe heirer kan prosekiut him: — Dhe 
gud man bohth go*eth dhe wee hi no^eth 
tu bi reit, and sho'eth it tu oedherz. — 



shoeeth it to udherz. — Sloeth groeeth 
apais, and its groeth oeiily rendereth its 
Tictim les aibl and moer loeth to resist it. 
— Wuu man dcspiezez, ecspoezez, and 
abnezez whot anadher priezez, pro^ioczez, 
and difaezez. — Kcsploeded falasiz ar de- 
rieded eeven by dhoez boom dbay wuns 

Slohth gro'etb apses, and its grohth obnly 
renderetb its viktim les ebl and mohr lobth 
tu rezist it. — Ween man despeizez, ex- 
pobzez, and abiuzcz hwot ancedher preizez, 
pro[)obzez, and dtti^izez.- Bxplohdea falasiz 
ar dereided iivn bet dbohz hauin dhie w.ens 



Phe folo'ing ekzaminieshon ohnly diilz in a jeneral wee widh dhe ▼ooel notiesbon ov 
dhe tdn spelingz. No akoont iz tsekn ov dhe konsonant notseshon in soBch wcerdz az 
" aoctAoneers, ecshihiieA" nor iz it iim atempted tu inkweir hwei Mr. Jones reits oo 
in " aflooent, groo/' beet » and «<• in *' nechatal, med." Anl dhat it iz ment tn investi- 
gsete iz, hwot amount ov cheenj iz nesesitseted bei yunzing leterz in a refunnd speling 
in soemthing leik a natiural and konsistent uianer, az kompcerd widh employing dhem 
in an auomakes and oenpresedented fiishon. 

It mse bi pointed out, honker, dhat Mr. Jones haz biin drivn tu reit hiz speling in 
dhe Test Sentensez mohr striktly dhan hi yunzhnaly emploiz it. Iivn in hiz prezeni 
leter, " new (2), sho {i), thoing, mistify, modifierz/' ar found, in kontrast widh " nue, 
shoeeth, testifie, oouepieerz " in dhe sentensez. Mr. J. haz senshurd oedher reformerz 
for " cepseting dhe fiendamental prinsipl ov gramatikal inflekshon " in regard tu termi- 
*neeshonal e^ Hi givz a streiking ekzampl ov hiz ohn konservseshou ov dhlt prinsipl, in 
' sho, shoing, shoeeth." 

Silablz widh eidentikal voncl notsshon in bohth rendering/ : — 

Sistematikalv spelt 

(Ensistematikaly spelt (Mr. J.'z " uezh«aly, mieudf«l, Iawf/«I) 



Silablz diferiug bei u and w (*' now [8], latcful ") ... ... 

Silablz widh divers voncl nota$shon in dhe tun renderingz : — 
Sistematikaly spelt (boet inkluuding diveijensez leik ''rool, rued — 

groo, slue," in Mr. J.'z speling) 
(Ensistematikaly (Mr. J.'z "/, byf^*], to [7], dhflr[H], rwwyem, 

htaaar, Napr/Uon, bird, first, ntomay, eath^dnd) .. 




Tohtal noembcr ov silablz 



Ohld spelingz retsend bei Mr. Jones : — ^ 
bistematikaly (inkluuding w dinplikets in " now [8], lawful," vohkdi / 
in "articbE, peepl'z, aibl," and en in ''ofen, eeven") ... . 483 

(Ensistematikalv (/, by [8], to [7], uezhvaly, miendf//!, lawfjtl, haizaar, 

rtfcwryem, b/rd, first, cathedral, atomay, Nap&Uon) ... ... dS 

Ohld spelingz olterd bei dito ... ... ... ... ... 229 



. 784 

Ohld spelingz retsend bei meiself sistematikaly (inklwding " no*, laMlul, 

artik/, piip/'z, nb/, ofie, iivis") ... ... ... ...486 

Ohld sp^ngz olterd ... ... ... ... ... ... 248 




• M 

... 734 

Okld woerd-fonnz ynnzd bei Mr. Jones for niu soundz «r miiningz, or for bohth :-^ 

S^est [spiced], meets [meata], sueted [suited], weekly [weakly*2], hairz [hares], 

piieat [priced], sail [sale], feet [feat], mailz [males], pail [pale], too [two], 

slue [slew], Wailz [Wales], sun [son], air [heir], hail [hale], rain [reign], 

air [ere], maid [made], meid [ni4e], iknd [Hud], comers [commerce] ... 28 

Ohld wcerd-form yunzd bei mels^lf in niu sens : — Heir [hire] ... ... 1 


It ma bi aded, dhat 176 out ov dhe 183 teimz dhat Mr. Jones yaiizez hiz simbolZf 
oi, efi, ie, oe^ «^, and oo^ dhiiz replies seem cedher seinz ov dhi oUd speling ; so dhat 
hiir hi ohnly gscnz 7 absoliut retenshooz ohver mi in employing a, it, ei, oh, in (yuv), 
and uu. 


From Mr. J. MACARTIIUR, New Monkland, Airdrie, N.B.:— 

Sir, — In conformity with the invitaishon containd in ear introductory notis, I beg to 
ofer a few remarks on speling reform. I am oposd to the emploiment of any new leters 
to represent feinglish sounds. I am oposd to any diacritical marks^ecsept the to or thre 
sancshond by our present eusaij. I feind the marks [*] in eur publicaishon ecseedingly 
fateeging, and by the teim I had iinishd the pereusal of eur pamflet I felt my eiz queit 
dazeld. I hav expeeriensd the saim fateeg in reeding print with diacritical marks, with 
new leters, and with tumd leters. My oan opinion of the impracticability of any skeem 
which maiks an esenshal departeur fiiam the eus and pours of the leters of our present 
alfabet is confirmd by aul the public teechers hoo ar wiling to consider the feesibility of 
reform in any shaip. So far as I hav been aibel to gather, the consistent eus of dei- 
grafs seems to meet with the graitest amount of aprooval. 

Eur publicaishon, in alouing liberty of discushon of vairius skeems, is going to oceupy 
ground which shud, I think, hav been oceupeid by the Speling Rirformer, Alouing 
speling reformers to promulgait ther oan skeems, or to critiseis the skeems of others, in 
the colums of the speshal organ of the Speling Reform Asosiaishou, wud not in the 
leest comit the Asosiaishou to won skeem moar than another. 

Befoar critiseising the sigestions of others, it may be proper to iudicait the object 
which I hav aulwais had in vew in advocaiting a reform of our speling- I hav thaut it 
eutopian to aim after a compleet and perfect alfabet, or to inugin that speling cud at 
aul teims and in aul words be indicaited by the pronunsiaishon. The vairius moads in 
which eeven cultivaited speekers pronouns words maiks it nesesary that ther shud be a 
standard orthografy, which must be lemd tJrom books, and which, beeing enshreind in 
our dicshonaris, can be apeeld to in caises of dispeut. My cheef deseir is to se our 
existing dificultis remoovd so far as this can be dun without introdeusing graiter difi- 

I hav never seen any nesesity for aultering such words as hCy me^ we; hy, iky, my; 
go, lo, to, do; of, &c. Altho the speling is not perfectly consistent, yet it never 
puzels children in ther eforts to lern reeding. This I no from my expeeriens as a public 
teecher extending over a pceriod of forty yeers. The chainj of to into /«, of into ov, &c. 
constiteuts a dificulty which neither speling reformers nor printers ar aibel themselvs to 
overcom. This is evident from the slips which now and again ocur eeven in Mr. Pit- 
man's Fonetic Jurnal itself. I contend that no departeur shud be maid from our present 
speling unles the later be weidly diferent from the reseevd pronunsiaishon, graitly incon- 
sistend with the speling in jeneral ens in other words, or liabel to misleed the reeder. 

I object to the introducshou of ;; for s ecsept in caises wher ambigeuity wud result. 
Its eus or substiteushon for s in the pleural of nouns or the third person singeular of 
many verbs wud cans grait confeusion both in speling and in the aplicaishon of the rools 
of gramar. 

The eus of dh and zh wud aulso beget graiter dificultis than thay wud abolish, both 
to leniers and to the jeneraishon hoo hav lemed to atach to sounds to the digraf th It 
meit maik reeding a litel eesier, but the dificulty wud be much iucreesd in the speling. 

The puting sumteims t and sumteims d for the terminaishon of the past tens of verbs 
wud renew a dificulty whicJi existed in past teims, but is now hapily abolishd. 

Altho, leik Mr. Jones, I wud prefer ie, oe, ue, to ei, oa, eu, stil I am not so fixd on 
them as not to agre to the later for the saik of areiving at som practical concleusion. 

I can not se that the reversal of the order of the leters in which to Awich wud be any 
improovment. The sound of wh is unambiguus, and causes no obstrucshon to a lemer 
either in reeding or speling. I hav no objecshon to the eus of i insted of e hard, ecsept 
that it wil chainj many words which in the present speling ar lemd without dificulty. 

[* The "modifiers" (/?)(, ets.), now consequence of such complaints 
as Mr. Macarthur's, which our o.wn vision told us were not uureasonablc-rW. R. E.] 

Printed by W. B. Evans, 3 Gloucester Street, Queen Sqiiarc* London, W.C. 




{Not issued by the Eyigliah Spelling Reform Association,) 

London: F. PITMAN, 20 Paternoster Row. 

No. 9] MAY, 1881. IPriee Id. 

*^* To assist in defraying the expense of this Publication, the circulation of which 
» chiefly gratnitous (to the extent of hundreds of copies per month), bs, per page is 
charged for inserting articles propounding or advocating particular schemes of spelling. 
For such articles their authors alone are responsible. 


" DiACRITICIST " would improve thus upon Proximate Spelling: — 
" Kiping dhe short- vouel and dhe difthong notseshon az it iz, and 
qIso dhe soejestiv transishonal (if not permanent) formz ' M sb/ ei 
wud yuz for aa ii au oh uu^ respectivly, eidher a i o 6 u hwaer 
obtsanabl, ov d % g 6 ti 2kZ permisibl ecwivalents. Dhe capitalz in 
eidher cses wud bi A' /• .0 O* U' ; and dhe dot meit bi apleid in 
leik maner for eny teip not foemisht widh 'acsented' leterz. Ei 
wud propoz dhe consiliatory yus ov c for ^, ecsept befor e and i (y), 
at dhi end ov acsented feinal silablz, and befor vernakiular aficsez. 
For A* a I* i .0 o 0* 6 U* ti Mr. Eizac Pitman'z niw leterz meit bi 
very conviniently yuzd in script, ' oe ' biing dhen ritn az e clozd intu 
an o-form, hweil dhe script form ov ' 8b ' wud bi tu ae az x iz tu oc. 
Dhis notsBshon wud, ei think, bi moech niter and tu most person z 
mor acseptabl dhan woen employing censeitly and ofn misliding dei- 
grafs for dhe simpl long vouelz, and it wud ssbv a gud dil ov spaes." 


Hir and dhaer a fiu Ingglish woerdz mee bi found in dhe yuzhual 
orthografy, hwich liv no rum for dout az tu dhser pronoensiseshon. 
Boet dhis iz cweit ecsepshonal. Yet wi ar shur dhat our speling woz 
orijinaly fonetic. It iz now propozd tu revoert tu dhat prinsipl. Boet 
a divizhon ov opinion haz arfzn az tu dhe most siutabl leterz tu em- 
ploy. Dhe foloing voershonz ov dhis stsetment sho dhe nsetiur ov 
soech ov dhe vsBrioes propozalz olredy maed az cud bi conviniently 
printed, ich az far az woz posibl in dhi orthoepy ov its othor. In so 
short a paragraf only dhe chif points cud bi included, boet dhi alfa- 
betic Ig iz j^neraly clir, and dhi ey wil bi sebl tu joej prity wel hwot 
dhi aplrans wud bi in printed buks. Meny planz inv6lving radher 
inacsesibl teips had tu bi enteirly past bei. Hens dhe chois maed 
doez not impley a voerdict. Dhi Egzekiutiv Comfty wil select soech 
methodz az dhse mse think recweir longger iloestraeshon. Dhi Ing- 
glish Speling Reform Asosiseshon az a body iz not responsibl for eny 
woen ov dhiz skimz. 



Referred to at p. 68. 

[The following exhibits the effect (with a fount of type that happens to "turn" well) 
of the proposal made by " Fiat Experimentum" in another page, to use "a" and "«'* 
as makeshift substitutes on emergency for the small roman forms "oe'^^nd "se." The 
forms "iECEiE (E jE (E a ce" would generally last out fifty-fold au ordinary stock of 
the small roman " se oe.'* Separate "ae" might be a better substitute for "se."] 

Hiir and dh^r a fiu Ingglish wardz iwe bi found in dhe yuuzhual 
orthografy, hwich liiv no ruum for dout az tu dh^r pronansiBshon. 
Bat dhis iz kweit eksepshonal. Yet wi ar shuur dhat our speling 
woz on'jinaly fohnetik. It iz nou propohzd tu revert tu dhat prinsipl. 
Bat a divizhon ov opinion haz arizn az tu dhe mohst siutabl leterz 
tu ernploi. Dhe foloing vershonz ov dhis st^tment shoh dhe n-Btiur 
ov sach ov dhe vBrias propohzalz olredy m^d az kud bi konvii- 
nieutly printed, iich az far az woz posibl in dhi ortho'epy ov its 
aothor. In so short a paragraf ohnly dhe chiif points kud bi in- 
kluuded, bat dhi alfabetik lao iz jeneraly kliir, and dhi ei wil bi «bl 
tu jaj prity wel hwot dhi apiirans wud bi in printed buks. Meny 
planz involving raadher inaksesibl teips had tu bi enteirly past bei. 
Hens dhe chois m^d daz not implei a verdikt. Dhi Ekzekiutiv 
Komity wil selekt sach methodz az dh^ niB think rekweir longger 
ilastreshon. Dhi Ingglish Speling Reform AsohsiBshon az a body 
iz not responsibl for eny wan ov dhiiz skiimz. 



Very much ov Mr. Evanz' criticizmz seemz to be founded on dhe asumpshon, dhat 
for eech wurd in dhe langgwej dher iz oenly wun cored method ov pronunsiaishon, and 
dhat iz Mr. E.'z method. I moest hartily wish dher wer sum jeneraly recogniezd 
authority to which apeel cwd be maid in dispueted points ov orthoepy. In dhe absens 
ov such authority, I am glad to faul bak upon dhe dictum ov Mr. Ellis dhat dher ar 
meny cored wayz ov pronouusing Engglish. To me, "rued indeed in speech,'* jujd by 
dhe standard ov West- End ecscwisits, it iz an imens satisfacshon to feel my feet on solid 
ground az to pronunsiaishon, upon dhis prinsipl : — 

" Adopt dhe pronunsiaishon indicated by dhe speling, unles by comon agreement it 
iz deemd to be rong." 

Dhe hair-spliting orthoejndts hoo ar constantly analiezing dher oen and udher peepl'z 
speech hav been a grait hindrans to eny practical reform in speling. Dheez wwd pro- 
bably consider dhe speech ov dhe graitest oratorz ov dhis and former aijez az barbarus. 
Joseph Co wen. Dr. Chalmers, Daniel 0* Council, Ward Beecher, wwd aul be set down 
az vulgar, provinshal, and coers or sluvenly speekerz; and eeven W. E. Gladstone wwd 
hardly cum up to dhe self-apointed standard ov sum ov our punctilius pedants. 

In hiz wunderful manipuelaishon ov ligurz, Mr. Evanz jumblz up aud counts az in- 
consistensiz alowabl varieetiz ov pronunsiaishon; and, in dhe saim way, dhe memoriezing 
ov dhe seven litl wurdz be^ mey we, ye, he, she, the, iz maid a mountain ov, az iz dhe 
very simpl ruel for c and k, final o, &c. 

We dout provied for idiots. We hav seen meny dul scolarz, but very fue to hoom 
such tasks ov memory wwd giv eny trubl. 

Now, Mr. Pitman and hiz sturdy champion, Mr. Evanz, ant to be dhe last men in 
dhe wurld to demur to dhe memoriezing ov seven wurdz, to dhe employment ov duplL* 
cait simbolz in defiend pozishonz, and dhe ues ov a fue ruelz for contracshonz in speling. 

It iz wel noen dhat in Mr. Pitman* z very buetifiil sistem ov shorthand dher ar about 
a hundred gramalogz to be memoriezd; h and r hav three or foer simbolz eech; /, n, s. 



and Zy too eech; widh nuemerus rnelz for contracshon, &c.; — dheez ruelz and dhe ecs- 
planaishon ov dhe sistem, ocuepying sum sicsty-foer paijez ov.dhe Manual. And yet 
we ar toeld dhat " wun hour'z daily practis in reeding and rieting for about a munth 
wil jeneraly enshoor tolerabl fasility in uezing it." 

[Our name is here made a peg on which to hang some rambling remarks, irrelevant 
to any utterances of ours, except where they echo some of our own protests against fas- 
tidious '* sound-painting." We have no objection to Mr. Jones attributing to personal 
orthoepy, rather than to lax orthography, forms like " ecscwijit, w«nderf/<l, mount^ttn, 
dtcplicait, >toury apropriait," which he uses on these two pages. As for Mr. Pitman's 
Phonography, it has no more to do with Romanic speech-representation than have Mr. 
Jones's observations. to do with us, or we with Phonography. — W. R. E.] 


Mr. Evauz telz us, "It iz evident dhat dhair ar no speshaly apropriait, thuroly 
availabl, obviusly sujestiv, and jeneraly acseptabl simbolz for dhe long and difthongal 
vowel soundz." 

Dhis tremendus beeping ov epithets fairly taiks wun'z breth, and sujests dhe foloing 
cwestionz : — 

1. From a meer theoretical point ov vue, doo not dhe saim epithets aply to eny and 
every leter and simbol in dhe alfabet, seeing dhat a theoreticaly perfect and complect 
alfabet demandz simbolz similar in form for similar soundz ? 

2. Ar not dhe long vowel and difthong simbolz in aif^ audit, eel, died^ hoedy suedy 
oily out, cwiET az apropriait, availabl, rujestiv, and acseptabl az dhe consonant leterz 
and die^afs ov dhe prezent alfabet, which Mr. Evanz retainz, such az^, ch, sh, th, ng, 
&c., and far moer apropriait, &c. dhan ^ny ov dhe meny untried simbolz which Mj*. 
Evanz, or Mr. Pitman, or udherz, hav invented to sueperseed dhem ? 

[In answer to question 1, we can only say, that we never advocated " a theoretically 
perfect and complete alphabet," never saw such a thing, and c^n't imagine what it would 
be like. Our aim has always been practical phonetic notation based on Roman letters. 
As for question 2, two word-forms in it, which Mr. Jones himself marked to be printed 
in small capitals, ought to be moer than cwiet sufficient answer to it. Truly, as an 
eminent phonetician wrote to us in reference to Mr. J.*s heroic rendering of the Test 
Sentences in our last number, "Jones is wonderful 1 but he's had ie, oe, ue on the brain 
for more than ten years. The only other is Macarthur." — ^W. R. B.] 


Mr. Ellts, at our request, has courteously furnished us with a 
rendering into his Suggestive Spelling of the Test Sentences which 
" Fiat Expeiimentum " proposed for the discomfiture of Mr. Jones ; 
and Mr. Macarthur having also sent us a version, we present both 
below, in parallel columns. It should be mentioned that Mr. Ellis, 
to assist comparison, has copied the orthoepy of Proximate Spelling, 
without intending to sanction all its details ; also, that both he and 
Mr. Macarthur have corrected " proofs " of their contributions. 

"Suggestive" Spelling. 

Dhi cuuk cuud not hav puut guud shuu- 
gar in dhi puuding. — Syooety Crismas 
puuding and spiist meets ar not cwiit dhi 
diiet syooted for weekly dijestionz. — A roo- 
ral poleesman iz yoozhooaly mohr miind- 
fuul for dhi sicyoority ov dhi scwiir*z hairz 
dhan for dhat ov a cotier'z ])uulets. — In 
Jermany dhi Jooz ar now injoodishusly 
persicyooted az an aQien rais ecsersiizing 
a maliin inflooens on sohsiyity. — A sober 

Mr. Macarthur*s Spelling. 

The cook cood not hav poot good sue- 
gar in the pooding. — Suety Crismas pood- 
ing and spiesd meets ar not quiet the diet 
sueted for weekly dijestions. — A rooral 
poleesman is ucsualy moer miendful for the 
secuerity of the squier's hairs than for 
that of a cotier's poolets.—ln Jermany the 
Jues ar now injuedishusly persecueted as 
an ailien rais exersiesing a malien influcns 
ou sosiety. — A soer iz ofen soer vexd, as 




12 ofh sohr yecst, az hi seez berdz seez hiz 
seed, and sohr away widh it. — Yesterday 
dhi hiiest'priist articlz ecspeerienst hiy far 
dhi rediest sail at dhi bazar. — Dhi tiit- 
rohp danser cwiietly eczibited her grait 
feet widh dhi decsterity acwiird biy niitly 
ecspeeriens.— Noh ainshent pohet ever roht 
such pohemz az " li-m afloht on dhi Oh- 
shan Waiv," or " Hohm, sweet Hohm.'* 
— Dhi reecwiem woz perfdrmd in sloher 
tiim dhan dhat denohted in dhi compohzerz 
scohr. — Mo'hammed admited ohnly mailz 
widhin dhi pail oy hiz ril^on. — Dhi wnu- 
man wund not yooz dlii wunl ot dhi too 
Tooz hwich dhi wuulf sloo in dhi wnud. — 
Dhi Prins ov Wailz iz dhi sun and air ov 
a pohtentait rooling ohver a miitier empiir 
dhan dhat ov ainshent Rohm. — Meny 
ocyoopiierz ov lirish land aspiir too dhi 
hapier condishon ov doonriit propriyitor- 
ship. — Napohlion III. woz a hail man 
hwen hi bc^n too rain ; but air hiz ohver^ 
thro hi had bec^ a weekly invaleed. — 
Dhi roherz ov dhi wining boht reecht dhi 
gohl amid a rohr, dhat pohrd forth liik a 
rohl ov thunder from dhair reesently dis- 
cwiieted, but now diliited admiirerz on dhi 
shohr. — Adam woz dhi ferst maid ov dhi 
hyooman rais, and £ev dhi second. — 
Nyooraljia iz ohnly a nyoo naim for an 
ohld nyoosans. — Dhi saipient atnmy and 
hiz nyoo cliient improovd dhair insipient 
acwaintans in a cwiiet way ohver a piint 
ov liit wiin. — Dhi spiirz ov our miity 
catheedralz testifiv too dhi piiety ov afloo- 
ent founderz amid dhi rood sohsiyity ov 
meedieeval tiimz. — Aucshoneerz and val- 
yooerz liind profit in udher peeplz fail- 
yoorz. — If dhou subdyooest dhiy pashonz, 
dhou wilt eczibit trooer grandyoor dhan 
wun hoo haz redyoost a naishon too ser* 
vityood.- Jeeohgrafical ecsplohrerz and sii- 
entific incwiirerz, az wel az dhi foloherz ov 
comers, ar now bizier dhan dhair preedi- 
sesorz in erHer tiimz. — Dhi diirer Johbz 
aflicshon groo, and dhi sohrer hiz sufering, 
dhi pyoorer bicaim hiz rezignaishon, and 
dhi shoorer hiz faith. — If a cabman charjez 
hiier dhan hiz laufuul hiir, dhi hiirer can 
prosecyoot him. — Dhi guud man bohth 
goheth dhi way hi noheth too bi riit, and 
shoheth it too udherz. — Slohth groheth 
apais, and its grohth ohnly rendereth its 
victim les aibl and mohr lohth too rezist 
it. — Wun man despiizez, ecspohzez, and 
abydozez hwot anudher priizez, proh- 
pohzez, and difydozez.-Ecsplohded &lasiz 
ar deriided eevn biy dhohz hoom dhay 
wans dilydoded. 


he sees birds sees his seed, and soer away 
with it. — ^Yesterday the hiest-priead arti- 
kels expeeriensd by far the rediest sail at 
the bazar. — ^The tiet-roep danser quietly 
exhibited her grait feet with the dexterity 
acquierd by nietly expeeriens. — 'No ain- 
shent poet ever roet such poems as " I'm 
afloet on the Oeshan Waiv," or " Hoem, 
sweet Hoem." — The requiem was per- 
formd in sloer tiem than that denoted 
in the composers scoer. — Mohamed ad- 
mited only mails within the pail of his 
relijon. — The wooman wood not aez the 
wool of the to uez which the woolf sloe 
in the wood. — ^The Prins of Wails is the 
sun and air of a potentait rooling over a 
mietier empier than that of ainshent Roem. 
— Many ocuepiers of lerish land aspier 
to the hapier condishon of dounriet pro- 
prietorship. — Napoleon III. was a hail 
man when he began to rain, but air his 
overthro he had becum a weekly invalid. 
— The roers of the wining boet reechd 
the goel amid a roer, that poerd forth 
liek a rol of thunder from ther resently 
disquieted, but now delieted admierers on 
the shoer. — Adam was the first maid of 
the ]iueman rais, and Eev the second. — 
Nueraljia iz only a nue naim for an old 
nuesans. — The saipient atomy and his nue 
client improovd ther insipient aquaiutans 
in a quiet way over a pient of liet wien. — 
The spiers of our miety catheedraU testify 
to the piety of afluent founders amid the 
rood sosiety of medieeval tiems. — Auc- 
shoneers and valuers fiend profit in other 
peepels faQuers. — If thou subduest thy 
pashons, thou wilt exhibit trooer granduer 
than won hoo has reduesd a naishon to 
servitued. — Jeografical explorers and sien- 
tific inquierers, as wel as the foloers of 
comers, ar now bisier than ther prede- 
sesors in erlier tiems. — The dierer Job's 
aflicshon groo, and the soerer his sufering, 
the puerer becaim his resignaishon, and 
the suerer his faith. — If a cabman charjes 
hier than his lauful hier, the hierer can 
prosecuet him. —The good man both goeth 
the way he noeth to be riet, and shoeth 
it to others. — Sloth groeth apais, and its 
groeth only rendereth its victim les aibel 
and moer loth to resist it. — Won man 
despieses, exposes, and abueses what an- 
other prieses, proposes, and difiieses. — 
Exploded falases ar derieded eeven by 
thoes hoom thay wons delueded. 



NnBLT aol Speling Reformerz, hwedher scming at dhi oeltimet establishment ov an 
enlaijd alfi&bet or not, agrii dhat dhi eksijensez ov dhe printing^ofis demand at iiist a 
temporary speling dhat kan bi printed widh ordinary teips. Boet dher iz konsiderabl 
diverjens ov opinion az tu dhe best ynos dhat kan bi msed ov dhi ohld leterz, eidher for 
a permanent orthografy or for a miirly provizhonal ween. SoBm personz prefer tu em. 
ploi « for its ohld sound in "put"; cedherz, for its modem sound in "but." For dhe 
reprezentseshon ov dhe siks long vouel-soundz and dhe tun difthonggal soundz in " tide, 
tune," hwich ar niirly aolwez ov modem development in dhe pozishonz in hmch dhee 
nou okce'r, seem reformerz advobet simbolz dereivd analojikaly from dhohz ov dhe short 
soundz; oedherz wud hav dhe long and difthonggal soundz exprest bei hwot dhee regard 
az dhe mohr scejestiv and avselabl simbolz dhat hav hapnd tu bekoe'm ko'insident widh 
dhiiz soundz in dhe kcerent orthografy. Dher haz aolso biin diferens ov viu on bohth 
seidz respekting dhe komparativ merits ov deigrafs or deiakritiseizd leterz az reprezen* 
tativz ov dhe soundz in kwestion ; hweil soem extriimists hav laitly propohzd dhat dhe 
feiv komon vouel-leterz shud bi restriktcd tu dhecr jeneral long soundz, mcech az cedherz 
formerly scejested dhat dhiiz leterz shud bi konfeind tu dhaer Ingglish mem-souDdz* 
Boet propohzalz hwich wud entsel niu printing teips ar out ov kwestion hiir. 

Sins ei arsenjd dhe skiim ov nohteeshon hwich ei propounded in dhe last ncember ov 
dhi Experimenter y it haz okce'rd tu mi dhat a plan meit bi deveizd for akomodroting 
aol beet dhe mohst extriim diverjent viuz. Hwei shud wi not temporarily agrii tu difer 
in praktis, hweil soebmiting tu jeneral regiulseshonz dhat wud prevent absoliut konflikt? 
If A. chohz tu reit "miit," and B. "meet," hwei shud not bohth bi aloud tu folo dhser 
personal predilekshonz, so long az neidher tuk dhi cedher'z simbol for a konflikting 
yuus? Boet hwen dhe simbolz for dhe last' tun short vouelz in "incipient," hwich ar 
yunzd natiuraly in dhi ohld speling ov dhis woerd, and hwich it wud bi proper tu retsen 
in a niu orthografy, ar apleid for dhe difthonggal sound in "pint," a konflikt areizez 
betwiin orthograferz hu dhcps adopt for dhis sound hwot dhse konsider dhi avselabl noh? 
tecshon in "pied," and dhohz hu dezcir tu expres it analitikaly, or at Iiist ^prdksimetly 
so. Dhe former reit "pient, insipyent," oltering bohth woerdz; boet dhe later, "peint, 
insipient," kiiping dhe koujoind leterz ie in dhser mohr natiural yuus. Betwiin dhiiz 
tun diferent sekshonz ov reformerz dher kan bi no yuunion widhout absoliut konseshon 
on woen seid. On hwich seid it aot tu bii, iz indikseted bei dhe smaol and diminishing 
minority hu fcevor soech simbolizseshon az ie for dhe sound in "pint." 

Boet dher ar aolso speling reformerz hu wud not bi kontent widh peint, and hu wont 
tu spel dhe woerd az paint, widh dhe jeneral tipikal difthong-sein. Dhiiz ar az thoeroly 
kozmopolitan az dhi oedhcr extriimists ar pekiuliarly insinlar; and perhaps dhrcr thiio* 
retikal viuz ar mohr woerdhy ov konsideraeshon dhan dhe soepohzd praktikal woenz ov 
dhi opozit party. Boet dhe difikoelty, not so moechjov tiiching prezent riiderz tu rekog- 
neiz and apriishieet a niu sein for dhe sound in kw^tion, az ov oentiiching dhe scejcstion 
ov sound nou komonly konvsed bei ai, and dhe konvers difikoelty in pasing from a niu 
tu dhi ohld speling, wud bi so greet az tu render speling reform on seech leinz at Iiist a 
mohr formidabl task dhan it moest ncsesarily bii in eny kecs. Ohnly aktiual expiiriens 
in reiting Ingglish widh ai and au for dhe soundz in "file" and "foul" adekwetly 
demoustraits tu dhe meind dhe prezent censiutability ov seech yuus ov dhiiz simbolz in 
a popiular Ingglish orthografy, houever korekt dhse meit bi in thiiory, or houever kon- 
viinient for interaashonal komiunion. 

So, if wi tak dhe woerdz "feat, feet," wi feind soem reformerz advokteting dhe yuus 
ov ee or ea in bohth woerdz; oedherz preferring ii; and a thcrd sekshon dekleerlng dhat 

No. 9, * 


Bimpl i iz dhe reit simbol on an internashonal bsesis. Non, independently oy dhi in- 
trinsik propreiety or fiizibility ov eny ov dhiiz propohzalz, it mcest bi patent tu every 
oenprejadist obzerver, dhat if wi wset til iivn aol speling refdrmerz ar indiust tu aksept 
eidher "feat" or "fit" for "feet," wi shal never get eny speling reform at aol. Boet 
if dhe person hu wonts "fit" for "feet" wil bi satisfeid widh "fiit," and dhe ween hu 
dezeirz tu hav "feat" wil put oep widh "feet," bohth liiving "fit" for yuus in its pre- 
sent sens, dher siimz tu bi no gud riizon hwei, fiaeling absoliut yuunanimity, dhe tun 
personz shud not agrii tu difer in praktis, centil ampl expiiriens haz determind hwedher 
"fiit" or "feet" iz dhe mohr jenendy akseptabl form. Similarly widh "bunt" and 
"boot," for hwich soem extriimists wud reit "but," and oedherz "boote." Dhe former 
tuu spelingz meit bi yuuzd in non-konflikting vareietiz ov ween komprehensiv skiim ov 
orthografik reprezenteeshon; dhe later tun kud not. It iz esenshal dhat kolateral steilz 
ov dhe stem elastik orthografy, houever divers dhae mse bi in apiirans, shud not aktiualy 
klash, thru employing dhe ssem simbolz widh inkompatibl valiuz. 

Short Vouelz. — Starting widh dhe short vouel«soundz, wi shud feind it absoliutly 
nesesary in a kolateral sistem tu liiv tu dhe fohr vouel-seinz in "pat, pet, pit, pot," dhe 
pouerz hwich dhse hav in dhiiz wcerdz, and aolso dhe valiuz in " patrician, potion, 
capttal, imp(7tent." Dhe restrikshon to dhe modem and naro A-sound in "pat" ov a 
speshal simbol (az "pset" or "pat") wud enteel a diferent sein in "patrician" (az 
"pcetrishcen" or "patrishon"), and wi shud hay tu interchae'nj dhe simbolz in dhe 
ferst tuu silablz ov "analyse, analysis" (az in Braod Rohmik "sencelaiz, censelisis," or 
dhi Amerikan Asohsieeshon'z "analaiz, analisis"). A similar steetment meit bi msed 
widh regard tu dhe restrikshon ov eny o-form tu dhe sound in "pot," az distinggwisht 
from dhat in "impotent," hwich wud invdlv dhe krosing ov tuu o«seinz in wicrdz leik 
"kronalojy, kranolajikal." Thiioretikaly korekt az dhis keind ov nohtseshon doutles 
iz, it bdongz tu seientifik, and not tu popiular fohnetiks. It wud bi inapriishiabl bei 
prezent riiders, and wud hardly bi tiichabl tu children in preimary skuulz. Abcev aol, 
it iz outseid ov dhe kapasity ov ohld-leter reprezentseshon. So wi wil konsider simpl 
a, e, »*, and o az fikst in dhser prezent respektiv doebl valiuz, determinabl bei pozishon. 

Dhe riial bohn ov kontenshon, and dhe mohst siirioesly difikcelt point tu setl, in soech 
a kolateral sistem ov speling az iz hiir meditseted, wil bi dhe reprezentseshon ov dhe 
tun vouel-soundz in "push" and "rush." Dhis iz not enteirly a kwestion ov hwot ei 
wil hiir term Analojikal and Konvenshonal valiuz (az mohr korektly deskriptiv dhan 
" Kontinental " and "Ingglish" valiuz), for soem skiim-msekerz on eidher seid aproh* 
prieet u tu dhe ween sound, and soem tu dhe cedher. If wi had not dhe friikwent separet 
voueUsound in " put, good, to, woman, would," ets. tu proveid for, wi meit not hezitset 
tu emploi u for dhe "but" sound, dhoh wi had tu yuuz dhe leter widh a diferent pouer 
in dhe difthongz ou and iu (or eu). Beet wi hav dhis separet sound tu reprezent, and 
thru tseking its natiural sein u from it soem refdrmerz ar drivn tu soech msekshift and 
anomaloes nohteeshon az " lawful (uezhz^al), B.^ooent, into, wtoman," widh fohr sei^ 
for hwot in praktikal fohnetiks iz a singgl sound. 

Ei meiself kan diskoever ohnly ween wee ov geting ohver dhis difikoelty widh komon 
teips, and dhat iz bei yuuzing dhe sein ce, hwich, bei its pouer az a speshaly Tiutonik 
simbol, and bei its soejestiv shsep, iz az moech dhe proper tipikal Rohmanik sein for dhe 
mikst and e sound in " cut, come," az a and u ar dhe proper tipikal seinz for dhe 
vouel-soundz in "pat, push." In Sakson derivativz, az dhse okoe'r in Hiding, dhe sound 
iz perhaps mohr ofii ko'insident widh an o dhan widh an u nohtseshon, az in dhe komon 
woerdz " some, none, other, above, done, come, among, love." Nor iz dher eny riizon 
hwei wi shud heziteet tu reit " fornkshon, 8/3?mptiuQes, proflamdity, va?lgar, hweer wi hay 
ch»igd dhe Latin u intu a mikst sound betwiin o and e, eny mohr dhan dhe French 


hay skraapld tu reit "fbnction, B^miptaeox/' or dhi Italianz " profonditli, vdgare," 
liweer dhiiz piiplz hay olterd dhe Latin « tu an soond. Dlier iz neidher seientifik nor 
esthetik objekslion tu dhis aplikseahon oy fi?; hwdl dhe mekanikal fasility it wad afohrd 
wnd bi enonnces. Widh dhis teip introdiust, wi meit hay dhe folo'ing — 

Short Vouel Seinz — a e i (y) ® [a> u] u 

Hweer dhe ynvs oy y for feinal t iz rekogneizd, and dhe soebstitinshon oy 'a' or 'u' for 
*(s/ akdrding tu teipografikal eks^ensy or personal predilekshon. Bei dhis simpl ar«nj-> 
ment, proyithon iz msed for dhe yoneKnohtseshon oy fohr^fifths oy onr silablz az dhee 
^kce'r in riiding ; and dhis on a simpl plan, dhat laijly retsenz dhi ohld simbolz in dhaer 
plsdseZf and iz praktikabl widh aol keindz oy printing teip. 

Long Vouels.— Hwen wi koem tn dhe long youelz, acem soebstanshal diyerjensez ov 
reprezentaeshon mcest bi rekogneizd in a kolateral skiim oy speling, dhoh iiyn hiir dher 
niid bi no konflikt. For dhe yoaeUsoond in "alms/' indiid, a majority oy bohth dhi 
Analojikal and dhe Konyenshonal sknnl oy refdrmerz wnd redily aksept aa (dhi ohnly 
avselabl sein eksept ah). Dhe sound in "boat," tan, meit perhaps bi mohst akseptably 
«nd intelijibly exprest in bohth steilz bei oh; beet dher kad bi litl objekshon tu rekog* 
neizing oa (inishal and miidial) az a Konyenshonal ekwiyalent. For dhi cedher soundz 
ei soejest noething CBnyuu^hual on dhe Analojikal seid, eksept a for dhe sound in "pate, 
Wait, great," oy hwich reprezentseshon ei spiik fcerdher on; hweil on dhe Konyenshonal 
eeid ei adopt dhi ordinary deigrafe ; dhces— ^ 

Lon^ Fbjftf/&»»ar-*Analojikal— aa ee ii(iy) ao oh(o') uu 

Konyenshonal — aa ai (ay) ce (c*) an (aw) oa (oh, 0*) 00 

Analojikal iy biying yuutd for u befohr anosdher i (az agriying) ; 0* for oh (or oa) in 
«idher nohteeshon befohr A, to, y, or a youel ; Konyenshonal oy, aw^ oh az feinal seinz 
and befohr afiksez; and e* befohr anoedher e (az mfre*est). Stsbordinet and oenemfatik 
monosilablz wnd bi ritn widh simpl i (Anal.), e (Kony.)> 0, u (az bi = be, jo, tu). 

DiFTHONGZ. — Sksersly eny ween, on eidher seid, wnd objekt tu dhe sein oi {oy). In 
kolateral nohtaeshon ai and au wad not bi ayselabl az difthonggal simbolz, bekaoz dlise 
ar wonted for oedher ynosez on dhe Konyenshonal seid. For dhe braod Wdsh and foren- 
difthougz aai and aau (or aei and aou) meit bi distinktiyly ritn; beet for our sounds 
in " bind, bound " dhi obyicesly and on bohth seidz iikwaly ayeelabl simbolz ar ei and 
o», yunzd aleik in Mr. Pitman'z Fohnotipy and in Mr. EUis'ez Glosik, not tu menshon 
meny oedher orthografik skiimz. Jf eiiz konsiderd a kontrakshon oy oH, and ou oy cett^ 
dher wil bi litl thiioretikal objekshon tn dhe simboli ; hweil, for deialektikal pcerposez, 
dhe difthonggal pronoensiseshon in " sail, soul " mse bi mohr distinktiyly exprest, az bei 
dhe seinz giyn beloh. Dher remeenz dhen dhe difthong in "tune, dae," for hwich dhe 
kolateral simbolz iu and eu {etc) mse bi permited, az dher knd bi no konflikt hiir, if u 
Viet not emploid for its "but" pouer; hweil dhe konsonantal inishal sound oy dhis dif^ 
thong mae bi ritn yuu (yoo) or yiu (yen), akdrding tu ortho*epy addpted. "Wi dhen hay— 
Difthony iS^o?— Analojikal — ei (ey) oi (oy) oa yun [yiu], in [sei (sey) o'u] 

Konyenshonal— ei (ey) oi (oy) oa (ow) yoo [yea], eu (ew) [aiy oaw] 

Employing dhe y diuplikets befohr » in dhi Analojikal, and dhey and to wcenz az feinalz 
find befohr afiksez^ in dhe Konyenshonal steil. In dhe later /, my^ dhy, dy, hwy^ and 
dhou meit bi retsend az " kontrakted formz." 

KoNSONANTS.-^For dhe konsonant^sonndz, ei knd propohz ncething boet tu yuuz aol 
dhi simpl ohld leterz in dhser komonest sensez, alooing c^ or, and iiyn ^, ta bi ritn at 
diskreshon. Az regardz dhe soundz not reprezented bei simpl ohld leterz, WGerking 
fohnetishanz ar eyery dse kceming mohr and mohr tu dhi agriiment, dhat dher iz no 
resohrs boet dhe deigrafs eh^ th, dh, th^ zh^ and ny, hwich wer long agoh addpted bei 


Mr. Ellis, and wer afterwardz aksepted bei Mr. Sweet, in soech divers sistemz az Glosik 
and Braod Rohmik. Az wh wud bi oat ov kiiping widh dA and 2rA, dhe Sakson kw u 
restohrd, az in erly and prezent Fohnotipy. 

In ading a few woerdz respecting soem ov dhe simbolz heer yoozd, I reit in dhe Con- 
venshonal steil ov Colateral Speling, ta eczibit its efect, and tu shoh dhat I hav not an 
cenreezonabl prejudis agenst convenshonal, dhoh I graitly prefer analojical reprczentai- 
shon. Az regardz dhe seinz "se" and "oe," I beleev dhay stand teipograficaly on dhe 
saim fiiting — naimly, dhat dhay ar foernisht for anl seizcz and keindz ov Ingglish teip, 
boet jeneraly oanly in smanl cwontitiz corespdnding tu dhe Kraited demand for dhem in 
ordinary printing; dhoh dhay can be prokeurd tu eny dezcird extent at dhe saim preis 
per pound az ocdher teip. Dhay ar dhairfor on dhe saim futiug az Zy or eny oedher rair 
leter in dhe oald speling dhat wud be mnech moar freecwently yoozd in a new ween. 
Boet in conecshon widh dheez too literal formz we hav a rcsoars hwich wud not be 
availabl widhout dhem. Ween important objecshon tu " toernd leterz," az new ortho- 
grafik simbolz, iz dhat dhay hav no capitalz. Beet dhis objecshon wud not apley, if 
dhe printer meerly yoozd tcernd smaul leterz az maikshift soebstiteuts for ocdher leterz, 
ov hwich he had capitalz, italiks, ets. stil remaining, dhoh hiz stok ov smaul leterz had 
becoe'm eczausted. Dhis, I cenderstand, iz ofn dhe cais in printing. Dhairfor, it seemz 
tu me, dhat, az combeining dhe o and e eideea tu a considerabl degree, we meit acndlej 

a" az an altemativ form ov "oe*'; hweil (in dhe Analojical steil) we shud obtain in 

b" a stil neerer rezemblans tu "se.** Dhces teips wud aulwez be availabl for eevo 
extemporary printing. (See separet spesimcn paragraf on anoedlier paij.) 

Prom a foanetik point ov vew, dher iz a diferens woerth pointing out between dheez 
too seinz "ro" and "oe," az yoozd in Colateral Speling. Dhe later iz propoazd az a 
reealy analojical Roamanik reprezentativ ov dhe micst vouel-sound in ** cut, son," widh 
its r-afected relativ in " cur, jowmey." Dhe simbol iz oanly infeerior in expresivnes tu 
Profesor Wiebe'z "o." Boet we hav dhe former in our printing-ofisez, hweil dhe later 
iz comparativly in nubibtis. Dhe adopshon ov "oe" iz dhairfor propoazd heer az a 
mater ovprinsipl, hwairaz dhat ov "aj" iz soebmited meerly for temporary expeediensy, 
Dhe later form properly reprezents dhe weid E in "there," az distinkt from dhe naroer 
sound in "they"; dhoh it iz yoozd aboe'v^widh dhe moar comprehensiv valew givn tu it 
in dhe jeneral Continental pronoensiaishon ov Latin printed widh dhe teip. Dhe yoos 
ov "aj" wud, ov coars, reveiv meny Sakson-leik spelingz; boet dhe prinsipl recomendaL« 
shon ov dhe form iz its practical sopjestivnes tu ordinary Ingglish reederz, hwen put for 
" a, a-e, ai, ay, ea," ets. ov dhe coerent orthografy. 

Dhe simbolz "te" and "oh" in dhe Analojical steil ov Colateral Speling shud in fiact 
be regarded az meer transishonal and expeedient soebstiteuts for reealy analojical ee and 
00; and, in a similar maner, ei and ou meit be acsepted az precocrsorz ov ai and an— 
dhat iz, in boath caisez, in dhe event ov analojical simbolz prooving moar acseptabl 
dhan convenshonal woenz. For dhe prezent, ee^ oo ar cweit impracticabl widh analojical 
valewz, and ai^ au wud be very dificoelt tu introdeus az difthoug-seinz ; boet at no very 
remoat dait dhe foar seinz wil eidher be ficst widh dhair prezent convenshonal valewz in 
a new speling, or be left free for introdoccshon widh dhair analojical valewz ; dhoh new* 
leter Foanotipy shud render eny comon yoos ov ee^ oo oennesesary. 

It may be sed dhat Colateral Speling iz a " combinaishon mashecn," widh deupliket 
parts, by dhe interchainj ov hwich vareiety iz prodeust widhout conflict. Tu proveid 
in deetail for dhe woerking ov dhe too steilz, wud be meerly tu compcil a set ov simpl 
roolz from redily availabl soarsez. Boet it wud hardly be woerth hweil now tu devoat 
foerdher teim and laibor tu a task hwich wud be abortiv in dhe too probabl cais ov dliia 
prooving anoedher vain atempt tu satisfey incompatibl fansiz and aapjraishonz in regard 
tu SpeUng Refo'rm. pi^rp eXPERIMENTUM, 



From E. JONES, Esq., 4 Amberley Street, Liverpool : — 

I thank yoo very much for sending me proof ov a very interesting paiper by " Fiat," 
wbicli, in my opinion, containz som scyestionz which ar valuabl, and wordhy ov cairfnl 
consideraishon by Speling Reformerz. 

Let me say heer, by dhe way, dhat it wwd hay been wel for dhe cauz ov Speling 
Reform, if in dhe Fonetie JumaX and in dhe Speling Reformer free and frendly dis- 
eoshon had been moer encurejd, and if sum ov dhe lecderz ov dhe moovment had 
adopted a les peremptory toen and a moer consiliatory spirit in dher advocasy, which I 
am glad to obzerv in dhe remarks ov " Fiat." 

Snrvaying dhe present pozishon ov dhe Speling Reform moovment, in which meny 
ov OS havtaiken a lief interest, and combiening sum ov " Fiat's" thauts widh sum con- 
vicshonz which I hav long entertaind, it seemz to me dhat dhe foloing concloozhonz 
wil comend dhemselvz to dhe aprooval ov moest thautful personz : — 

1. Dhat eny mezhor ov speling reform, to be ov permanent benefit on a larj scail, 
must aim at geting into dhe 9coolz, I wwd not myself cair to spend a shiling or an 
hour on eny project ov reform which did not maik dhis its prinsipal aim. An ouns ov 
practis iz beter dhan a tun ov theory. I wwd radher hav a duzen wurdz corected in 
dher speling in dhe reeding books uezd in every scool in dhe cuntry, dhan contemplaii 
dhe moest artistic and perfect skeem fraimd or conseevd in nubibus. 

2. It iz very evident dhat eny mezhur ov reformd speling dhat wil reseev dhe Impri- 
maiur ov dhe Bduecaishon Department, hooz authority iz supreem in aul materz relait- 
ing to dhe scoolz ov dhe cuntry, must ov nesesity be provizkonal and tentativ. 

3. It iz furdher az cleer az dhe sun at noonday dhat dhe saucshon ov dhe Grovern- 
ment cwd oenly be given to a mezhur respecting which dher woz substanshal agreement 
not oenly amung dhe promoeterz ov dhis reform dhemselvz, but aulso dhat it woz wel 
bakt by eduecaishonists outsied dhe sircl ov fonetie ecsperts. To me, it iz moest sur- 
priezing dhat dhis indispensabl condishon haz been so much neglected by Speling 


4. Wwd it very much help to convins Mr. Mundella, or eny fuetuer and responsibl 
Minister ov Eduecaishon, tu tel him, " Heer iz a skeem which wil wunderfuly help 
forenerz to lem English ; it wil enaibl a rieter to ecspres hiz pronunsiaishon to a nies- 
ity; dhe simbolz for long and short vowelz ar arainjd in perfect pairz," &c. &c.? Dhe 
Minister wwd probably say, " Jentlmen, yoor skeem iz very artistic and sieentific, no 
dout; but whot we wont iz snmthing dhat wil saiv dhe enormus waist ov tiem now 
spent on speling in our scoolz." 

5. Dhis bringz me to whot " Fiat " caulz hiz " combinaishon masheen," which dhe 
theorists wil, after dher maner, denouns az an unprinsipld compromiez, but which wil 
comend itself to men ov comon sens for its practical caracter. 

" Fiat's " " combinaishon masheen, widh dueplicait parts," az I understand it, may 
be ecsplaind in a fue wurdz, and iz founded on dheez simpl facts : — 

{a) Yot practical reezonz, dher must be a sistem ov English speling widhout nue, 
cut, twmd, or markt leterz, and widhout nesesarily leeding up to eny iedeal 
ifi) Dhat in dhis "combinaishon skeem," dher shwd be sum elastisity, az regardz 
ecwivalent and dueplicait simbolz, and dhe ues ov contracted formz, acording 
to defiend roolz : dhat iz to say, dhe sistem iz not to be a rgid cast-ieron con- 


(e) Dhe cbeef merit ov " Ti&Vi '* sigestion, to me, iz dhat it points to a way to 
bnj dhe gulf between dhe advocaits ov dhe English and Continental valnez, az 
dhay ar cauld, which diferens, we ar toeld, thretenx to split up Speling Re* 
formerz and dhe E.S.R.A. into too hostil camps. 
Whot I am afraid ov iz, dhat " Flat's '' si^estionz hav too much comon sens and 
practical aplicaishon in dhem for such invctcrait fonetic theorists az W. R. E., and 
dhat dhe later wil be down upon poor " Fiat ** widh hiz grait slej hamer, and maik mins 
meet ov him. 

Az to ie, oe, ue, which ar objects ov such intens antipathy to W. R. E., I shwd be 
dhe last to opoez eny substituets for dhcez dhat miet be jeuendy aproovd. 

From B. JONES, Esq., 4 Amberley Street, Liverpool (too late for No. 8) : — 

If not too kit, I shwd liek dhe foloing copy ov a leter just reseevd to apeer in dhe 
necst number : — 

(copy leter.) "London, March, 1881. 

" Deer Sir, — Dho wun hoo haz from dhe first held oculy dhe humbl pozishon oy a 
meer subscrieber to dhe fundz ov dhe English Speling Reform Asosiaishon, dhe rieter 
cannot refrain from seuding yoo a few lienz to ecspres hiz sens ov dhe practical value 
ov dhe chainjez in speling which yoo hav consistently advocaited for meny yeerz. 

" Dhe vairius theorists ov dhe fonetic scool wil never tier ov inventing sily propoezalz 
for maiking our speling moer absurd dhan it iz at prezent, until dhay hav been demol- 
isht by sum jenend agreement ov a practical naituer having been cum to amung re- 

" Dhe skeem propoezd by yoo iz eminently practical, and wnn distinctiv feetuer aloen 
shwd sufies to cary dhe day against yoor opoenents. I meen its lejibility : every wurd 
(whedher detacht from dhe sentens or not) iz plainly to be understood at siet. In 
Pitman'z Fonotipy it iz imposibl to reed at first siet ecsept by meenz ov dhe rezem- 
blans ov dhe wurdz to dher oeld forinz. Can dhis be cauld reform ? 

" To yoor cwestionz iu dhe Speling Ecsperimenter for dhe prezent munth [March] 
I wwd reply, dhat, in my humbl opinion — (1) Dher ar no beter simbolz for dhe soundz 
ov Ih in thin, and then dhan M, dh. (2) Dhe ues ov «;, which we hav aulwayz been 
acnstomd to regard az a consonant, to reprczent a vowel sound, duz not seem unobjec- 
shonabl. Wwd not uo be a beter sien? (3, 4) To atempt to repezent our langwej 
on a Continental baisis seemz rong, inazmuch az our langwej rcaly duz not contain dhe 
saim vowel soundz ; and eevcn if it did, we shwd hav to turn our vowel sistem insied out. 
(5) New leterz ar cleerly impracticabl for printing-hous rcezonz ; but dhat dhay ar 
nnnesesary iz sertain, az we hav moer dhan ennf diegrafs at our comand. (6) It duz 
seem to me best to employ ie to reprezent dhe sound in tied ; but speling reform iz too* 
urjent a nesesity for it to be riet to plais a blok in dhe way by refuezing to acsept ei if 
dhe majority (dho rongly) voet for it. 

" No wun'z vanity wil be gratified by dhe adopshon ov a practical sistem baist on 
oeld-leter valuez and ecsisting diegrafs; hens dhe opoezishou ov dhe propoezerz ov 
' fadz and fansiz,' ov dhe advocaits ov such skeemz az propocz q for »y, au for dhe 
sound ov ow in cowy widh muetilaited tieps fonotipy, and dhe lick monstrositiz. 

" I am, deer Sir, yoorz respectfuly, Wun hog wud liek tu see sumthinq dun.*» 

[It is pretty evident that "Wun Hoo" is a fervent admirer of Mr. Jones, for this 
disciple has not only caught the master's literary and orthographic style, but also the 
latter' s propensity to dogmatize, with assumed deference, upon uninvestigated su])jects. 
To any one who has examined Mr. Jones's rendering of the Test Sentences in our last 
number (p. 58), "Wun Hoo's " statement, that " every word (whether detached from 
the sentence or not) is plainly to be understood at siet," will appear as audacious as 
it is ludicrous. Mr. Pitman, however, may perhaps find some consolation in the index- 
terous admission that it is possible to read his Phonotypy " at first sight ... by means 
of the resemblance of the words to their old forms.'* The negatively-emphasised asser- 
tion, that " our language does not contain the same vowel sounds " as Continental ones, 
will be appreciated by those who know \ but it is of very little consequence in regard to 


the qaestion, whether, for English voweUsoands having no special representation in the 
current orthogn^hy, we are to adopt " new symbols, in harmony with the symbols for 
rehited jounds " (as Mr. Jones says of his dhy th)y or to misapply fortuitous and discord- 
ant symbols, that would be equally new in most positions, and would often be misleading 
or intolerable. If Mr. Jones lives long enough (and we trust he may), he will yet learn 
to treat the medial as he does the initial and the final element of the word "these," and 
to write of "dhiiz thislz" with a sense of harmoniously representing English sounds.] 

From Mr. J. MACARTHUR, N?w Monkland, Airdrie, N.B. :— 

I think the eforts of speling reformers aut for sum tiem to cum to be directed moer 
to bringing about an agreement amung themseivs on a practical skeem than in constant 
arguements to convins a public, hoo never reed ther rietings, of the advantajes of an 
improovd moed. The public, so far as I am aibel to juj from many casual conversai- 
shons on the subject, ar alredy quiet convinsed of the grait gain to be derievd from a 
rashonal sistem of speling words ; but thay se no posibility of its adopshon so long as 
speling reformers themseivs ar aul at sixes and sevens as to what the reform shood be. 
The Spelltnff Reformer, the organ of " The English Spelling Reform Association," has 
now been in existens for the past ten months, and yet from its last number I notis that 
no progres has been maid toards a desision as to which of six proposals shal form the 
baisis on which the reform is to proseed. 

I think, if the Asosiaishon wer first to desied whether ther shood or shood not be any 
nue leters in ther introductory skeem, won step in advans wood be maid. If the desision 
be, as I antisipait, against the ues of nue or tumd leters, or acsent-marks, at first, then 
the discushon wood be graitly narod, and ther wood be hoep, if we went on the prinsipel 
of muetual conseshons, that in a short tiem we miet hit upon sum sistem which miet 
proov jeneraly satisfactory as the introducshon to graiter improovments heerafter. It 
is not reesonabel to expect finality in speling any moer than in other mundain afairs. 
Maik maters eesy for the present and the imeediait fuetuer jeneraishon. This wil con- 
stituet a president for our sucsesors to imitait our exampel. 

I giv my speling of the Test Sentenses, remarking that the diaresis (") may be 
omited. Its ues, at first, wood be to giv a litel help in reeding to thoes hoo trust moer 
to the i than to the eer for the sens of a sentens. 

[Mr. Macarthur's statement of the present position of afiairs is not quite correct. 
Progress has been made towards a decision by collecting numerous schemes, classifying 
and tabulating them, printing and circulating specimens of them, etc. As there are 
more than half a hundred schemes under consideration, it has involved some labour to 
deal with them so far; while the only probable result appears to be the negative one of 
showing that not one of those schemes is generally acceptable. The individual writer 
in the Spelling Reformer is alone responsible for the classification and the nomenclature 
there adopted of different species of reform. Mr. Macarthur might have seen, from 
a paper inadvertently published in the Phonetic Journal, that, in a recent canvass of 
the members of the E.S.R.A., more than two-thirds of the respondents declared them- 
selves in favour of " regolating the orthography of every word in the language upon 
some fundamental principles," and of a system of spelling " sole] j phonetic ;" while 
not one-third approved of a system founded, even partially, upon '* etymological and 
historical considerations" — dignified by the said writer as "the method of the Practical 
Educationist," though Mr. Macarthur would probably dispute with him the application 
of that term to their respective styles of peculiar spelling. It may be added, that 
three-fifths of the respondents in the canvass mentioned were in favour of new letters, 
and little more than one-fifth against them. — W. ^. E.] 



The publication of the " Suggestive Alphabet " in your April number will possibly 
prove suggestive in more ways than was expected. The suggestion which was suggested 
to myself was: " Cui bono?" When the "Twenty-seven Specimens" were issued to 
the Spelling Reform Association, it was supposed that they represented the entirety of 
endeavours that could be made to firame phonetic alphabets for the English language. 


Those specimens have now been consigned to oblivion ; their interest is purely antiqua- 
rian ; no reformer who wishes to be considered au eourani of the " latest results " of 
reform would endanger his reputation as a " herTorragender Al&bet-forscher " by so 
much as alluding to them. Mr. Jones has been licking his unwieldy cub into shape ; 
your own tadpole has gone whither the other pre- Adamite animals go ; and your new 
moon, like Artemus Ward's, has ceased for want of some one to " work it ;" while the 
author of Dimidian (I.) and Dimidian (II.), after offering us two half-loaves, presents 
us with a new di — I mean sug-gestive article, which seems intended for genuine whole 
meal. But, notwithstanding this immense activity on the part of the various leaders of 
reform, I cannot say that I think much of the results. Stare super aniiquae viae seems 
to be the universal motto. No valuable ideas have been originated, no new Unes have 
been struck out. Superficially, no doubt, Victorian, Elizabethan, Dimidian, Glossic, 
Suggestive, and "das System- Jones " differ considerably; but fundamentally they are 
all fdike. They are all chips of the same block ; they are all children of our present 
disreputable old Orthography, and each of the brood is much of a muchness with his 
bretluren. One remembers the adage about rotten apples. 

I do not know whether it is proposed to exhaust idl the combinations and permuta- 
tions of which the twenty-six letters are capable ; but if so, we nuiy as well consider 
the latter end of the business. If one man is going to write a because he thinks the 
aound in " man " is a high-low-back-front-narrow-wide-mid-mixed vowel, and another 
is going to write ae because he thinks it a mixed-mid-wide-narrow-front-back-low-high 
vowel, it does not require much prophetic insight to perceive that the Experimenter 
will go on for ever, and the Spelling Reform will go to the Devil. 

It appears to me, that just as " all sugar and cream is not healthy food for any man," 
>~to quote the words of an excellent gentleman whose command of the English tongue 
is as small as his knowledge of it is great, — so all differentiation is bad for Spelling 
Reform. A little integration might be tried with advantage. Within limits, of course. 
It would be a gladsome sight to see Roman and English values combined ; but that is 
evidently impossible. Apart from the lack of any happy mean between the two systems, 
the personalities interested do not "freeze together," as Yankees say, to any very 
encouraging extent. But within either system there is no reason why some junction of 
schemes could not be attained. I am not certain of the English school, because the 
initial lack of internal consistency seems to prevent any possibility of external coherence. 
But among the Romancers it is otherwise, and I desire to Indicate how. And, since 
Fas est ab hoste doceri, the opposite camp are welcome to any hint I may drop that 
may be serviceable. 

It is uniformly agreed among the Romancers that Pitman's present alphabet is the 
alphabet of the future, with modifications perhaps — I should like to see it written ^ la 
Broad Romic, and furnished with an encyclopaedia of " rules of Sandhi " — but still so 
far certainly so as to be our ultimate alphabet at present. We are also agreed that we 
must approach that alphabet by an old-letter one. Now, of old-letter alphabets we have 
several. But they are all identical to a large extent, and must necessarily be so, because 
they are built with the same materials upon an identical basis. And the question I 
want to put is, why can we, the Romancers, not agree as a body to select some scheme, 
say Europic, or Broad Romic, or Union, and use it ; work it out, see where it is defec- 
tive, suggest improvements, try them, and, if they succeed, adopt them : in fact, do 
exactly what Mr. Pitman did to bring his system to its present perfection. [*] Unless 
we do this, the blessed Reform will not come about till after the next glacial period, 
long after yon and I, et hoc gentts omney have become like Abner Dean, when the — 

" . . . . chunk of old red sandstone 

Took him in the abdomen; 
And he smiled a kind of sickly smile. 

And curl'd up on the floor; 
And the subsequent proceedings 

Interested Mm no more." 

[* We shall be happy to turn this Publication into a Spelling Exemplar of a work- 
able old-letter system, and to make it^ contents suitable for distribution or quotation, if 
our readers will only help us to select a generally acceptable scheme by communicating 
their views, merely for our private guidimce in this matter. — W. R. E.] 

Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, London, W.C. 


!TED BY W. n. EVAN.S. 
igliih Spelling Reform Association.) 


press with our eulargud number for May, we 
arried out a Parallel ExliibitioQ, to which a 
parallel would not readily be fouud, aud wliich entails another en- 
larged nmnb«. Thia exhibition can scarcely M to be iutereating 
to Spelling Reformers; but we have not prepared it simply as a 
spectacle to gratify curiosity. We have rather had in view what 
we considered a solid utilitarian purpose, in the somewhat laborious 
arrangements that were required to bring this exhibition to maturity 
-within a Iwief space of time. This object was mentioned iu the note 
on the last page of the Experimenter for May, It was there hinted 
that the assistance of our readers would be acceptable in selecting 
an old-letter scheme of reformed spelling for exemplary use in a 
practical, and not merely experimental publication. But we after- 
-wards thought that the intimation waa not made in a sufficiently 
prominent manner, and that the data upon which opinions might be 
formed were not conveniently arranged for comparison, Ilence the 
idea of this Parallel Exhibition. 

Having determined upon the general character of the comparative 
Asplay, it became necessary to inquire what ought to be the condi- 
tions rendering schemes eligible for admission. In order to do thia 
fairly, we had to consider what qualities were indispensable iu any 
scheme to make it suitable for our purpose. In a magazine intended 
for occasional brief quotation by other periodicals (to which It would 
be sent for " notice "), it appeared absolutely requisite to use only 
types existing in well-fumished printing- offices, or, at all events, 
procurable from a type-foundry in the ordinary way of business. 
Not only new letters were thus excluded, but " cut " letters, since it 
was not to be expected that many editors or printers would incur 
the expense and trouble of preparing these for the casual printing of 
a quotation. Thus a mechanic^ condition was fixed upon us, much 
a^inst our own personal iuclinatton. 

As there was one condition indispensable for reproduction with 
regard to such a publication as we contemplated, so it became 


obvious that for its original production another condition, different 
in kind, would be quite as essential. To make the work of con- 
tributors, editor, and printer practicable, it was necessary to have a 
spelling free from numerous arbitrary forms or rules, requiring to be 
memorized and applied as in the established notation, but without 
even the aid of a dictionary for reference. In this particular, we 
were guided by our own actual experience and observation. We 
had at different times readily learned to write various orthographic 
schemes that were subject to absolute rule (except perhaps in regard 
to a score of little words more or less arbitrarily spelt), and we had 
known other persons who had similarly acquired the use of such 
regulated orthographies. But we never could bring ourselves to 
learn any merely less arbitrary spelling proposed to be substituted 
for that in current use ; nor had we ever known any person to have 
done so, except the actual proposer of each such notation. 

At least two other conditions appeared to be desirable in the 
spelling proposed to be selected. One was, that it should provide a 
separate symbol for every significative or sense-distinguishing sound 
in the language; and the other, that it should be legible without 
serious difficulty to any intelligent reader of the old spelling. But 
we thought it might savour of dictation for us to. determine what 
sounds it is necessary to distinguish in an intelligible notation of 
English speech ; and, rather than do this, we have admitted some 
specimens that identify sounds generally discriminated,* contenting 
ourselves with calling attention to what we consider deficiencies. 
Then, as to the matter of legibility, it will be better that our readers 
should judge for themselves. To us, Mr. Sweet's, or even Mr. Bull's 
spelling, would be scarcely less readable, while either would be far 
more significant, than some " partially-corrected," but still arbitrary 
notations ; and we certainly should prefer learning to write a dozen 
such systems as Broad Romic or Cheilic, to memorizing one new 
vocabulary of arbitrary word-forms. 

Adopting merely the conditions of old types and systematic spelling^ 
and not even applying these very rigidly, we exhibit specimens of 
Twelve Schemes, differing in phonetic precision, legibility, sightli- 
ness, and other qualities, but representing almost every kind of 
regulated notation that can be provided for our language with old 
types alone. We have taken great pains to present these specimens 
fairly and correctly, and have obtained revision of each specimen by 
the author of its scheme. It rests now with our readers to give 

. * Thns, Nos. 2 and 9, and to a less extent No. 8, confound the medial elements of 
pit and put with the initial ones otyet and toet; No. 12 uses the same symbol at the 
commencement of thiyk and thy; and No. 11 has only a partially applicable distinction 
between luck (Jilk) and look (luk). 


effect to this work, and we earnestly request each who feels interest 
in the matter to inform us, by letter or post-card, which scheme or 
schemes he or she considers most eligible for an old-letter periodical. 
We engage to publish fairly and intelligibly the result of a canvass 
which is proposed and required quite independently of that projected 
by the E. S. R. A. ; for the latter will be so complicated by the in- 
clusion in one list of old- and new-letter, systematic and arbitrary 
notations, as to be of no value for our purpose. 

■ ■ ■ y- 


No. 1.—" BROAD ROMIC." 

We sent to Mr. H. Sweet, for his correctioa, our own draft MS. of the Broad Romic 
version, in which 9 was written for the obscure or neutral vowel, and as for the stopped 
vowel in "but" — capitals being also used in the ordinary manner. On returning the 
draft copy corrected, Mr. Sweet wrote : — 

" If it is to go out as my system, please alter the ^'s to a?. If I used turned letters 
(and it is only to avoid them that I use a?), I should use *3* for the unaccented vowel, 
*«' for the sound in *but,* and 'aa* for that in 'burn.* The capitals had better come 
out too, as I do not use them in Broad Romic." 

No. 2.— "CHEILIC." 

Mr. R. P. Bull send^ the following explanation of his system : — 

" Cheilic," from Greek cheilos (lip), is a brief and comprehensive phonetic notation, 

without new characters. 

Complementary Articulations. 

Q (ng), ri«^; J (si), virion; X (ch), cAaise; Y (th), Mat; Z (th), Match; W (v), veil; 
Y (w), wet. 

Vocal Breathings. 

U (potty) denotes uvular vibration, and is identical with vocal r. It is often the 
primary element of diphthongs and triphthongs, and then indicates a larger 
opening of the guttural orifice. Oiy ai, ov, av, are properly triphthongs, with a 
primary guttural element. 

H, after a vowel, denotes continued emission of breath merely : before /, «, w, with 
no preceding vowel, it implies that these elements are vocal or syllabic. 

Lingual Vibrations. 

(pot) — elevation of the back of the tongue. 

A (pfft) — elevation of the middle of the tongue, the whole organ presenting a plane 

E (p^) — elevation of the front of the tongue. 

1 (p'ty) — a higher elevation of the front of the tongue, nearly closing the channel of 


Labial Vibration. 

V (pat, foot) — the lips nearly closed. 

According to strict analysis, the sounds represented by the last two vowels are diph- 
thongs of the guttural class, being open or " wide" modifications of the simple vowels 
heard in peat, boot. These are the closing elements of several compound vowels, and 
readily pass into the class of articulations. 

Stress, or tonic accent, is marked by a turned period ( • ) placed before the accented 
syllable, and is implied, but not usually expressed, when an accent falls on the first 
syllable of a word. 



1.— "BROAD ROMIC" (H. Swuet). 
it iz GB rimaak ocv ccn cinshcent filopz'of- 
ikl pouit (horis), dhnet evri maen thiqks 
iz neibcez knendishren htrpuc dhfrn iz 
oim ; OBud, indiyd, komoen ixirifuricens 
shoiiz, dhoct wiy (e tuw rept tu entoctein 
rom'antik nonshncnz cev rcbsnent, (rn Ub 
thiqk miynli oev prcznt thiqz ; ta ixt'oal 
whot wi CEV hrcd noii ixp uericEns ov, cen 
tflB hi diskcrntentid widh whot wiy poBZCS. 
dh(E vnpcn rp.v biznis saiz foe dlice swiyts 
CEV lizhfE : dh(E poesu hiiw, widh (e teist 
f(E riydiq, htrz fyuw opcpt yuwnitiz for it, 
thiqks dhret micnz laif dhne WEin crv blis, 
huw (EZ noethiq tu duw bcrt tcE std'di. yet 
it aofn htcpnz dha?t dh(E kcBodishiEn cev 
dhi cnvioB iz hrcpioe dhnen dhtct (ev dhi en- 
vid. yuw (EV red dokt<E jonsnz teil oev dhne 
pu(E trelo-candl(E, huw, aftoc saiiq foe dhne 
kwaicBt oev koentri laif, oet leqth skreipt 
moeni inojf toe ritaioe, bnet faund iz loq- 
saot-focE lizhoe sou inscep'aotnebl, dhoet hiy 
meid oe volnentri aofcE tu iz sneksesoe toe 
krem oep toe tauu evri fraidi, oen melt trcio 
for im greitis. it wud biy sou widh haaf 
dhoB men oev bizuis, huw sai sou oenestli 
foe dhoe swiyts oev ritaicemoeut; oen yuw 
roei risiyv it oez woen oev dhoe moetyuwf- 
ist obzoeveishnenz ai oev biyn eibl toe meik 
on hyawmoen laif, dhoet dhoer iz nou k<En- 
d'ishoen sou hsepi oez dhret oev him huw 
liydz OB laif oev ful oen konstoent imploi- 
moent. hiz oera'yuwzinoents hsevce zest whic 
men oev plezhoe wud glaedli oendoergou a6l 
hiz droejoeri tu ixp'ioerioens; oen dhoe reg- 
yoeloe soekseshoen oev biznis, proeraidid hiz 
sityuei'sh En biy not tuw eeqkshoes, draivz 
OBW'ei from hiz brein dhonz hseroesiq spek- 
yoeleishoenz whic aa koenfinyuoeli as'oltiq 
dh'E mnen oev lizhne, oen dhoe mfcn oev 
riydiq. dhoe styuwdyoes mren, dhou hiz 
plczhoez ar oev dhoe moust rif aind spiyshiz, 
faindz kaeoez oen dist'oebiq thaots in stoedi. 
toe thiqk moec oen diypli wil suwn meik oe 
mren seed, hiz thaots, evoer on dhoe wiq, 
aofn kceri him whaeoe hiy shoedoez toe biy 
iyvn in im'sejiueishoen. hiy iz laik oe mscn 
in sliyp: soemtaimz hiz driymz aa pliyziq, 
boet set oedhcez horoer itself teiks poez'esh- 
CEU oev hiz im'rcjineishoen; oen dhis iniy- 
k'woliti oevmaind iz aolinoust ins'epoeroebl 
frncm moec mediteishoen oen mentl eksoe- 
saiz. .froem dhis kaoz it aofn hsepnz, dhoet 
letoed oen filoez'ofikl men aa piyvish in 
dheoe tempoez, and aost'ioer in dheoe meeh- 
CEZ. . . men aa mooer iykwoeli friy froem 
fcqz'aiiti oen kaeoer in proep'aoshoeu oez 
dhei ris'iyd froem dhoe mooe rif aind oen 
mentl toe dhoe grousoer oen bodili impioi- 
moents oen moudz oev laif; boet dhi hacpiist 
koend'ishcsn iz pleist in dhoe midi, bit'wiyn 
dhiixt'rjymz oevbouth, — ^oe^ whait. [61 

2.— "CHEILIC" (R. P. Bull). 
It is a ri'muak ow an einxhnt filov'cofi-^ 
khl povet (Horec), yat ewori man ziqkc 
his neiboe's kon'dixhn hapiu yan his ovn; 
and, indihd, komnn ekcpihrionc xovs, yat 
vi ua tev apt tv entue*tein rovmantik 
novxhns ow abcent, and tv ziqk mihnli ow 
present ziqs ; tv ekc'tol hvot vi haw had 
nov ekcpihriunc ow, and tv bi dickon'ten- 
ted viy hvot vi pos'ec. Yu man ow bisnic 
cais fuo yu cvihtc ow lihju: yu puechn hv, 
viy a teict fiio rihdiq, has fiv opue'tivnitis 
for it, ziqkc *yat man's laif yu cam ow 
blic, hv has nnziq tv dev but tv etudi. 
let it ofhn haphnz yat yu kon'dixhn 
ow yi euwiur is hapin yan 'yat ow yi en- 
wid. Iv haw red Dr. Djonchn's teil ow 
yu pvhu Talov-Txuandlur, hv, aaftu caiiq 
fiio yu kvaiut ow kuntri laif, at leqz okreipt 
muni i'nuf tv ri'taia, but favnd his loq- 
cuot-fuo lihju cov incupovutubhl, yat hi 
meid a wolunteri ofu tv his cuk'cecu tv 
kum up tv tavn ewuri Fraidi, and melt 
talov for him greitic. It wd bi cov viy 
hnaf yu men ow bisnic, hv cai cov uenectli 
fuo yu cvihtc ow ri*taiament ; and iv mei 
ri'cihw it as van ow yu ma'tievrect obsue- 
weixhns ai haw bihn eibhl tv meik on hiv- 
mun laif, yat yehr is nov kon'dixhn cov 
hapi as *yat ow him "bv lihds a laif ow fvl 
and konctunt em'ploiment. His a'mievs- 
jpentc haw a sect hvitx men ow pleja vvd 
gladii unduegov uol his dru^juri tv ekc- 
pihriunc; and yu regivlu cnk'cexhn ow 
bisnic, prorwaided his citiveixhn bi not 
tev aqkxuc, draiws a'vei from his brein 
yovs haruciq cpekivleixhns hvitx ua kou- 
•tinivuli ac'uoltiq yu man ow lihjur, and yu 
man ow rihdiq. Yu etivdiuc man, yov his 
plejues uar ow yu movct ri'feind cpihxiis, 
fainds keus and dictuebiq zuotc in ctudi. 
Tv ziqk mutx and dihpU vil cevn meik a 
man cad. His zuotc, ewnr on yu viq, 
ofhn kari him hvehr hi xudues tv bi ihwhn 
in im'adjineixhn. Hi is laik a man in 
clihp*: cumtaims his drihms ua plihsiq, 
but at uyues horur it*celf teikc pos'exhn 
ow his im'adjineixhn J and yic ini'kvoliti' 
ow maind is uolmovct in'cepurnbhl from 
mutx mediteixhn and mentul ekcueoais. 
From yic knos it ofhn haphns, yat letued 
and filov'cofikhl men ua pihwix in yen 
tempues, and uoctihr in yen manues. . . 
Men ua movr ihkvuli frih from aqk'saiiti 
and kehr in provpovuxhn as yei ri'cihd 
from yu movu ri'faind and mentul tv 
yu grovcur and bodili em'ploimentc and 
movds ow laif; but yi hapiect kon'dixhn is 
pleict in yu midhl, bi'tvihn yi ekctrihms 
ow bovz. — Kuek Hvait. [59 

{For Key to this Scheme, see p. 7&.3 



3.— "EUROPIC" (Ellis). 

It iz a rimark ov an eeiishent filohsofi- 
kal pohet ('Ores), dhat even man thiqks 
'iz ueeborz kondishon 'apier dhan Mz ohn ; 
and, indiid, komon ekspiiriens shohz dhat 
wi ar tan apt tn enterteen rohmantik noh- 
skonz ov absent, and tu thiqk miinli ov 
prezeut thiqz ; tu ekstol whot wi 'av 'ad 
noh ekspiiriens ov, and tn bi diskontented 
widh whot wi pozes. Dhi man ov biznes 
saiz for dhi swiits ov lezhur : dhi person 
*uu, widh a teest for riidiq, 'az fiu opor^ 
tiunitiz for itj thiqks dhat manz laif dhi 
seem ov blis, 'a 'az ncethiq tn dun beet tn 
stffidi. Yet it ofh 'apnz dhat dhi kondi- 
shon ov dhi envier iz 'apier dhan dhat ov 
dhi ettvid. Yun 'av red Dr. Jonson'z teel 
ov dhi puur Taloh-Chaandler, 'uu, aafter 
saiiq for dhi kwaiet ov kcentri laif, at 
leqkth skreept moeni inae'f tu ritair, beet 
fannd 'iz loq-soot-for lezhur soh insceport- 
abl, dhat 'i meed a voloentari ofer tn 'iz 
sceksesor tn koenl oep tn tann everi Fraidi, 
and melt taloh for 'im greetis. It wud bi 
soh widh 'aaf dhi men ov biznes, 'n sai 
soh emestli for dhi swiits ov ritairment ; 
and yn mee risiiv it az woen ov dhi matiur- 
est obzerveeshonz ai 'av biin eebl tu meek 
on 'inman laif, dhat dher iz noh kondishon 
soh 'api az dhat ov 'im 'u liidz a laif ov 
ful and konstant empluiment. 'Iz amiuz- 
ments 'av a zest which men ov plezhur 
wud gladli cendergoh ool hiz droijeri tu 
ekspiiriens ; and dhi regiular SGekseshon ov 
biznes, prohvaided 'iz sitiueeshon bi not 
tuu aqkshces, draivz awee from 'iz breen 
dhohz 'arasiq spekiuleeshonz which ar 
kontiniuali asuoltiq dhi man ov lezhur, 
and dhi man ov riidiq. Dhi stiudices man, 
dhoh 'iz plezhurz ar ov dhi mohst rifaind 
spiishi'iiz, faindz keerz and distoeVbiq thoots 
in stoedi. Tu thiqk moech and diipli wil 
sunn meek a man sad. 'Iz thoots, ever 
on dhi wiq, ofn kari 'im wheer 'i shcederz 
tn bii iivn in imajinecshon. 'I iz laik a 
man in sliip : soemtaimz 'iz driimz ar 
pliiziq, beet at oedherz 'oror itself teeks 
pozeshon ov 'iz imajineeshon; and dhis 
inikwoliti ov maind iz oolmohst inseparabl 
from mcech mediteeshon and mental ek- 
sersaiz. From dhis kooz it ofn 'apnz, 
dhat leterd and filohsufikal men ar piivish 
in dheer temperz and oostiir in dheer 
manerz. . . Men ar mohr iikwali frii from 
aqzaieti and keer in prohporshon az dhce 
risiid from dhi mohr rifaind and mental 
tn dhi grohser and bodili empluiments and 
mohdz ov laif; beet dhi 'apiest kondishon 
iz pleest in dhi midl, bitwiin dhi ekstriimz 
ov bohth. — Koerk JFhait, [59 

No. 10. * 

4._« UNION" (Evans). 

It iz a remark ov an einshent filosofikal 
pouet (Hores), dhat everi man thinks hiz 
neibor'z kondishon hapier dhan his onn; 
and, indiid, komon expiiriens shouz dhat 
wi ar tun apt tu entertein romantik nou- 
shonz ov absent, and tu think miinU ov 
prezent thingz ; tn extol hwot wi hav had 
no expiiriens ov, and tu bi diskontented 
widh hwot wi pozes. Dhe man ov biznes 
saiz for dhi swiits ov lezhur : dhe person 
hu, widh a teist for riiding, haz fiu opor- 
tiunitiz for it, thinks dhat mau'z laif dhe 
soem ov blis, hu haz ncething tu duii boet 
tn stoedi. Yet it ofn hapnz dhat dhe kon- 
dishon ov dhi envier iz hapier dhan dhat 
(Jv dhi envid. Yu hav red Dr. Jonson'^ 
teil ov dhe pnur Talo-Chandler, hii, after 
sai'ing for dhe kwaiet ov kcentri laif, at 
length skreipt moeni enoe'f tu retair, boet 
faund hiz long-saot-for lezhur so insoeport- 
abl, dhat hi meid a voloentari ofer tn hiz 
sceksesor tu koem oep tu taun everi Fraidei, 
and melt talo for him greitis. It wud bi 
to widh haaf dhi men ov biznes, hil sai so 
ernestli for dhe swiits ov retairment ; and 
yu mei rcsiiv it ai ween ov dhe matiurest 
obierveishonz ai hav biin eibl tn meik on 
hiuman laif, dhat dher iz no kondishon so 
hapi az dhat ov him hu liidz a laif ov ful 
and konstant emploiment. Hiz amiuz- 
ments hav a zest hwich men ov plezhur 
wud gladli oendergou aol hiz droejeri tu 
expiiriens ; and dhe regiular soekseshon ov 
biznes, provaided hiz sitiueishon bi not tuu 
ankshces, draivz awei from hiz brein dhonz 
harasing spekiuleishonz hwich ar kontin- 
iuali asaolting dhe man ov lezhur and dhe 
man ov riiding. Dhi stiudices man, dhon 
hiz plezhurz ar ov dhe moust refaind spii- 
shiiz, faindz keerz and distoe'rbing thaots 
in stoedi. Tu think mcech and dfipli wil 
sunn meik a man sad. Hiz thaots, ever 
on dhe wing, ofn kari him hwser hi shced- 
erz tu bi iivn in imajineishon. Hi iz laik 
a man in sliip : scemtaimz hiz driimz ar 
pliizing, boet at oedherz horor itself teiks 
pozeshon ov hiz imajineishon; and dhis 
inekwoliti ov maind iz aolmoust insepa- 
rabl from mcech mediteishon and mental 
eksersaiz. From dhis kaoz it ofn hapnz, 
dhat leterd and filosofikal men ar piivish 
in dhfer temperz, and aostiir in dheer 
manerz. . . Men ar moar iikwali frii from 
angzaieti and keer in proporshon az dhei 
resiid from dhe moar refaind and mental 
tu dhe grouser and bodili emploiments and 
moudz ov laif; beet dhe hapiest kondishon 
iz pleist in dhe midl betwiin dhi extriimz 
ov bouth. — Kerk Hioait. [59 




6, 6.—" COLLATERAL." 


It iz a remark ov an eensheut filosofiral 
po-et (Ilores), dhat every man thinks hiz 
nsbor'z condishon liapier dhan hiz olin ; 
and, indiid, comon expiiriens shohz, dhat 
wi ar tutt apt tu cntertic'n romantic noh- 
shonz ov absent, and tu think miinly ov 
prezent thingz ; tu extul hwot wi hav had 
no expiiriens ov, and tu hi discontented 
widh hwot wi pozes. Dhe man ov biznes 
seiz for dhe swiits ov lezhur : dhe person 
hu, widh a ttcst for Hiding, liaz liu opor- 
tiunitiz for it, thinks dhdt man'z leif dhe 
soem ov blis, hu haz nocthing tu dun boct 
tu stasdy. Yet it ofn hapuz dhat d}ie con- 
dishon ov dhi envier iz hapicr dhan dhat 
ov dhi envid. Yu hav red Dr. Jonson'z 
t«el ov dhe puur Talo-(/handler, liu, after 
seying for dhe cweiet ov cocntry leif, at 
length scrtept majny enw'f tu retcir, bait 
found hiz long-saot-for lezhur so insoDport* 
abl, dhat hi mrcd a volccutory ofer tu hiz 
scecsesor tu cccm oep tu toun every Freidse, 
and melt talo for him grictis. It wud bi 
so widh haaf dhe men ov biznes, hu sci so 
emestly for dhe swiits ov retcirnient ; and 
yu maj resiiv it az woen ov dhe matiurest 
obzervecshonz ei hav biin rcbl tu mrck on 
hiuman leif, dhat dhcr iz no condishon so 
hapy az dhat ov him hu liidz a leif ov ful 
and constant emploiment. lliz amiilz- 
ments hav a zest hwich men ov plczhur 
wud gladly oendergoh aol hiz drcrjery tu 
expiiriens; and dhe regiular soecseshon ov 
biznes, proveided hiz sitiurcshon bi not tuu 
ancshffis, dreivz awre from hiz brwu dhohz 
harasing spekiulscshonz hwich ar continiu- 
aly asaolting dhe man ov lezhur, and dhe 
man ov riiding. Dhe stiudincs man, dhoh 
hiz plezhurz ar ov dhe inohst refeind spii- 
shiiz, feindz ctcrz and distccVbing thaots 
in stoedy. Tu think mocch and diiply wil 
suun mtek a man sad. Hiz thaots, ever 
on dhe wing, ofh cary him hwrcr hi shcrd- 
erz tu bi iivn in imajinroshon. Hi iz Icik 
a man in sliip : soemteimz hiz driiinz ar 
pliizing, boet at ocdhera horor itself ta*ks 
pozeshon ov hiz imajinscshon ; and dhis 
inecwolity ov meind iz aolmohst insepa- 
rabl from mncch niediUrshon and mental 
ecserseiz. From dhis caoz it ofti hapnz, 
dhat leterd and filusofical men ar piivish 
in dheer temperz, and aostiir in dhrcr 
manerz. . . Men ar mohr iicwaly frii from 
angzeiety and CKr in proporahon az dhro 
reslid from dhe mohr refeind and mental 
tu dhe grohser and bodily emploiments and 
mohdz ov leif; bcpt dhe hapiest condishon 
iz plsest in dhe midl, betwiin dhi extriimz 
ov bohth.— iTifrifc Hweit. [69 

It iz a remark ov an ainshent filosofical 
po-et (Hores), dhat every man thinks hiz 
naibor'z condishon hapier dhan hiz oan; 
and, indeed, comon ex[)ecrieas shohz dhat 
we ar too apt tu entertain romantic noa- 
shonz ov absent, and tu think meenly ov 
prezent thingz ; tu extol hwot we hav had 
no exi>eeriens ov, and tu be discontented 
widh hwot we pozes. Dhe man ov biznes 
seyz for dhe sweets -ov lezhur: dhe person 
hoo, widh a taist for reeding, haz few op- 
orteunitiz for it, thinks dliat man'z leif 
dhe SGcni ov blis, hoo haz noething tu doo 
beet tu st<edy. Yet it ofn hapnz dhat dhe 
condishon ov dhe envier iz hapier dhan 
dhat ov dhe envid. Yoo hav red Dr. Jon- 
son'z tail ov dhe poor Talo-Chaiidler, hoo, 
after seying for dhe cweiet ov coeutry leif, 
at length scraipt mceny euoc'f tu rcteir, 
bnet found hiz long-saut-for lezhur so in- 
sccportabl, dhat he maid a voloentary ofer 
tu hiz scecsesor tu coem oep tu toun eveiy 
Freiday, and melt talo for him graitis. It 
wud be so widh haaf dhe men ov biznes, 
hoo sey so emestly for dlie sweets ov re- 
teirment; and yoo may reseev it az woen 
ov dhe mateurest obzervaishonz I hav been 
aibl tu maik on heuman leif, dhat dher iz 
no condishon so ha])y az dhat ov him^ hoo 
lecdz a leif ov ful and constant employ- 
ment. Hiz ameuzments hav a zest hvv-ich 
men ov plezhur wud gladly cendergoh aul 
hiz drocjery tu expeeriens; and dhe regeu- 
lar sopcseshon ov biznes, ])roveided hiz sit- 
euaishon be not too ancshces, dreivz away 
from hiz brain dhoaz harasing spekeulai- 
shonz hwich ar contineualy asaulting dhe 
man ov lezhur and dhe man ov reeding. 
Dhe steudices man, dhoh hiz plezhurz ar ov 
dhe moast refeind speeshccz, feindz cairz 
and dist<B'rbing thauts in stopdy. Tu think 
mcrrh and deeply wil soon maik a man sad. 
Hiz thauts, ever on dhe wing, ofn cary 
him hwair he shnndcrz tu be eevn in imaj- 
inaishon. He iz leik a man in sleej) : 
sflcmteiniz hiz dreemz ar pleezing, Ixrt at 
opdherz horor itself taiks pozeshon ov hiz 
imajinaishou ; and dhis inecwolity ov meind 
iz aulmoast inseparabl from nicech medi- 
taishon and mental ecsei'seiz. From dhis 
cauz it ofn hapnz, dhat leterd and filosofi- 
cal men ar peevish in dhair temperz, and 
austecr in cUiair manerz. . . Men ar moar 
eecwaly free from angzeiety and cair in 
proporshon az dhay reseed from dhe moar 
refeind and mental tu dhe groaser and 
bodily employments and moadz ov leif; 
bnet dhe hapiest condishon iz plaist in dhe 
midl, between dhe extreemz o? boath. — > 
Kerk Hweit [60 



7.—" SUGGESTIVE " (Ellis). 

It iz arimark ov an ainshent filohsofical 
pohet (Hores), dhat every man thinks hiz 
naiborz condishon hapier dhan hiz ohn ; 
and, indeed, comon ecspeeriens shohz dhat 
wi ar too apt too entertain rohmantik 
nohshonz ov absent, and too think meenly 
ov prezeut thingz ; too ecstol hwot wi hav 
had noh ecspeeriens ov, and too hi discon- 
tented widh hwot wi pozes. Dhi man ov 
biznes siiz for dhi sweets ov lezhur : dhi 
pnrson hoo, widh a taist for reeding, haz 
fyoo opurtyoonitiz for it, thinks dhat manz 
liif dhi snm ov blis, hoo haz uuthiug too 
doo but too study. Yet it ofn hapnz dhat 
dhi condishon ov dhi envier iz hapier dhan 
dhat ov dhi envid. Yoo hav red Dr. Jon- 
sonz tail ov dlii poor Taloh-Chaandler, 
hoo, ahfter siying for dhi cwiiet ov cun- 
try liif, at lenkth scraipt muny iuiif too 
retiir, but found hiz long-saut-for lezhur 
soh insupoi^tabl, dhat hi maid a voluntary 
ofer too hiz sucsesor too cum up too toun 
every Priiday, and melt taloh for him grai- 
tis. It wuud bi soh widh hahf dhi men ov 
biznes, hoo siy soh ernestly for dhi sweets 
ov ritiirment; and yoo may riseev it az 
wun ov dhi matyoorest obzervaishonz ly 
hav been aibl too maik on hyooman liif, 
dhat dher iz noh condishon soh hapy az 
dhat ov him hoo leedz a liif ov fuul and 
constant emploiment. Hiz amyoozments 
hav a zest hwich men ov ])lezhur wuud 
gladly undergoh aul hiz drnjery too ecs- 
peeriens ; and dhi regyoolar sucseshon ov 
biznes, prohviided hiz sityooaishon bi not 
too ankshus, driivz away from hiz brain 
dhohz harasing specyoolaishonz hwich ar 
continyooaly asaulting dhi man ov lezhur, 
and dhi man ov reeding. Dhi styoodius 
man, dhoh hiz plezhurz ar ov dhi mohst 
rifiind speeshieez, liindz cair and disturb- 
ing thauts in study. Too think much and 
deeply wil soon maik a man sad. Hiz 
thauts, ever on dhi wing, ofn cary him 
hwair hi shuderz too bi eevn in imajinai- 
shon. Hi iz liik aman in sleep: sumtiimz 
hiz dreemz ar pleezing, biit at udherz horor 
itself taiks pozeshon ov hiz imajinaishon ; 
and dhis inicwolity ov miind iz auhnohst 
inseparabl from much meditaishou and 
mental ecsersiiz. From dhis canz it ofn 
hapnz, dhat leterd and filohsofical men ar 
peevish in dhair temperz and austeer in 
dhair manerz. . . Men ar mohr eecwaly 
free from angziiety and cair in prohporshon 
az dhay riseed from dhi mohr rifiind and 
mental too dhi grohser and bodily empldi- 
ments and mohdz ov liif; but dhe hapiest 
condishon iz plaist in dhi midl, bit ween 
dhi ecstreemz ov bohth. — KurA Hwiit, [60 

8.-"P0PULAR ENGLISH" (E.Jones) 

It iz a remark ov an ainshent filosofical 
poeet (Hores), dhat every man thinks hiz 
naibor'z condishon hapyer dhan hiz oen ; 
and, indeed, comon ecspeeryens shoez, dhat 
we ar too apt to entertain romantic noe- 
shonz ov absent, and to think meenly ov 
prezent thingz ; to ecstol whot we hav had 
no ecspeeryens ov, and to be discontented 
widh whot we pozes. Dhe man ov biznes 
siez for' dhe sweets ov lezhur : dhe person 
hoo, widh a taist for reeding, haz hxQ op- 
ortuenitiz for it, thinks dhat man'z lief 
dhe sum ov blis, hoo haz nuthing to doo 
but to study. Yet it ofen hapenz dhat dhe 
condishon ov dhe envyer iz hapyer dhan 
dhat ov dhe envid. Yoo hav red Dr. Jon- 
son'z tail ov dhe poor Talo-Chandler, hoo, 
after sieing for dhe cwieet ov cuntry lief, 
at length scraipt muny enuf to retier, but 
found hiz long-saut-for lezhur so insuport- 
abl, dhat he maid a voluntary ofer to hiz 
sucsesor to cum up to toun every Frieday, 
and melt talo for him graitis. It wwd be 
so widh haaf dhe men ov biznes, hoo sie so 
ernestly for dhe sweets ov retierment ; and 
yoo may reseev it az wun ov dhe matucrest 
obzervaishonz I hav been aibl to maik on 
hueman lief, dhat dher iz no condishon so 
hapy az dhat ov him hoo leedz a lief ov 
fwl and constant employment. Hiz amuez- 
ments hav a zest which men ov plezhur 
wwd gladly undergo aul hiz drujery to 
ecspeeryens; and dhe reguelar sucseshon 
ov biznes, provieded hiz sitneaishon be not 
too ancshus, drievz away from hiz brain 
dhoez harasing specuelaishonz which ar 
continuealy asaulting dhe man ov lezhur, 
and dhe man ov reeding. Dhe stuedius 
man, dho hiz plezhurz ar ov dhe moest 
refiend speeSheez, fiendz cairz and disturb- 
ing thauts in study. To think much and 
deeply wil soon maik a man sad. Hiz 
thauts, ever on dhe wing, ofen cary him 
whair he shuderz to be eeven in imajinai- 
shon. He iz liek a man in sleep : sum- 
tiemz hiz dreemz ar pleezing, but at 
udherz horor itself taiks pozeshon ov hiz 
imajinaishon ; and dhis inecwolity ov miend 
iz aulmoest inseparabl from much meditai- 
shou and mental ecsersiez. From dhis 
cauz it ofen hapenz, dhat leterd and filo- 
sofical men ar peevish in dher temperz, 
and austeer in dher manerz. . , Men ar 
moer eecwaly free from anczieety and cair 
in proporshon az dhay reseed from dhe 
moer refiend and mental to dhe groeser 
and bodily employments and moedz ov 
lief; but dhe hapyest condishon iz plaist 
in dhe midl, between dhe ecstreemz ov 
boetK— Kirfc Fhict. \^^ 



9.— "CONSISTENT" (L. Soames). 

[C, ^ =ch, ng. Vowels before vocal r, 
or when final f mostly long by posit ion.'] 

It iz a remark ov un eashant filowsofi- 
knl powet (Hores), dhat evri man thiqks 
hiz neburz kondishun hapiur dhan hiz 
own ; and, indid, komun ekspiriuns showz, 
dhat wi ar tw apt tw cnturten rowmantik 
nowshilnz or absunt, and tw thiqk mlnli 
ov prezunt thiqs ; tw ekstol whot wi hav 
had now ekspiriuns ov, and tw bi diskon- 
tented widh whot wi powzes. Dhi man ov 
biznes syz for dhi swits ov lezhur: dhi 
parson hw, widh u test for ridiq, haz fiw 
oportiwnitiz for it, thiqks dhat manz lyf 
dhi sum ov blis, hw haz nuthiq tw dw 
but tw studi. let it ofn hapnz dhat dhi 
kondishun ov dhi enviur iz hapiur dhan 
dhat ov dhi envid. Iw hav red Dr. Jon- 
sunz tel ov dhi pwr Talow-Candlur, hw, 
aftur syiq for dhi kwyut ov kuntri lyf, 
at leqth skrept muni enuf tw retyr, but 
fawnd hiz loq-sot-for lezhur sow insuport- 
nbl, dhat hi med u voluntnri ofur tw hiz 
suksesur tw kum up tw tawn evri Fryde 
and melt talow for him gretis. It wwd bi 
sow widh haf dhi men ov biznes, hw sy 
sow umestli for dhi swits ov retyrmunt ; 
and iw me resiv it az wun ov dhi muti wr- 
est obzurveshunz Y hav bin ebl tw mek on 
hiwmun lyf, dhat dher iz now kondishun 
sow hapi az dhat ov him hw lidz u lyf ov 
fwl and konstunt emploimunt. Hiz umiwz* 
munts hav u zest whic men ov i)lezhur 
wwd gladli undurgow 51 hiz drujuri tw 
ekspiriuns; and dhi regiwlur sukseshun 
ov biznes, prowvyded hiz sitiweshun bi not 
tw aqkshus, dryvz uwe from hiz bren 
dhowz harasiq spekiwleshunz whic ar kon- 
tiniwuli asoltiq dhi man ov lezhur, and 
dhi man ov ridiq. Dhi stiwdius man, 
dhow hiz plezhurz ar ov dhi mowst refynd 
spTsIiiz, fyndz kerz and distiirbiq thots in 
studi. Tw thiqk muc and dipli wil swn 
mek u man sad. Hiz thots, evur on dhi 
wiq, ofh kari him wher hi shudurz tw bi 
ivn in imajineshun. Hi iz lyk u man in 
slip : sumtymz hiz drimz ar pliziq, but at 
udhurz horur itself teks powzeshun ov hiz 
imajineshun ; and dhis inikwoliti ov myud 
iz olmowst insepurubl from muc medite- 
shun and mental eksursyz. From dhis 
koz it ofn hapnz, dhat leturd and filow- 
sofikul men ar pivish in dher tempurz, 
and ostir in dher manurz. . . Men ar mor 
ikwuli fri from aqzyeti and ker in prow- 
porshun az dhe resTd from dhi mor refynd 
and mentul tw dhi growsur and bodili em- 
ploimunts and mowdz ov lyf; but dhi hapi- 
est kondishun iz plest in dhi inidl, betwln 
dAI ekstrimz ov howth, — Kark WhyL [58 

10.— " COMPENDIOUS " (Evans). 

{For s ei on, a writer may use e ai au.) 
[ Where a e i o o ii are not obtainable^ 
substitute & M 9 6 A or a* e* i" .o o* u*.] 
It iz a remark ov an senshent filosohkal 
poet (Hores), dhat everi man thinks hiz 
mebor'z kondishon hapier dhan hiz dn; 
and, indid, komon expiriens shdz, dhat wi 
ar tu apt tu entertse n romantik n5shonz 
ov absent, and tu think minli ov prezent 
thingz ; tu extol hwot wi hav had no expi- 
riens ov, and tu bi diskontented widh hwot 
wi pozes. Dhe man ov biznes seiz for dhe 
swits ov lezhur: dhe person hu, widh a 
ta^st for riding, haz fiu oportiunitiz for it, 
thinks dhat man'z leif dhe soem ov blis, 
hu haz ncething tu du beet tu stoedi. Yet 
it ofn hapnz dhat dhe kondishon ov dhi 
envier iz hapier dhan dhat ov dhi envid. 
Yu hav red Dr. Jonson'z tsel ov dhe pur 
Talo-Chandler, hn, after seying for dhe 
kweiet ov koentri leif, at length skreept 
mceni enne'f to reteir, boet found hiz long- 
sot-for lezhur so insoeportabl, dhat hi msed 
a voloentari ofer trl hiz soeksesor tu kcem 
oep tu toun everi Freidse, and melt talo for 
him gratis. It wud bi so widh haf dhe 
men ov biznes, hu sei so emestli for dhe 
swits ov reteirment; and yu mse resiv it az 
woen ov dhe matitirest obzervseshonz ei hav 
bin ecbl tu mffik on hiuman leif, dhat dher 
iz no kondishon so hapi az dhat ov him hu 
lidz a leif ov fill and konstant emploiment. 
Hiz amiuzments hav a zest hwich men ov 
plezhur wud gladli oendergo ol hiz droejeri 
tu expiriens ; and dhe regiular SGekseshon 
ov biznes, proveided hiz sitiuseshon bi not 
til ankshoes, dreivz awee from hiz bnea 
dhoz harasiug spekiulseshonz hwich ar kon- 
tiniuali asolting dhe man ov lezhur, and 
dhe man ov riding. Dhe stiudioes man, 
dho hiz plezhurz ar ov dhe most refeind 
spishiz, feindz krerz and distce'rbing thots 
in stoedi. Tu think moech and dipli wil 
sun msek a man sad. Hiz thots, ever on 
dhe wing, ofn kari him hwser hi shoederz 
tu bi ivn in imajinaeshon. Hi iz leik a man 
in slip: SGemteimz hiz drimz ar plizing, 
boet at oedherz horor itself tseks pozeshon 
ov hiz imajimeshon ; and dhis inekwoliti 
ov meind iz olmost inseparabl from moech 
meditaeshon and mental ekserseiz. From 
dhis koz it ofn hapnz, dhat leterd and filo- 
sofikal men ar pivish in dhser temperz, 
and ost^r in dhser manerz. . . Men ar mor 
ikwali fri from angzeieti and krer in pro- 
porshon az dhse resid from dhe mor refeind 
and mental tu dhe groser and bodili em- 
ploiments and modz ov leif; boet dhe hapi- 
est kondishon iz pleest in dhe midl, betwin 
dhi extiimz ov both. — Kerk Hweit, [57 



11— "TEMPORARY" (Candy). 

It iz a remark ov an .enshent filosofikal 

po'et (Hores), dhat everi roan thinks hiz 

n^bor'z kondishon hapier dhan hiz o'n; 

and,, komou eksp.iriens sho'z dhat 

w:i ar t.a apt tu eDtert.en ro'inantik no'- 

shonz ov absent, and tu think m.inli ov 

prezent thingz : tu ekstol whot w.i hav 

had no' ek3p.irien3 ov, and tu b.i diskon- 

tented widh whot w.i pozes. Dhe man ov 

bi^nes si'z for dhe sw.its ov lezhur : dhe 

person h.u, widh a t.est for r.iding, haz 

fu* oportunitiz for it, thinks dhat man*z 

li'f dhe Slim ov blis, h.n haz niithin^ tu 

d.u biit tu stiidi. Yet it often hapenz dhat 

dhe kondishon ov dhe envier iz hapier 

dhan dhat ov dhe envid. Y.u hav red Dr. 

Jonson'z t.el ov dhe p.ur Talo* -Chandler, 

h.u, after si'ing for ^e kwi'et ov kiintri 

lif, at length skr.ept miini eniif tu retir, 

b&t found hiz long-s.ot-for lezhur so' in- 

sUportabel, dhat h.i m.ed a volimtari ofer 

tu hiz siiksesor tu kum iip tu toun everi 

Fri'd.e, and melt talo* for him gr.etis. It 

wud b.i so' widh dhe men ov biznes, 

h.u si* so* emestli for dhe sw.its ov reti'r- 

ment; and y.u m.e resjv it az wiin ov dhe 

maturest obzerv.eshonz I* hav .ebel 

tu m.ek on hu'man li'f, dhat dher iz no' 

kondishon so' hapi az dhat ov him h.u 

l.idz a li'f ov ful and konstant emploiment. 

Hiz amu'zments hav a zest which men ov 

plezhur wud gladli iindergo* .ol hiz driijeri 

tu eksp.iriens; and dhe regu'lar siikseshon 

ov biznes, provi'ded hiz situ'.eshon b.i not 

t.u ankshiis, dri'vz aw.e from hiz br.en 

dho'z harasing speku'heshonz which ar 

kontinu'ali as.olting dhe man ov lezhur, 

and dhe man ov r.iding. Dhe stu'diiis 

man, dho' hiz plezhurz ar ov dhe mo'st 

refi'nd sp.ish.iz, fi'ndz k.erz and distilrbing 

th.ots in stiidi. Tu think miich and d.ipli 

wil 8.un m.ek a man sad. Hiz th.ots, ever 

on dhe wing, often kari him h.i 

shiiderz tu b.i .iven in imajin.eshon. H.i 

iz li'k a man in sl.ip : sumti'mz hiz dr.imz 

ar pl.izing, bilt at iidherz horor itself t.eks 

pozeshon ov hiz imajin.eshon; and dhis 

inekwoliti ov mi'nd iz .olrao'st inseparabel 

from ffliich medit.eshon and mental ekser- 

si'z. Prom dhis k.oz it often hapenz, dhat 

Icterd and filosofikal men ar p.ivish in 

dher temperz, and in manerz. 

. . Men ar mo'r .ikwali fr.i from angzi'eti 

and in proporshon az dh.e from 

dhe mo'r refind and mental tu dhe gro'ser 

and bodili emploiments and mo'dz ov lif ; 

biit dhe hapiest kondishon iz pl.est in dhe 

midel, dhe ekstrimz ov bo'th. — 

Kerk Whi-t. [59 

12.— "UTILITY" (RuNDELL). 

It iz a remark ov an ainshent filosofikal 
po'et (Horcs), that every man thinks hiz 
na'berz kondishon hapier than hiz o'n ; 
and, indeed, komon expe'riens sho'z that 
we' ar tu* apt tu* entertain romantik no'- 
shonz ov absent, and tu' think meenly ov 
prezent thingz ; tu* extol whot we* hav had 
no* expe'riens ov, and tu* be' diskontentcd 
with whot we* pozes. The man ov biznes 
si'z for the sweets ov lezher : the person 
hu*, with a taist for re'ding, haz fii* opor- 
tu'nitiz for it, thinks that manz li'f the 
sum ov blis, hu* haz nuthing tu* du' but 
tu' study. Yet it ofn hapnz that the kon- 
dishon ov the envier iz hapier than that 
ov the envid. Yu' hav red Dr. Jonsouz 
tail ov the pu'r Talo'-Chandler, hu', after 
sying for the kwiet ov kuntry li'f, at 
length skraipt muny enuf tu* retrr, but 
found hiz loug-saut-for lezher so* insuport- 
abl, that he" maid a voluntary ofer tu' hiz 
sukseser tu* kum up tu* toun every Friday, 
and melt talo* for him graitis. It wud be* 
so* with haaf the men ov biznes, hu' sy* 
so* ernestly for the sweets ov reti*rment ; 
and yu* may reseev it az wun ov the ma- 
tuYest obzerva*shonz I hav been a'bl tu* 
maik on hu'man li'f, that thair iz no' kon- 
dishon so* hapy az that ov him hu leedz a 
li'f ov ful and konstant emploiment. Hiz 
amu'zments hav a zest which men ov ple- 
zher wild gladly undergo* aul hiz drujery 
tu* ekspe'riens; and the regu'ler sukseshon 
ov biznes, provi'ded hiz situ'a'shon be* not 
tu* ankshus, dri'vz away from hiz brain 
tho'z harasing speku'la'shonz which ar kon- 
tinu'aly asaulting the man ov lezher, and 
the man ov re'ding. The stu'dius man, tho* 
hiz plezherz ar ov the mo'st refi'nd spe*- 
sheez, fi'ndz kairz and disturbing thauts 
in study. Tu* think much and deeply wil 
su'n maik a man sad. Hiz thauts, ever 
on the wing, ofh kary him whair he" shud- 
erz tu* be* eevn in imajina'shon. He* iz li*k 
a man in sleep : sumti'mz hiz dreemz ar 
ple*zing, but at utherz horer itself talks 
pozeshon ov hiz imajina*shon; and this 
inequolity ov mi'nd iz aulmo'st inseparabl 
from much medita'shon and mental ekser- 
si'z. From this kauz it ofn hapnz, that 
leterd and filosofikal men ar pe'vish in 
thair temperz and austeer in thair manerz. 
. . Men ar mo'r e'qualy fre* from angziety 
and kair in proporshon az thay reseed 
from the moT refi*nd and mental tu* the 
gro'ser and bodily emploiments and mo*dz 
ov li*f ; but the hapiest kondishon iz plaist 
in the midl, between the extrcemz ov 
ho'ih.—Kerk Whit. [50 


NOTES ON THE SCUEUES — continued. 
Nos. 8 AND 7.—" EUROPIC " and " SUGGESTIVE." 

Mr. Ellis has kindly contributed the following note on these schemes : — 

" The only schemes with old letters which I have folly elaborated are Glossic and 
Dimidian. As this full elaboration was evidently too much for the general reader; I 
left my Enropic and Suggestive in the condition of sketches, both of them admitting, 
and probably requiring, alterations to which I was not able to devote sufficient time. 
In both I have aimed at thorough consistency, joined with a certain amount of laxity, 
which appeared necessary for practical work. 

" In Europic I wished to give the pure Ijatin basis the fairest possible trial. The 
use of duplication for long vowels was even a Latin expedient, occasionally used. The 
great peculiarity is the use of the asper ( ' ) for the aspirate. Further consideration 
would lead me to modify this, as in Suggestive, using h initially and 'h otherwise. 

" Suggestive was an attempt to use such forms only as have been for long commonly 
used by other writers to suggest the English vowel sounds. The only exceptions were 
ft, uuy for long i and u in ' pull,' which most writers leave uudifferentiated from i and u. 

" I would merely here note, that neither Europic nor Suggestive must be considered 
as definitive proposals ; but merely as indicating two possible, but divergent methods. 
Of these, Europic would find most favour with those who would treat English spelling 
on merely logical grounds, as if no other spelling existed ; and Suggestive with those 
who consider, as I do, that the existence of another spelling is an all-important factor 
in deciding on the adoption of any scheme. The former is literary, the latter edu> 
cational.— A. J. Ellis." 

No. 4.—" UNION." 

In this scheme, the simple vowel-signs take their general European names, and the 
typical values of a, e, o, u are recognised to be those in open unaccented syllables 
(as in "firmament, evzdent, ebquent, instrwment"), while the typical value of e is 
found in its stopped or accented short souud (as in " pet, impHuous "). Under primary 
or secondary accent, a, t, o, u idiomatically take special English varieties of their typi- 
cal powers (as in " pat, pit, pot, pall"), and in most unaccented syllables e assumes a 
special narrow sound nearly like that of » (as in "incr«iient, goodn^s'*). 

The symbol as is used as the typical Romanic representative of the mixed stopped 
vowel in " b«t, done ;" but in obscure syllables the letters a, e, o, u are allowed to 
represent the sounds which Englishmen idiomatically give them in such positions. 

The most approximately analytical digraphs, as derived from the typical powers of 
the vowels, are used for long and diphthongal sounds. In aa, it, uu (salve, stVge, 
soon), simple prolongation of the brief sounds is represented by reduplication; in a (or 
ea), ao, oa {^eav pavtm, pore), intermediate sounds are denoted by conjunction; while, 
in eiy ou, ai, au, oi, iu {yeH, %ou\, o/sle, ow\, oil, new), combined or diphthongal sounds 
are expressed by their typical elements. 

Consonantal and semivocal r, in " roar," are easily distinguished by position, as are 
analogously diverse powers of French n in "non." When not immediately followed by a 
vowel, r modifies the sound of a preceding vowel, as in '* er, erring, truest " (compare 
French "eH, enjmi, ^wfant"); and final r before a subjoined word commencing with a 
vowel has a double power, as " moar emest " = " moar r-emest ** (comp. French " mon 
enfant " = " mon n-enfant ") . 

Accent is marked when its position cannot be determined by such general accentual 
principles of the language as those stated in the Ejrperimenter for October (p. 9). 


Nos. 5, 6.— "COLLATERAL." 

''Fiat Experimentam " says, that since penning the concluding sentence of his expo- 
sition of Collateral Spelling, given in onr last number, his confidence in regard to the 
tferacticability of such a compromise has been increased, not only by the favorable tone 
^f Mr. B. Jones's remarks on one side, but by the appended encouraging opinion of 
^r.'T. Pagliardini on the other : — 

"I read your commnnication with pleasure, and liked your clever specimen very 
inach. It comes as near to something rational as I think possible without new letters, 
and makes the greatest of all advances towards an international system. I approve of 
the introduction of 'se' and 'ce' as distinct symbols, though I fear they may be difficult 
to distinguish in rapid writing [see p. 61 ante] ; and the only admissible digraphs are 
those formed by doubling the vowel or by adding h." 


" Yoo ask me to join yoo and udherz in a paralel ecshibishon ov a pasej ov yoor oen 
selecshon in diferent sistemz ov speling. I am cwiet wiling to acsept yoor termz, pro- 
vieded dhat yoo and dhe udher ecshibitorz wil ecsplain dhe purpos for which yoor and 
dher vershonz ar intended, az I am now dooing with regard to mien. 

" I wont a sistem ov reformd speling which we can ask dhe Government to adopt in 
Public Elementary Scoolz, and which may be uezd aulso for jeneral purposez. 

" If dhe sistem can be maid to harmoniez widh Mr." Pitman'z Fomografy, widh dhe 
Continental langwejez, and widh meny udher condishonz dhat hav been imported into 
dhe cwestion, wel and gwd ; but for me its fitues for scool and jeneral ues iz dhe first 
and prinsipal consideraishon, and aul udher condishonz ar ov secondary importans. 

" It seemz to me a perfectly uesles waist ov tiem to discus and debait upon points ov 
deetail, unles and until we ar agreed upon dhe cwestion az to eny skeem, ' Whot wil 
yoo doo widh it ?* 

" Dhe Engglish Speling Reform Asosiaishon orijinaited &om a depuetaishon to dhe 
Eduecaishon Department, and it iz nesesary to hair in miend dhat no departuer from 
dhe cnrent stiel ov speling can be permited in Inspected Scoolz widhout dhe saucshon 
ov dhe Department, eny moer dhan dhe ues ov a nue riefl-gun can be introduest into 
dhe Army widhout dhe aprooval ov dhe Hors Gardz. 

Eny sistem ov reformd speling, to hav dhe leest chans ov such endorsment, must be 
priniabl, rietabl, reedabl, and, abuv aul, it must be ' bakt by dhe wait ov grait autho- 
rity;' and I must confes to my grait regret and astonishment, dhat dheez elemeutary 
and indispensabl condishonz hav been so much disregarded in reesent debaits, and dhat 
too much prominens haz been given to materz ov meer specuelaishon, and, if I may 
say so, to personal jelusy and ambishon, az dho it wer a mater ov eny grait consern to 
Engglish-speekiug peeplz, whedher dhe naimz ov Pitman, Ellis, Evans, Fleay, Jones, 
March, Longley, &c., shwd be moest prominently asoshiaited widh dhis grait reform. 

" It seemz to me dhat it wwd graitly tend to sum uesful and practicsd rezult in dhe 
discushon and comparison ov skeemz, if dhe foloing points wer cairfuly obzervd : — 

" I. Dhat dhe chois ov simbolz for soundz iz wun thing, and dhe pronunsiai^hon ov 
particuelar wurdz iz auudher. It wwd tend to avoid confuezhon if orthografy 
and orthoeepy wer kept distinct. 

" 2. Dhat widh regard to sum ov dhe simbolz, notably dhe simbol for u in * but, put,* 
it iz a cais ov a chois ov dificultiz; dhat iz to say, whotever chois iz maid, it 
wil not be free from dificultiz and objecshonz, and we must proseed upon dhe 
prinsipl ov choozing dhe leest ov too eevilz. 

" S. It wwd graitly help a satisfactory conqluezhon if propoezalz wer discust on dher 
merits, and apart from personz. « g Jones." 


No. 10.— "COMPENDIOUS." 

This scheme only differs from " Union " in the representation of the six commonly* 
recognised long vowels, and (optionally) of the two diphthongs in *' bind, b^^nd." It is 
submitted as meeting the objections: — 1. That vowel-digraphs are bulky and unwieldy; 
2. That ei^ ou, for the sounds in "vein, mould," represent dialectical pronunciation; 
H. That au, ou for the sounds in " loud, note," and much more «i for the sound in 
*' pine," would produce clashing spellings ; 4. That this use of the simbols ei, ou, at, cm 
would be inconsistent with the notation in uew-letter Phouotypy. 

It should be noted, that the long vowels in " drama, eidial, potent, rddiment," are 
derived from the brief ones in "dramatik, kordtal, imp(7teut, erirdeit;" and that only 
*8e* (e) and '.o* (o, 9) have stopped vowela for their nearest corresponding short sounds. 

By employing *e, ai, an,' for the concessional and more suggestive 'se, ei, on,' the 
most thorough-going internationalism may be satisfied; while, by using &=i-, and final 
y, 10= t, «, readers of the old spelling may be conciliated and assisted, in the epistolary 
application of the scheme, which, by these variations, becomes " collateral." 

Typografically, the use of the macron or circumflex is made practicable where marked 
letters are available, by providing the substitutes "A* (E*) I* .0 O* U* " for all kinds of 
capitals, and "a* (e*) i* .0 o* u*" for small letters where necessary; while the compara- 
tive infirequency of the marks prevents confusion or annoyauee to the reader or writer, 
only 23 of them being employed where 57 would be written in John Faulder's spelling, 
and 90 in Stephen Pearl Andrews's. 

In writing, " a 1 o 6 u " (and *e' when used for *8e*) may be expressed by Mr. Isaac 
Pitman's convenient and suggestive new script letters, — "Compendious" being com- 
pletely in harmony with English Phonotypy, as it is substantially in accord with the 
system of the American Association, in which long vowels are denoted by the macron. 

That " Compendious " deserves its name, is shown by its saving, in comparison with 
the other deven schemes, from 1 to 4 lines in a columm of 60, — a gain varying from 
1*66 to 6*^6 per cent, or from a quarter to the whole of a column in eight pages. 

No. 11.— "TEMPORARY." 
Professor Candy, in a note accompanying his "copy," wrote: — 
" I' am sori tu fi'nd u* set agenst nu* ti'ps. I* ^ink it wud b.i a ge.n tu intro- 
dn's .iven wnn nu* ti*p, si>ch az *u* or *6.* Tu an ordineri r.ider, *ob* iz moT a nn* 
leter dhan *m* * Beet, roesh, doel,' ar much mo'r pnzling dhan ' but, rush, duL' So*, 
in mi* opinyon, it wud bi much .izier tn introdu's *u* dhan *(e.* "Wun h.u r.idz bi* dhe 
wurdz wud not no'tis dhe ch.enj. If u* wish tu konfi'n fo'netik speling tu -6.iorists and 
sttt* dents ov langw,ej, bi* .ol m.iuz u'z 'oe*; but I' 6ink dhe 'Poeblic* wil never aksept 
dhat n.em, dho* dh.e wud ' Publik.' If dhe Publik d.u aksept it, dhen dhe printerz wil 
b.i oblijd tu get a svpli* ov ti*p. 

" If I-'t hav 'u,' I* wil hav * il,* for dhe sound in buL'' 

No. 12.— "UTILITY." 

Mr Rundell appended this remark to his "copy" of the Extract: — 

""It would be necessary to add, that the above represents * Utility* only when the 
absence of cut letters is compulsory; and that ' I) u, Fh th ' is the way in which * but ' 
and ' thin * would be represented. Dotted and cut letters are meant to be standing 
appeals in favour of new types." 

In a subsequent communication, Mr. Rundell wrote : — 

" I should refuse, personally, to be bound by the rejection of cut type, if consistently 
fonetic spelling is required; but for the bulk of the [projected] magazine, I think 
partial changes only should be used. I want it clearly to be understood, that digrafs, 
dotted letters, and new types are optional equivalents. My basis for distinguishing 
' reed, re'ding ' is syllabic division, not arbitrary." 

Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, Qneen Square, London, W.C. 




{N'ot issued by the English Spelling Reform Association.) 

London: P. PITMAN, 20 Pateenoster Row. 

No. 11] JULY, 1881. [Pn>^ U. 

All Communicatiotis should be addressed to W. R. EVANS, 3 Gloucestir 

Street^ Queen Square^ London^ W,C. 


In dhe Ikst noember ov dhi Experimenter wi put befor aur ilderz a 
paralel eksibishon ov twelv skiniz ov old-leter refonnd apelliig. Wi 
sed dhen, dhat wi had tekn penz tu prezent dhe spesimenz fa3rli and 
korektli, and had obtend revizhon ov ich spesimen bai dhi othor ov 
its skim; and wi aded, dhat it rested widh aur riderz tu giv efekt tu 
dhis woerk, and oerjd everi woen hu felt an interest in dhe mater tu 
inform oes bai leter or post-kard hwich skim or sklmz hi or slii kon- 
sWerd most elijibl for yus in an old-leter fonetik piriodikal. Wi 
engejd tu poeblish faerli and intelijibli dhe rezoe'lt ov a kanvas pro- 
pozd and rekwaird kwait independentii ov dhat projekted bai dhe 
Speling Reform Asosieshon, hwich later wil, wi beliv, bi komenst 
befor dhis noember ov dhi Eacpenmenter iz ishud. Tu dhe rlzonz dhat 
wi dhen adiust for aur on separet boet not kompetitiv akshon, wi mS 
nau ad anoedher — tu wit, dhat dhe kanvas fnstitiuted bai dlii AsdsiS- 
shon kanot bi expekted tu lid tu eni praktikal rezoelts for moenths 
tu koem, konsidering dhat dhe woerking ov a bodi ov men iz nesesa- 
rili tardi hwen its memberz kan onli spser taim for okezhonal mitingz 
tu exchenj and diskoe's divers individiual viuz, and espeshali konsid- 
ering dhat dhe holide sizon wil shortli araiv, hwen most memberz ov 
dhi Ekzekiutiv Kbmiti wil bi Uterali skaterd abrod. 

Aur apll tu dhe riderz ov dhis piriodikal, tu giv oes soem indik@- 
shon ov dhe most akseptabl lain on hwich wi kud direkt aur enerjiz, 
haz not, so far, bin. resp6nded tu az wi kud dezair. It iz trQ dhat 
aur Jun noember woz not distribiuted amoeng dhe bcelk ov dhe 
memberz ov dhi Asosieshon oentfl dhe kloz ov dhe moenth, thru dele 
in prodiiising dhe konkoe'rent noember ov dhe Reformer; boet, in dhe 
min hwail, wi posted, at aur on expens, kopiz tu memberz ov dhe 
Jeneral Komfti, along widh a peper on " Parshal Korekshonz iu 
Ingglish Speling/' hwich haz sins apird in dhe Fonetik JcsrnaL 
From dhiz memberz ov dhe Komiti wi hav reslvd finer respdnwz 
dhaii ivu aur modest konsepshon ov dhe probabl had led 08S tu anti- 


sipet. Abaut haf ov dhi opinionz hwich hav kcem tu hand Sim tu 
hav ^inaneted from dhe veri limited noember ov persouz hu poBrches 
dhis poeblikeshon thru dhe bukseling tred, or from dhe moech larjer 
noember tu hum aur kontribiuterz dispens dhe bachez ov kopiz gra- 
tiuitoesli soeplaid tu dhe later for distribiushon. Opinionz koeming 
from eni personz hu tek an interest in Speling Reform, ar akseptabl 
and valiuabl tu oes ; beet hwot wi partikiularli sik iz expreshon ov 
viuz from memberz ov dhi Asosieshon, tu hum dhis piriodikal iz 
chifli adrest. 

Wi hav perse vi'rd widh aur self-impozd tksk ov printing and ishu- 
ing dhi Expert mentev for elevn moenths, and hav not sed moech abaut 
personal lebor, hwich iz az voloentari az it iz non-remiiinerativ. Wi 
hav charjd propaunderz ov skimz (hwen dhe kud aford tu pe) dhe 
mir kost ov prodiiising dhe porshonz ov dhe peper aktiuali okiupaid 
bai dhem ; beet wi hav not reslvd, diuring dhe sevn moenths hwich 
hav elapst sins wi adopted dhis plan for laitning aur on boerdn, az 
moech az wi hav had tu pe aut ov poket in hard kash. Teking last 
moenth az an ekzampl, aur resits from kontribiuterz amaunted tu 
27/6 ; hwail wi had tu pe — peper, 9/6 ; pres-woerk, 10/- ; folding 
and stiching, 3/- ; postej, abaut 5/ — ^total, 27/6. Az for aur lebor 
ov seting oep dhe taip (hwich woz woerth abaut 45/-), aur extra ex- 
pens for rent tu akomodet printing aplaiansez, and aur koerent autle 
on akauut ov plknt, ol dhis woz fiili kontribiuted tu a koz hwich 
demandz from Ich ov its soeporterz dhe sakrifais ov hwot serkoem- 
stansez enebl him tu giv. In kompenseshon, wi hav at list had meni 
flatering rekognishoiiz, poeblik and praivet, ov aur eforts, hwich 
rekognishonz hav bin noen dhe les apri'shieted bekgz wi hav not med 
a sho ov dhem in print. 

Wi refer tu dhis mater nau, not widh eni aidia ov komplening ov 
dhe boerdn hwich wi hav witingli tekn oep, and ivn faind plezhur 
in baering, nor widh dhi objekt ov siking help, eksept in woen maner. 
Wi wil in diu taim indiket hau, in a pekiuniari fashon, enkoerejment 
me bi givn tu aur fiutiur, radher dhan reword tu aur past eforts ; boet 
at prezent wi ask mlrli for kaunsel from aur riderz, widhaut eni 
dezain or dezair tu komft dhem tu poeblisiti or tu pekiuniari laiabiliti. 
Not onli for aur on sek, boet for dhat ov aur felo ek^ibiterz, soem ov 
hum hav far transended aur smol sakrifaisez tu dhe fonetik koz, wi 
hir agen oerj dhi expreshon ov opinion on dhe Twelv Skimz. Dhe 
troebl wil not bi veri gret ov puting a fiu lainz on n5t-peper or post- 
kard, and despaching tu dhi adres givn in froent ov dhis artikl. Wi 
wil print everi komiunikeshon wi resiv, aidher oender inishalz az in 
dhe prezent noember, or oender a nom de plume^ if f oemisht in adishon 
tu rial nem. Dhe later wH onli bi wonted for aur 5n personal infor- 
mesboD, or for verffikeshon in a praWet ski>\\i«i\, l^^etv xioi^^ndent 


wil rekognaiz hiz on komiunikeshon in print, both bai signatiur and 
xnater, and dhe soepreshon ov eni komiunikeshon iz renderd imprak- 
't^ikabl, hwen ich kan bi dhoes aidentifaid, or its absens detekted. 

Wi wish tu hav it thoerili oenderstiid, dhat wi ^ar not speshali or 
^xklu'sivli kanvasing for soeport tu aur o-n personal krochets. Ex- 
^i-riens in fo'netik raiting and printing haz konvinst oes — (1) dhat 
aBo-k.old Ingglish daigrafs (in dhe selekshon and aplike'shon ov hwich 
:3io tii* personz du or kud agri*) wud bi intolerabl az dhe mi-nz ov aur 
:fitttiur spi'ch-reprezente'shon ; (2) dhat daiakritisaizd leterz on dhe 
" mate, mete, mite, mote, mute " be*sis wud bi preposteroea ; (3) dhat 
aur no'bi toeng iz not tu bi permanentli drest in a motli garb for dhe 
preziiimd ra*dher dhan dhe demonstre-ted benefit ov tii* or thri' jene- 
re'shonz ov sku-l children, and for dhe al^jd konviniens ov prezent 
adoe'lts hu wil never troebl dhemselvz widh a niii speling ; (4) dhat 
personal fansiz or kontraivansez, widh regard tu niu literal formz 
and novl aplike'shonz ov leterz or marks, moest bi avoided ; (5) dhat 
esenshali temporari and me'kshift expi-dients ov no'te'shoii ar inad- 
misibl ; and (6) dhat yet dher moest bi an aproksimetli fo-netik o'ld- 
leter reprezeute'shon ov aur spi'ch, for dhe prezent difiuzhon ov 
fo'netik prinsiplz, and for dhe fiutiur reprezente'shon ov Ingglish 
hwaer niu leterz ar not ave-labl. Widhin dhi-z limite-shonz, and aur 
o*ld woen ov soebstanshal konformiti tu Mr. Pitman*z Fo'notipi, wi 
hav devaizd or kompaild vaerioes ski-mz ov orthografik reprezente'- 
shon, and wi soebmit several for joejmeht nau, tu aur o-n prejudis if 
'wi wer mrrli aktiue*ted bai kompetitiv ambishon. 

Wi giv aboe'v an ekzemplifike'shon ov a ski*m in hwich (pace Mr. 
E. Jones) leterz and marks ar aplaid akording tu jeneral YuTopi*an 
praktis and .othoritativ presedent ; boet wi moest in f aernes point aut 
tu dhe ri-der, dhat dhe markt vauelz, a, e, f, p, o, u (or d^ e, «, o, o, w), 
ar not komonli f aund az kapitalz, and skaersli ekzist at .ol beyond 
ro*man and italik taip : dhserf or for taitlz, advertizments, bilz, kardz, 
ets., and oke'zhonali for ple'n printing in skantili-foeruisht printing* 
ofisez, dhi altemativ ov dhe toernd piriod (iloestre-ted in dhi-z tii* 
Ikst paragrafs) wud hav tu bi emploid. If it iz konsiderd dhat dhis 
devais wud bi moT tolerabl tu ri-derz dhan analitikal boet chi-fli niu 
daigrafs, dhen " Kompendioes " me* bi soebmited az in everi respekt 
a praktikal permanent o-ld-leter reprezente*shon ov Ingglish. Dhe 
yu's ov markt leterz or daigrafs, hauever, iz simpli a kwestion ov 
te*st or fansi in di-te*lz, and not woen ov prinsipl, laik dhat ov Ana- 
lojikal or Konvenshonal valiuz. Stil dhi o-nli mo*d ov setling aidher 
kwestion iz dhi expreshon ov opinion on soech a komparativ eksibi- 
bishon az wi hav put befoT aur ri-derz ; and wi troest dhat bai soech 
expreshon wi shal not o-nli obte-n gaidans az tu points ov praktis, 
beet shal bi se-vd dhe troebl ov foerdher diakca'^Vii^ iet^\,^^\\j^^\\Vit« 



From T). B.:— "I prefer, on the whole. No. 8 [Eoropic]. I would like, however, 
(1) to have Ute initial k instead of apostrophe. (2) ' Hwot ' is better thsui * whot.' 
(9) There appenr to be some inconsistencies ; ep., line 1, o is lengthened bj k in '6loh- 
lofikal,' a by r in ' rimark/ and ar represents a different sound in ' voloeutari.' Again, 
line 20, we have in ' sought ' and ' support ' sounds which seem to me iudistingaishable 
Tepresented by oo and or. (4) Oo of * all,' which is the repetition of the short o, would 
be confounded with long o in ' home,' and is hardly conformable with the notation of 
other vowels." 

From L. B. B. : —" Most of the schemes published in your Experimenter for Jnne 
•eem to me well adapted for use in a jieriodica], but I distinctly prefer the one you 
term * Union/ " 

From R. C: — " My opinion is that none of the 'schemes' as yet presented are at all 
possi6/e, except Pitman's— of which more afterwards — and your 'Compendious,* with 
some modifications. I don't like at for ii in 'cut': while admitting the arguments for 
it, it is not suggestive enough. I should prefer simple ii, which every educated (in the 
three R.'s) Englishman woidd read aright at vght. Though my own pronunciation of 
jr in ' my ' is, as you make it, at, I should prefer to represent it by ei, which every one 
wonid understand, which has the advantage of the analogy of the Germanic alphabets, 
and which represents its pronunciation by very many people, at home and abroad. I 
also pronounce 'cow' very nearly kau, and in the abstract prefer that representation of 
it; but for legibility and suggestiveness would write ou iu preference — which, also, is 
the pronunciation used by many.* . . . But, on the whole, I like your 'Compendious' 
scheme far best, and would willingly accept it as it stands as a pit oiler y if you don't 
agree with what 1 have said above." 

Prom A. J. E.:— " I don't like (1) Broad Romic, (2) Cheilic, (4) Union, (5) Ana- 
logical, (8) Popular, (9) Consistent, (10) Compendious, (11) Temporary, (12) Utility. 
Remain — (7) Suggestive (with «', ey for it, ly, and perhaps r>* ioToh short), (3) Eiiropic 
(with A, *A, and perhaps o* short), (6) Conventional. For literary purposes, I think 
Kuropie (with h, 'h, and o*) far the best adapted. It is simplicity itself. Kor scho<^ 
and educational ui^e, I prefer Suggestive. But for triaf alphabets I think we might 
have all three, and see which works the best iu schools." 

From Jaorj F.: — " Az yuu aask for oupinyonz on dhe merits ov yunr sistemz ov 
speling, Ai rait tu sei dhat dhe houl bailin iz enoef tu giv a feler ' hel in hiz inardz.' 
Yuur 'Yuunion' iz, hauever, les fiziolojikali uaosieiting dhan dhi (sdherz. Mai plan iz 
tu let piipl spel as dhei pliiz, and sou sciv a lot ov trcebl." 

From P. K.: — " Your ' Union ' spelling is, in the opinion of all my friends who are 
interested iu Spelling Reform, the beat idea you have yet put forth." 

From J. L.: — " I think Broad Romic is the only consistent scheme of phonetic 
spelling which has hitherto appeared, and with new or turned letters it would work 
perfectly. But until reformers are educated up to its level, I am content, for present 
popular use, to accept your ' Uuion.' " 

Froii J. M.: — " In reply to your request, I have to state, that taking your twelve 
parallel schemes all in all, 1 prefer No. 8 [Popular English]. There are, however, 
several syrubolisations in it to which I have strong objeotiops —notably, ' poeet, hapyer, 
dhan, whot, widh, lezhur, cwieet, aibl, fwl, wwd, udherz, inecwolity, eecwaly,' &c. All 
of these are un-English combinations of letters, and are as objectionable as any new 
letters can be." 

Vx'o.w T. P.:—" I prefer full Collateral (Analogical, No. 5) to any of the other old- 
letter schemes. But I have no objection (perhaps rather the contrary) to * a e i 6 u,* 

* AVi wish at prezent tu alou, az wi ekserseiz, dhi opshon ov reiting ai au, or W, /?«, 
and prefer ' Kompendioes * ta * Yiinion,' bek.oz in dhe former dhis miit point iz left opu 
for m5r rnatiur konsidereshon. Az for ii, it wud introdius a therd frikwent deiakritikal 
mark, bel hwich embarasinent wud bi k.ozd in woerdz leik * abstriis, k5piiis, profius ;" 
hwcil tl doBZ not ckzist (leik CE (saa (E oe) m .ol vareietiz ov teip, nor admit ov a sceb- 
stitiushonal rcpi*ezentativ (az widh a* e* i* .o o* u* = a e i o 6 u or ft S i 9 6 ft). Best for 
dhis koasidereshou ov teipografikal soebstitints, wi meit hav a e i 6 u. — W. R, E}. 


instead of the heavier ' aa se ii oh uu/ for the old or Roman toonds of the five vowels, 
as I am sure the accents would soon fall naturally into disuse as they became less neces* 
sary to determine the souud. £ither of these plans, however, I should only use pro- 
visionally, as an easy transition to the restoration of these letters to their old and still 
by &r most general use." 

From J. I). R.: — " After comparing the various systems given in your SpeUing JEr- 
periinenter^ I think your ' Union ' is the best." 

From C. K. S.: — "I don't much like any of the schemes in the Ejtpitrimenter for 
June, and don't think you can get on without new letters. Taking your own conditions, 
I think the best thing yon have produced is the ' Union ' spelling, and next to it (he 
/ Kuropic' " 

From G. S.: — "I have looked through your Experimenter for June, and beg to 
inform you that I prefer your scheme. No. 4, ' Union,' as being the most suitable for 
popular use." 

From J. T.:— " As you are good enough to ask for opinions of the readert of the 
Erperimenter as to the workable merits of the schemes given in the June number, I 
veuture to send you my opinion. I should choose either ' Union ' or the ' Analogical 
Collateral,* the former preferably." 



Due cheef, indeed now aulmoest dhe oenly, efectiv objecshon against a reformd 
speling, iz dhe wont ov agreement amnng speling reformers. It iz dhe oeld stoery ov 
dhe bundl ov stiks. 

Every efort, dherfor, iz to be comended, which aimz at a moer jeneral agreement 
amnng dhe advocaits of Speling Reform az to dhe fundamental prinsiplz and dhe prac- 
tical deetailz ov a skeem to be recomended for public adopshon. In dhis way we shal 
best reply to dhe taunt ov dhe enemy, " See how yoo Speling Reformerz ar divieded 
amnng yoorselvz !" 

Az a practical printer, no wun can be moer competent to speek upon dhe nesesary 
condishonz and limitaishonz, which in practis must modify and restrict meer theoretical 
consideraishonz, dhan dhe Editor ov dhe Ecsperimenter, 

Poloing up dhe good wurk comenst by dhe Skeemz Comitee ov dhe E. S. R. A., dhe 
Ecfperimenter iz rendering ecselent servis by dhe paralel ecshibishon ov skeemz under 
dhe nesesary practical condishonz. 

Points ov Agreement, 

It may be taiken az a setld point now, dhat, whotever may be dhe ultimait form ov 
speech-reprezentaishon, dher must be for prezent practical purposez, a sistem ov speling 
in which dhe prezent leterz ov dhe alfabet oenly ar uezd, widhout eny new, cut, tumd, 
or markt leterz. 

It iz furdher agreed amung moest Engglish fouetishanz dhat dhe number ov distinc- 
tiv soundz simpl and compound, to be simboliezd, iz forty. 

Widh very few ecsepshonz, which wil be discust afterwardz, moest authorz ov skeemz 
ar agreed upon dhe soundz to be aloted to dhe foloing leterz and diegrafs : — 

(1) Singgl Consonants — b, d, f, g, h, j, 1, m, n^ p, r, s, t, v, w, y, z ... 17 
(i) JHegraf Consonants — ch, sh, th, ng, dh, zh ... .». »., 6 

(3) Singgl Foioefz — a, e, i, o ... ... ... .*. 4 

(4) Diegraf Vowiilz — aa, oi ... ... ... ... ..* 2 

To dhis may be aded dhe very jeneral and groing dispozishon to retain e and k for 
dhe sound dhay hav in comon. 

Dhis bringz up dhe simbolz for soundz, respecting which dher iz aulmoest perfect 
agreement among a considerabl number ov skedA-ttiaiktti, t6 fhiftj Ollt of db# tOKiJ 
soundz, or three-forths ov dhe hoel. 


Widh 80 meny points ov agreement, it haz been a constant wander to me, why Spel- 
ing Reformerz shwd not agree to acsept dheez points oy agreement az dhe busis ov a 
Oomon Skeem, and, insted ov piting wan aathor against anadher, and wan skeem 
against anadher, to disoas in a free and frendly way dhe points oy diferens and dhe 
prinsiplz anderlying dheez points ov diferens. 

Points ov Diferetu. 

Dhe prinsipal points ov diferens amang skeemz ov speling widhoat new leterz relait 
to dhe simbolz for dhe vowel and difthong soandz herd in " ail, aadit, eel, eider, old, 
fend, ooze, out, bat, pat," — ten in anl. 

Dhe selecshon ov simbolz for dheez soandz dependz on dhe anserz given to dhe folo- 
iug cwestionz: — 

1. Shwd dhe conveenyens ov forenerz be preferd to dhat ov Engglishmen ? 

2. Iz \i practical and dezierabl to pair dhe vowel-soundz long and short, %nd to seek 

for similarity ov shaip in dhe simbolz for relaited soandz ? 

3. Iz it practical and dezierabl to rcprezent vowel difthongz by dher elements ? 

Now, our contenshon iz, dhat every wan ov dheez cwestionz haz been practicaly 
setld, and desieded by every skeem adopting ^ and ch, and a, e, i, o for dher comon 
Engglish valuez. 

"Continental valuez," "pairing ov simbolz,** "difthong analisis,** hav aul given 
way to Engglish valuez, and dhe oenly lojical and consistent cors iz to folo ap dhis 
prinsipl throo-out. 

Why handicap dhe cwestion ov Speling Reform by importing into dhe discushon ov 
ov it irrelevant and imposibl condishonz ? 


Dhe adopshon ov to for dhe " put ** vowel wwd at wuns get rid ov a hoest ov dificnl- 
tiz. Dher can be no practical, lojical, or theoretical objecshon to it, which daz not 
aply in a far graiter degree to every udher simbol propoezd for dhis sound. 

q = itff, e = ch, &c. 

If brevity wer everything, or eevn dhe prinsipal thing, dhe turning ov discarded 
leterz to diferent uesez miet be justified. Brevity, however, wwd be deerly baut at dhe 
ecspens ov cleernes aud distinctnes, and dhe clashing dhat wwd ocur in such wurdz az 
«e^'^ = singing, cart = chart. Mr. Bull haz reduest dhis propoezal to a practical absurd- 
ity by carying it out thuroly, widh theoretical consistensy turning a lag number of dis- 
carded leterz ov dhe prezent alfabet to simboliez udher soundz in hiz sistem. 

Mathematicaly dhe shortest distans from wun point to anudher iz a strait lien, but in 
practis ofen dhe furdhest way round iz dhe neerest way hoem. 



1. "Why shwd Continental valuez for votoelz be so strongly urjd, when nobody claims 
speshal Continental valuez for consonants ? 

2. Why shwd not/ be restoerd to its normal, historical, and Continental fiincshon, 
az in Jerman "jahr," and let us spel Engglish "yard, yam, yon, yell, young,** &4i.jard, 

3. Why atempt to establish a corespondens in dhe shaips ov pairz ov vowel simbolz, 
when eny atempt ov dhe kiend iz admited to be impracticabl widh dhe consonant 
simbolz ? 

4. Why not snbstituet discarded q for t, in order to cary out dhis preshns noeshon, 
and so hav a perfect set ov simbolz coresponding in shaip for coresponding soundz — 
dhas, b pt d <?'— and dhen riet V tit for tat ** az qiqfor qaq ? Why not P 

5. Why shwd so much stres be laid apon reprezenting vowel difthongz by dhair 
elements, and not consonant difthongz liek^, ch? Why not riet tshurtsh for "church;" 

and DzJhrdzA for " George ** ? Wwd dlua be too ndi^iviVoa^ 


6. Ar not dhe consonant elements ov^, ch unmistaikabl ? Ar not dhe vowel elements 
in long i, », ou, debaitabl points nntil now ? 

7. Ar not p by t dy e g,fv, s Zy &c. perfect pairz ov soandz, widhont dhe remoetest 
rezemblans in dhe shaips ov dhe leterz between moest ov dhe pairz ? 

8. Iz it not a fact dhat a very grait diversity ov opinion prevailz amnng ecsperts az 
to dhe pairing ov vovoelzy dhe simbolz for which it iz atempted to mach in shaip ; whiel 
ecsperts ar jeneraly agreed az to dhe perfect pairing ov dhe consonant sonndz, wher no 
atempt iz maid to establish a corespondens in dhe shaips ov dhe pairz ? 

9. Wwd not dhe intelijent forener consider, and rietly consider, dhat he woz bam- 
boozld and triefld widh, when toeld dhat dhe ordinary Engglish reeder had been throen 
oeverboerd in dhis mater for hiz, dhe forener'z, speshal benefit, in a pecueliar maner, by 
giving to dhe leterz a, e^ e, Oy », in dhe new Engglish speling, soundz sumthing liek 
but very diferent to dhe soundz he woz acustomd to, and reprezenting dhe soundz he 
woz familiar widh by simbolz entierly new ? 



"Partial Corrections of English Spellings aproovd by the Philological Society" is a 
first step in the riet .direcshon. In this publicaishon, isued under the auspises of so hy 
an authority, I belcev I se the daun of real sucses. Most of the chainjes proposd wood 
constituet vast improovments on our present spelings. Ther ar sum further improov- 
ments, houever, which miet be maid quiet in consonans with chainjes sancshond in 
other words. Thees may be omishons ocuring throo an overlook on the part of the 
reeder of the proo&. With uer permishon, I wil point out a fue of thees anomalis heer. 

On paij 14 I observthe spelings "bereav, cleav, conceiv, deceiv, heav, interleav, leav, 
perceiv, receiv." To substituet ee in eech of thees words for ea or el wood be no moer 
violent a chainj than its snbstitueshon for ie. No rool can be draun up wherby a person 
can no when eay or eiy or ee ar to be uesd. Morover ther is no rool wherby we can no 
when to uez <?, and when #, in such words as " receiv, reseat; perceiv, persist, conceiv, 
consist." To uez * alwais insted of c befoer tf, i, and y wood do away with much ambi- 
guity. I se no neaesity for chaiiy ing t into z in the words " disolv, preserv, reserv, 
resolv." As heer speld, the chainj from the curent speling is les, and therfor the reed- 
ing of the words eesier. On paij 15, I wood prefer "weev" to "weav," for the reesons 
staited abuv. In the colums begiuing " adz, gauz," I consider that a simpler speling 
wood be to hav * insted of c, thus — " ads, gaus," &c. I hav no objecshon to the to in 
" brows," on the understanding that ow is emploid to represent the saim vouel sound 
whether it be meedial or terminal. My idea is, that by emploiing ou as inishal or 
meedial, and ow as terminal, fuer chainjes wood be requierd. For reeson alredy given, 
"seiz" shood be "sees." "Aw, ay, ey, ow," wood be beter riten "aw, i, i, o." 

In the colums begining "apeaz," &c. I wood restoer the j, maiking the words "apees, 
aplaus," &c. 

" Bdg, edgd, edges, knoledg," shood be " ej, ejd, ejes, nolej." On the saim paij, the 
colums begining "acouter," &c. shood be "acooter, senter, senters, senterd, meeter, 
mieter, meter, oker, septer, sepulker, aiker, lueker, masaker." The words omited in 
ahuv list ar speld just as I wood hav them. 

On paij 17, the colums begining "apostl" I wood riet "aposel, asembel, asembeld, 
axel, bubel, sirkel, dazel, humbel, litel, musel, pebel, puzel, setel, singel, thimbel, trem- 
bel, twinkel, nukel, whisel, rinkel." On the rest of paij 17, I wood insert e ueniformly 
befoer /. In aul thees words the adishonal / forms a silabel, and I think it is in confor- 
mity with the jeenius of the English langwaij that no silabel can be formd without a 
Yoael, houever short that votiel may be pronouusd. In the colums comensing "agree- 
»bl,V &c. I wood riet " agreabel, artikel, forsibel, iesikel, peesabel, ^osibel, servisaheU 
(eribeL vehikeJ." 


On pag 18 ther ar to words I wood chaii^j in first division, naimly " disciplin, mas- 
eolin," into "diaiplin, mascuelin." In second division, "treatis" shood be "Hreetis." 
Ift third division, I wood riet "fiuvorit, fiuvorita, hipocrit, oposit, perquisit, requisit." 
In forth division, I wood riet " desiesiv, masiv, narativ, naitiv, pasiv, taukativ." In the 
fifth division, I wood riet "quarelsom, tiersom, holsom," In the last division I wood 
prefer " therfor, wherfor." 

On pag 19, I wood riet "driven, eeten, riden, risen, striven, riten." By this speling 
only won haf of thees words ar alterd. In the colams comensing "bred," the hoel 
chainjes ar juedishos exept "clenx, herse, jeloos, medow, mezure," which in my opinion 
thood be " clens, hers, jelns, medo, mesner/* On next paij, 1 wood riet " pesant, fesant, 
plesant, plesner, rehers, tredel, tresoer, zelus," which ar les of a departuer from present 
speling, and ar quiet analogus to the speling in other words. My next objecshons ar to 
•* beuty, hiht," which I wood chaiig to " buety, hiet." 

Iieeving the critisism of the rest of the chainjes recomended to a fuetuer ocaision, I 
wish to stait my vues in referens to the comparativ advautaijez of ue and ie over eu and 
ei, premiesing, houever, that the diferens of opinion I entertain regarding aul the caises 
I hav abuv enuemeraited wil not deter me from agreing to any skeeni which is liekly to 
be reseevd with most faivor by the jeneral public. In our capasity of speling reformers, 
we ar hardly aibel to desied as imparshal jiges. Eech of us vues the reform from a 
diferent stand-point. As I hav staited befoer, my desier is to maik the ues of our present 
alfttbet as consistent as posibel in representing English sounds, and in maiking as smaul 
a departner from our present speling as an adheerens to this leediug prinsipel demands. 

I fiend, then, whiel ther ar no rools for speling English sounds without many ecsep- 
shons, it is a prety jeneral rool that when a vonel is folod by another vonel it has its 
naim sound, but when folod by a consonant it has its shut sound, e.g. " Baal, Grael, fain, 
gaol, Capernaum; ^eat, beeu, seize, people; diamond, died, dying =diiug, viol; goal, 
goes, going, door, soul; visual, duel, suit, Buol, vacuum;" in aul which words it may 
be notisd, that if the second vouel be omited, we get the shut sound of the vouel. In 
contrast with this, we se that the instanses in which the second vouel has the naim 
sound ar ecsepshonal, as in " great, fiend, either, yeoman, feud." I hold, therfor, that 
c« and ue ocur so much ofener iu English than ei and eu, as to proov that the former is 
the rool, and the later the ecsepshon, as representing the naim sound of the vouels i 
and u. But, moer than this, I fiend by long expeeriens that children moer jeneraly 
spel the sound with ie and ue in words thay do not no than by ei and eu. I hav heer, 
houever, to ad, that on trial I hav found that thay wil spel thees sounds moer free- 
quently without e eether befoer or after i or u. Ecsept in a comparativly smaul number 
of woi^, u has its naim sound both at the begining, midel, and end of words unles folod 
by to consonants or a fienal consonant. This sigests the question whether ther miet not 
be a posibility of dispensing with e both befoer and after «. If this wer determind on, 
"study," &c. wood requier to be spdd "studdy," &c. 

[After seem heziteshon, wi desaided tu insert dhi aboeV kontribioshon, bek.oz it 
ekzemplifaiz dhe diversiti ov opinion hwich iz iuevitabli elisited bai eni partikiular pro- 
pozd plan ov " parshal korekshonz." Anr korespondent iz himself jenerali rekognaizd 
az woen ov dhe m5st moderet ov speling reformerz, yet dhe Filolojikal Sosaieti'z " korek- 
shonz" du not satitfai him, and it me hi preziumd dhat hi wnd bi ivn les kontent widh 
dhe propozalz nau befor dhi £. S. R. A., hwich ar konsiderabli m5r "parshal" in dliecr 
extent, and wud difer veri moech in dheer praktikal efekt. For anr 5n part, wi laik 
Mr. Macarthur'z stail ov parshal korekshon and frikwent konfiuzhon les dhau aidher ov 
dhi cedher tii' stailz ; and hwail wi ventiur ta think, for instans, dhat dhe krieshon ov 
niu inkon'gruitiz, laik " seiz, appease " (B. S. R. A.), or " seiz, apeaz," (Phil. Soc), 
wud onli k.oz yusles embarasment both in Hteratiur and in ediukeshon, wi ar shiir dhat 
aur kontribiuter'z soejested emploiment ov dhe formz "sees, apees" for "seize, appease," 
dho presaisli dhe sem formz mcest and wnd .olso bi yiizd bai him for "cease, apie(%," 
wud giv raiz tu bewildering konfiuzhon ov b5th sauud and sens, laik hcendredz uior ov 
hiz propozd spelingz. In s5ber triith .ol dhiz skimz ov "parshal korekshon " onli serv 
tu " giv oes p.oz, and mek oes radher beer dhi ilz wi hav, dhan fiai tu cedherz dhat wi 
no uot ov," — dhat iz, widh hwich wi ar oenakwented bai praktikal expiriens, dho wi me 
form seem aidia ov dhser slrioes graviti. — W. R. £).] 

Printed frf W, K. Evans, 3 Gloucester Street, C^Tiecu ^c^3iaie,'LwAwv,'NR .ci. 




{Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association,) 

London: F. PITMAN, 20 Patsrnostbr Row. 

No. 12] AUGUST, 1881. [Pr«j» \d. 

All Communications should he addressed to W. R. EVANS, 3 Gloucester 

Street y Queen Square^ London^ W,C. 


WiDH dhe prezent ishu, aur litl Joernal kompllts a yir'z ekzistens, 
and it iz onli natiural dhat wi shud naa bi dispozd ta tek stok ov its 
pozishon, and ov aur on in respekt tu it. In dhe ferst pies, wi wil 
glkns at dhe matirial aspekt ov dhe soebjekt. Noen bcBt dhe mdst 
censofistiketed in literari enterpraiz wil rekwair tu bi t5ld, dhat dhis 
piriodikal iz not a komershali profitabi oendertSking. On dhe kon- 
trari, it haz enteld on its proj^kter and kondoe'kter, diuiing dhe pkst 
yir, an oenremiiinerativ expenditiur ov sertenli mor dhan woen-fSrth 
ov hiz veri moderet in*koem, in adishon tu mental and mekanikal 
lebor. Wi ar not going tu deklem ag^nst dhis boerdn oepon aur 
resdrsez and enerjiz, bekdz it haz bin witingli and wilingli asiiimd ; 
b<Bt wi wish tu explen aur personal pozishon a litl, in order dhat it 
m€ bi oenderstud hwai and hau dhi Experimenter kem intu ekzistens, 
haz livd til nau, and shud not joest yet bi permfted tu dai. 

Most riderz ov dhis litl Joernal wil hav bin med awaer dhat its 
kondcB'kter iz a praktikal kompozitor ; boet fiu me oenderstud dhat 
in regard tu fonetik printing hi okiupaiz dhe pozishon ov an amatiur 
and voloentir'. Hiz brif profeshonal emploiment at dhe kompozing- 
kes ended in 1855, hwen hi woz promoted tu dhe riding-desk az a 
korekter ov dhe pros; and ten yirz leter hi relinkwisht ivn dhis 
konekshon widh taipografi, tu aplai himself exklusivli tu literari 
woerk. In 1879, kfter veri long disyus ov hiz mekanikal art, and 
hwen hi had gret misgiving az tu hiz kapasiti tu manipiulet taips, hi 
obtend akses tu a printing-ofis tu put in taip hiz pamflet on ^' Yo'cal 
Speling.'' Dhe rezoe'lt ov dhat atempt at revaiving a dormant apti- 
tiud woz soefishentli enkoerejing tu sthniulet him tu foerdher eforts 
in old-taip fonetik printing ; boet Ikst yir, for greter konviniens in 
yutilaizing mirli lezhur taim, hi determind tu bdi himself soefishent 
taip tu set oep, at hom, an okezhonal poeblikeshon ov for pejez. . It 
hapnd 6portiunli dhat soem extra literari woerk brdt him in a litl dis- 


p5zabl moeni, and hi woz dhoBS en§bld tu indoelj in a larjer inv^t- 
ment on taipografikal matirial dhan hi had orfjinali k^ntempleted, tu 
dcebl dhi extent ov hiz poeblikeshon, and ta mSk it a moenthli sirial. 
Boet it shud bi oeuderetud, dhat dhe pozeshon ov taip and oedher 
kompozitor'z plknt, Ivn konjoind widh kapasiti, iezhur, and inkline- 
shon tu yuz dhiz matirialz, wud not soefdi? tu prodius woen ishu ivn 
ov a litl magazin laik dhis. Peper had tu bi poerchest, and dhe dis- 
tinkt opereshonz ov printing-of at pres, folding, ets. tu bi ped for, 
Widh dhe kombaind objekts ov obtening kontribiushonz toardz dhis 
expenditiur, ov laitmng dhe task ov Hterari prodoekshon, and ov 
rendering dhi Eocperimenter mor yusful and interring, an ofer woz 
med in dhe fifth noember tu poeblish artiklz propaunding or advoket- 
ing partikiular orthografik skimz, on proporshonal pement for dhe 
spes dhe okiupaid. Dhis arenjment haz sins dhen foemisht dhe minz 
tu def re dhe moenthli kost ov peper, pres-woerk, ets. ; boet not tu 
koever dhe expens ov f rikwent adishonz tu plknt and ov extra rent, 
tu se noething ov personal lebor. 

Perhdps it m6 soej^st itself tu dhe iider'z maind, dhat wi hav not 
brot intu konsidereshon dhi aitem ov retoe'mz from sel ov kopiz. Wi 
hav not doen so, for dhe simpl lizon dhat praktikali dher hav bin no 
soech retoe'mz. Diuring dhe twelvmoenth, wi hav not resivd di- 
r^ktli so moech az 5/- for kopiz ; and wi shai bi kwait satisfaid if 
aur nominal Poeblisher konsMerz hiz sel ov a doezn or tu' a moenth 
soefishent tu mit hiz tred charj for opning an akaunt. Dhe fakt iz, 
dhat wi hav gratiuitoesli distribiuted dhe boelk ov ich ishu tu mem- 
berz ov dhe Speling Reform Asosieshon, and tu oedher personz hum 
wi konsfderd laikli tu bi interested bai aur pejez, not onli in aur on 
koentri, boet in Amerika and Jermani. Dhe distribiushon, wi se, haz 
bin gratiuitoes, and wi sertenli hav never had eni aidia ov kleming 
or ivn solisitiug eni pekiuniari aknolejment. Boet wi wil soejest nau, 
at dhi komplishon ov a yir'z ishu ov dhi Experimenter^ dhat dhoz hn 
hav red its pejez widh interest, and hu ar in a pozishon tu giv it 
pekiuniari soeport, wil asist aur fiutiur eforts bai sending oes stamps 
or postal not in pement for kopiz aktiuali resivd. Wi shal dhoes at 
list obten soem indikeshon ov dhi aprisieshon in hwich aur endevorz 
ar held ; boet wi wil frankli se dhat wi du not expekt tu bi inkonvi- 
nienst in fainding riim for a soebskripshon-4ist in aur nekst noember. 
Tu dhoz hu dhoes evins dhser interest wi shal kontiniu tu post dhis 
litl magazin, living oedherz tu obten it thru dhe tred if dhe wish. 

It wil bi persivd dhat wi du not konsMer aur task achivd, and 
dhat wi propoz tu kontfniu its prosekiushon. Wi had hopt bai dhis 
taim tu bi in a pozishon tu bring dhis tentativ piriodikal tu a kloz, 
and tu start a mor praktikal maga^n, fited for jeneral serkiuleshon. 


Boet ivn if dher had bin a mor prompt and extensiv respons tu aur 
rekw^st for opinionz on dhe Twelv Skimz put befor aur riderz in dhe 
Jtin noember, wi shud hardli bl prepsBrd tu oenderte'k at dhe prezent 
moment a poeblikeshon fited tu endiiir jeneral kritisizm. Not onli 
moest wi wet tu obten, aidher bai a f oerdher development ov aur on 
kanvas, or bai dhe replaiz sent in tu dhat ov dhi Asosieshon, a mor 
jeneral and komplit manifesteshon ov opinion; boet dlso wi hav soem 
mainor adjoe'stments ov alfabetik ditelz tu mek ivn tu satisfai aur on 
maind. From dhe jeneral prinsiplz steted in aur Ikst noember wi du 
not intend tu depart. Wi hav doen widh "injinioes" inoveshonz, 
hwedher in devaizing or in aplaiing simbolz, and sik onli tu emploi 
ekzisting Romanik leterz and rekognaizd marks in dhe most konsist- 
ent maner praktikabl in ordinari demotik raiting. 

Boet, beyond alfabetik arenjments, dher iz a mater dhat wi hav az 
yet skaersli toecht. Widh orthoepi wi hav hidhertu delt onli in an 
insidental f ashon ; boet wi dezair nau tu mek it a soebjekt ov speshal 
konsidereshon. Givn a fouetik noteshon koustroe'kted ov dhe most 
obvioes and simpl matirialz, boet kontening soem adishonal sainz. tu 
reprezent non-signifikativ varaietiz ov pronoensieshon — a noteshon 
hwich 51 ref6rmerz mait agri tu yuz for orthoepikal expozishon, dho 
not tu aksept for komon yus-^-iu soech a noteshon wi wont tu kolekt 
az meni spesimenz ov individiual orthoepi az wi kan prokiiir. Dhen, 
bai analisis and komparison ov dhiz, wi hop tu lern hwedher greter 
presizhon dhan wi nau atempt iz praktikabl in a reprezenteshon ov 
aur langgwej propozd for komon and jeneral yus. Dhis mater wi 
intend nau tu tek oep, az woen rekwairing eliusideshon, hwotever 
particular alfabetik skim mc bi oeltimetli adopted. 

in the ^''Spelling Experimenter^^ vv March^ 1881.* 

"3. Iz it practical to giv to the vbuel leterz a, «, t, o, w, the.r long 
t>r Continental sounds, az in alrns^fete^ machine^ gold^pool^ in a sistem 
t)v reformd speling for Engglish ?" 

♦ Wi resivd dhe M.S. ov dhis artikl several moenths ago ; hoet it haz bin kept bak, 
partli thru preshor ov oedher mater on aur spes, and partli thru lak ov dhe speshal taips 
rekwaird tu print it. Dhe raiter ov it iz a Kontinental jentlman, wel akwented widh 
Tnropian vaael-valiuz, and familiar widh Ingglish az hiz adopted toeng. Hiz viuz, az 
wel az dhoz ov Dr. Vietor (Fitor') and Prof. Wiebe (Vibe), widh regard tu dhe soebstan- 
shal atenment ov internashonal konkordans bai raiting aur Ingglish vauel-saundz widh 
internal konsistensi, me lid soem ov aur riderz tu daut hwedher dhe "Continental Nuts'* 
ov aur gad frend B. J. (in aur list noember) ar woerth dhe troebl ov kraking. In dhe 
tekst, dhe taips **b j ij", az wel az dhe vauel-prolonger (> ), ar aur on aproksimet 
scBbstitiuts. Aur chif eksepshon tu dhe skim ov speling propaunded bai " S. R." iz its 
reprezenteshon ov dhe tu' ^-saundz in "colour" and "colonial" bai ween taip, insted ov 
dhe tu' in "colony" and " colonial."— W. R. E. 


Az it iz stated, wi wud 8e« : No I 

Bot it iz practical to giv to thLz yt>ael ieterz thar shvrt Continental 
soondz, az in cam^ pen^ alip^ ton^ puU^ and indice«t thar ]t>ng sounds 
bf a mark sofixt ; the mark bling ov a she>p that in api,rans wil har- 
montz with the other ieterz. The e, if it had nt>t bin so moch abqzd, 
mft bi qzd az soch a mark. 

Then the clashing ov mi»ning, on the Continental plan, wud not bi 
conf qzing ; for peep wud bi pLp, and pip^ pip— efeep, dip ; dip^ dip— 
tiUep^ slip ; 8Hp^ slip— flAe«p, ship ; skip^ ship— /eg/, fi.t ; Jit^ fit — 
w«n, sin; m, sin — pain, pe»n; pen^ pen — main^ man; men^ men — 
poop^ pap ; pup^ ^p'-^oom^ ram ; rww, rom ; boon^ ban ; bun^ bon. 

*' 4. Whot advantej iz it to the ' forener,' or to enybody, to adopt 
t^profesedly Continental basis," &c. ? 

Thar iz moch advantej in the simplisity ov tiching a child that — 
when yu si the leter e, yu most giv that sound (eA) short; and when 
yn si the sam leter with a mark after it, yu most giv the sam sound 
a litl longger. And so with the other vouelz. 

Whtl it iz very perplexing to a chfld to bi tald that — when yu si 
the leter e, yu most giv the sound {eh) short ; and when yu si the 
sam leter dobld, yu most not giv the sam sound, bot a diferent 
sound (jK) long. 

When yu si % yu most giv the sound {ih) short ; bot if it haz a 
mark after it, then yu most giv it quft a diferent sound {ai). 

When yu si 0, yu most giv the sound {aw) short ; bot if thar ar 
ta together, yu most giv a diferent sound {uh). 

When yu si w, giv the sound {oh) short; bot if it haz a mark 
after it, then yu most giv a very diferent sound (yw). 

This iz lojic on the Ingglish basis. 

" 5. Wud it not bi a hevy prts to pa for the thi»oretical advantej 

Ov Nq Leterz, tu si the f oloing constantly-recoring litl words, which 

ar perfectly fonetic and consistent az tha stand, disgtzd so az to bi 

scersly recogufzabl bf the sobstitqshon ov ta nq leterz in ich for 

the prezent familiar dfg^af s ? 

^^ Three, sheep, sheet, beech, speech, teeth, faith, chain, thing, 
thaw, length, strength, tooth, chair, &c." 

It wud not bi mar anoying tu si : Thri, ship, bich, fath, chan, 
tho., tath char, rtt, Ifk, flv, ts, find, sqt, mql, fqtqrity, &c. — ^than to 
si : Eev, theez, eezy, eech, masheen, baib, dait, gait {g<xte\ caik, aij, 
paiper, tank, aul, faul, caul {calt)^ doo, trooth, crooel, too (two\ riet, 
liek, fiev, ies (ic«), fiend {find)^ suet (m/), muel, fuetuerity, &c. 

Tharfor, thar iz no advantej in qzing the propazd dtgrafs, insted 
Ov a fq nq leterz. 

12 AprU, 1881. S. R. 



{To the Conductor of the "Experimenter") 

Dear Sir, — When I took the liberty of sending you a specimen of 
my simplified " Approximation ** Scheme, some months ago, I was 
well aware that that style of spelling was still very far from being 
a practical one. I principally wanted to point out that all semi- 
vowels, or rather non-syllabic vowels, whether initial (as in yet^ wet) 
or final (as in buy^ now\ ought to be treated in the same way. But 
it is hardly necessary to make any distinction between non -syllabic 
and syllabic vowels, just as syllabic /, m^ n need not be distinguished 
from non-syllabic /, w, n. By introducing this and some other sim- 
plifications, and trying to adopt a less colloquial and affected pro- 
nunciation, I arrived at the present system. I shall be glad if you 
think it an improvement on " Approximation " Spelling. 

Believe me, dear sir, very faithfully yours, 

Wiesbaden^ 10 July, 1881. WiLHELM ViETOR. 

Specimen of " Experimental " Spelling, 
[Note. — For x and r, read s and z with a superscribed " v " respectively.] 

Hir send t5er 8B fiu Iqglix wfedz mei bi faund in ^e iujul 6j>ografi, 
huitx liv nou rum fo daut sbz tu "Sea pronoensieixn. Boet "Sis iz kualt 
eksepxnl. let ui k xu9 tSsBt auo speliq uoz orid^inli fonetik. It iz 
nau propouzd tu rivSet tu "Saet prinsipl. Boet ae divijn ov opinin h^z 
SBrizn sbz tu "Se moust siutabl let9z tu emploi. De folouiq voexnz ov 
tJis steitmnt xou "Se neitxar ov soetx ov "5e varies propouzlz 6lredi 
meld 8BZ kud bi konvinintli printid, itx sbz ikv sdz uoz posibl in t$i 
6j>ouepi ov its 6j>8. In sou xot ae paeragraf ounli t$e txlf points kud 
bi inkludid, boet t5i aelfabetik Id iz d^enrli klia, send t$i ai uil bi eibl tu 
djoedj priti uel huot ^i aepims uud bi in printid buks. Meni plaenz 
involviq r§.^9r inaeksesibl taips hsed tu bi entaiali p§st bai. Hens t$e 
txois meid doez not implai se v&dikt. Di egzekiutiv komiti uil se- 
lekt soetx me]>9dz sez tSei mei ]>iqk rikuaia loqger iloestreixn. Di 
Iqglix Speliq Rifdm ^souxieix9n sez se bodi iz not risponsibl for en! 
noen ov "Siz skimz. 

[Az wi ar direktli invaited ta expres an opinion on dhi aboeV spesimen, wi hav no 
heziteshon in pronannsing it a desaided impruvment on '' Approximation Spelling/' at 
list in regard tu taipografikal saitlines and jeneral lejibiliti. Wi shad prefer, hauever, 
ta 81 y and w retend widh dhser Ingglieh konsonantal pauerz, tu hav semivdkal r repre- 
sented everihwser (if 5nii bai **i**)y and tu rid az wel az pronanns a vauel in termiiie- 
shonal silablz laik dhoz ov " nsudd, exceptional, originally, division, opinion, versions, 
statem^t, conveniently, gen<?rally, appearance." Widh soech modifikeshonz, dhe pro- 
pozd noteshon wud bi dhe best wi hav sin for foren stiudents ov Ingglish. — ^W. R. £.] 




WiDH consent ov dhe conductor ov dhe Ecsperimenter^ I wish to 
ofer a few remarks in defens ov Parshal Corecshonz ov Speling. 

My first remark iz, dhat, az far az I am awair, dhe advocaits ov 
Parshal Corecshonz ar cwiet az ancshos az udherz to see a Compleet 
Skeem adopted. Dhe real cwestion at isae iz, whedher dhe reco- 
meudaishon and adopshon ov dheez parshal chainjez wwd not be 
advantaijas in dhemselvz, and wwd aalso prepair dhe way for a 
compleet skeem. We ar convinst dhay wwd be boeth advantaijus 
in dhemselvz, and help radher dhan hinder a compleet skeem. 

Hoo ar dhe suporterz ov Parshal Corecshonz, and hoo dhe opoe- 
nents ? Amung dhe suporterz ov Parshal Corecshonz we hav, we 
may say, dhe creem ov American Filolojists, oever 200 Profesorz in 
Colejez and Ueniversitiz in dhat cuutry, widh a larj and iucreesing 
number ov newzpaiperz suporting and adopting such chainjez. 

Scairsly a week or a day pasez widhout my reseeving from dhe 
Staits, newzpaiperz and magazinz in which dhe new spelingz ar 
moer or les adopted. Now, dhis must tel upon dhis cuntry, widh 
dhe increesing intercomuenicaishon between dhe too cuntriz. An 
ouns ov practis iz beter dhan a tun ov theory. 

In England, we hav dhe recomendaishonz ov dhe Filolojical 
Sosieety to dhe saim ef ect ; and I am sertain, when dhis cwestion iz 
fairly pwt to dhe Memberz ov dhe E.S.R.A., dhat dhe majority in 
f aivor ov Parshal Corecshonz, widhout prejudis to Compleet Skeemz, 
wil be oeverwhelming. 

I entierly agree widh my f rend Mr. Macarthur dhat " edg, edgd, 
edges, knoledg," in dhe Filolojical Sosieetiz list shwd be spelt " ej, 
ejd, ejez (not ' ejes '), nolej ;" and in my last parsel from America 
ge^ &c. iz replaist by j in a very important jumal, which haz just 
adopted dhe American Asosiaishon'z roolz. Dhe chainj ov ge toj iz 
80 obvius an improovment, and so unobjecshonabl, it seemz to me 
moeroever to be implied in dhe prinsiplz laid down by dhe Filolojical 
Sosieety, dhat it wil be wun ov dhe first improovments adopted. 

Speeking ov Mr. Macarthur remiendz me dhat hiz tolerant, con- 
siliatory spirit, and dhe practical caracter ov hiz remarks may wel 
be imitaited by sum ov our moer dogmatic and theoretical frendz. 

It struk me dhat dhe objecshonz ov Mr. W. R. Evans to Parshal 
Corecshonz, on dhe ground dhat everybody hoo f aivord such chainjez 
wer not agreed on every point, woz a litl ilojical. It wwd go hard 
widh eny skeem or propoezal for Speling Reform if it wer maid a 
condishpn ov its acseptans, dhat sum two personz wer perfectly 
jetgreed upon every point respecting it. 


Responding to an apeel to be strictly practical, my propoezal wwd 
be to ask dhe Edaecaishon Department to alow children in public 
elementary scoolz to be ecsamind, booth in Reeding and Speling, 
from books printed in acordans widh a corected list ov wurdz to be 
agreed upon ; and I no dhat such a propoezal wwd be moer larjly 
suported dhan eny compleet skeem propounded. 

I may be rong; and, if so, shal be glad to be corected; but I dont 
no a singl opoeneut ov Parshal Corecshonz hoo iz not eecwaly opoezd 
to every udher method ov Speling Reform propoezd ecsept hiz oen 
particuelar project. 


From W. E. J. : — " In reply to your second appeal for opinions respecting the varioiis 
schemes of reformed spelling which appeared in the Experimenter for Jnne, I decidedly 
think that the systems with pips, accents, and apostrophes, like Nos. 10, 11, and 12, 
are too fatiguing to the eye. No. 2 is qoite unintelligible to me. Of the others,^! 
prefer Nos. 1 and 4, the latter being perhaps the easier of the two." 

From J. L. (2) : — " Our proposed new Alphabet must concede the best use it can of 
the twenty-six old types, and it must supply suggestive substitutes for the absent repre* 
sentatives of the sounds hitherto without signs. But concession should be in the direc- 
tion of sinffle-ietter types, not only for single simple sounds, but also of single-letter 
types for some such diphthongal sounds as y in 'my,' &c. To represent these old single- 
letter dipthongs by digraphs wiU be to introduce prematurely, and I think unnecessarily, 
an orthoepic diflculty into the simple and elementary question of the Alphabet. Such 
digraphs, if conceded now, will not only shock the eye of present readers, and at once 
prejudice and keep back the reform, but they will become in time less and less accepta« 
ble in the presence of the scientific economy of the future. As, however, it will be 
convenient to writers and printers, during the transition period of the Reform discus- 
sion, to have the old alphabetic style mimicked (even in a wrong direction), the parody 
may, I think, be more acceptable in the form of No. 10, ' Compendious,' than in that 
of several of the eleven other schemes." 

From F. R.: — " Have only just received the Parallel Exhibition. Of the 12 schemes 
you select, I prefer the Conveutionat * Collateral * and the * Utility.* The latter would 
be improved by substituting c for k.** 

From W. V.: — " Von den 41 bis jetzt der B. S. R. A. unterbreiteten gefailt mir Ihr 
* Union ' noch immer am besten. Mein neuester Versuch soil mir eine Verbesserung 
der friiheren sein." 

From W. H. W.: — "As you are collecting the opinions of members of the Spelling 
Reform Association upon the Twelve Schemes given in the Experimenter, I beg to say 
that Mr. Jones's system [No. 8] seems to me the best here given, and the following are 
my reasons fcM* this opinion : — 1. It is the most legible: I can read it quite as easily as 
the current spelling. 2. It is easy to learn : I can write it without difficulty, without 
any training whatever.* 8. It does not alter the current spelling overmuch, as most 
schemes do. 4. It is a practical scheme, as there are no such combinations as 'ee, oe, ii,' 
nor inverted letters, nor dots and accents, all of which are dreadfully confusing, and tire 
one out i^er a little experience. — ' Collateral ' (Conventional) is also very good, and I 
like it almost as much. ' Compendious ' is also an excellent scheme. ... No schemes 
I have yet seen appear so admirable as Mr. Ellis-'s ' Glossic ' and ' Dimidian.' The 
writer is not a student, but only one of the large class which watches with interest the 
efforts of spelling reformers. Let me add that no contributions to the literature of the 
movement have excited my attention and respect more than your own." 

* In dhat kes, it iz a piti W. H. W. did not indait hiz komiunikeshon in dhe speling 
hi preferz. Wi hav tii litl ov seech experimental yiis ov skimz ov speling bai oedher 
personz dhan dhser devaizerz. Dhe yHzhual exkius iz wont ov taim tu lern ; boet dhat 
dcez not aplai widh regard tu a skim hwich kau hi ritn widhaut eni trenin^ hwotever. 

^^^^^'^ \ 



From Prof. BDW. WIEBB (Vibe), Hamburg:— 

[Raiter'i orthoepi hwaer diferent firom aon.] 

"Noemberz 10 and 11 ov yur Spelling Experimenter wer forwarded tu mi bai dhe 
kaindnes ov Mr. John Featon, togedher widh dhe U^t ishu ov dhe Spelling Reformer^ 
riching mi dhis morning. 

"Ai tek gret plezhur in koemplaiing widh yur rekw^ tu ekspres an opinycen on 
dhe Twelv Skimz kontend in dhe ' Paralel Eksibishoen/ and ai dii it widh dhe mor 
satisfakshcen az ai am koempeld tn stet, dhat noember 10 — ^yur ' Compendious ' — ^iz 
dhi 5nli woen dhat, akording tn mai opinyoen, knd hi entaitld tu hi yuzd for dhe poebli- 
keshoen intended bai yu. 

'' Mai skim ov intemashonal raiting haz oendautedli bin sent yu bai Mr. Sekr. Fenton, 
in dhe shep ov a lithografb peper, tugedher widh dhe Me ishu ov dhe Spelling Reforfner. 
Yuzing taips not izili prokiurd, ai woz koempeld tu pripaer an dtografik kopi, hwich, 
hauever, did not apir wel in print. 

" Riprodiusing dhiz fiu paragrafs in yur 5n raiting in dhe nekst ishu ov dhe SpeUing 
Experimenter, dhe veri slait diferensez wil konsist in dhi aplikeshcen ov soem vauelz 
onli. Dhlz diferensez, hauever, ar so veri slait, dhat ai f il veri mcech inklaiud tu adopt 
yur skim, az hidhertu ai hav feld tu faind a printer wiling tu oenderte'k printing akord- 
ing tu mai on." 

From R. VICKROY, Esq., St. Louis, Mo., U.S.:— 

[For * o* rid, everihweer held, * o * widh a liip or strok akrds it.] 

" Yur surciular on purshal corecshunz in Iqglish speling iz tu dhi point. 
' " Qi am glad tu si yur analojical [Compendious] speling : it diferz veri litl from dhi 
most acseptabl stoil hir. Qx wish yu cud join us in dhi yus ov 4 niu leterz, viz. a, d, u, 
and B [aproksimet formz]. Dhis wud nut dhi end sot in fonetic speling, and bring vs 

" In mui jpjment, 'a' and 'o' must bi diferenshieted. Dhi Jnrman reformerz tee 'a^' 
and yuz 'oi' and 'an' az fonetic daigrafs. 'au' and 'ai' bui analoji snjest '5' and 'e,' 
hwail 'ai' and 'uu' du not du so in print." 

From O. C. BLACKMER, Esq., Chicago, U.S.:— 

" Yur Spelling Experimenter haz bin cuming tu mi for sum toim, and ai am veri 
much oblaijd tu yu for it. Ov ol dhi 12 spesimenz in dhi Me [Jdn] number, ai am 
best plizd widh Nr. 10 [Compendious], for it cumz nirest tu aur uidlal speling. Ov 
cors, yu understand hwot wi propoz hir. And ai am inclaind tu think dhat wi must 
yuz a fiu niu leterz. If wi cud hav 'a' (Izili med from 'd'), it wud enebl us tu repre- 
sent dhi ^i in 'fadher,' dhi t in ' fainal,' and dhi 0» ov ' haus.' 

** Qi think, hauever, dhat wi ar ol sloli cuming tugedher. Giv us 3 niu leterz — 
a, 0, u (or u), and wi can mek a gud-loMng pej. 

" Qi mait ad a wurd in regard tu aur script. [Samplz ov skript givn.] Dhoz ov us 
hu hav had a litl practis in script, faind no dificulti in raiting or riding it, on aur besis. 
Qi shal rid dhi Experimenter widh gret interest" 


From E. JONES, Esq., 4 Amberley Street, Liverpool : — 

" Whot iz dhe value ov dhe opinionz ov yoor corespondents P Dhay may be perfect 
miths, so far az we no. Dhay may or may not hav given dhe subject such atenshon az 
may entietl dhem to form and to ofer an opinion." 

Trinted by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, London, W.C. 




(^Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association^ 

London: F. PITMAN, 20 Paternoster Row. 

No. 13] SEPTEMBER, 1881. \_Price Id. 

*^* Subscriptions will he acknowledged^ and further " Opinions on 

the Schemes " given^ in our next number, 



Short — i [e] e a (a) [6] o u [9] oe 
pit carpet pet pat past pot potato pat pertain pnn 

Long — i- e* [e](re)[a*] a 6 o- u- [a*] [oe-] 

peat chaos parent pare palm pall poet pool pert purple 

Difthongz — ei ai [91] oi au [9u] oa iu 

tail tile gentile toil tovm compound tow tnne, fatuous 

P, B; T, D; CH(cAm), J; K, G (^?^) ; S (serw®), Z ; M, N ; L, R(ra^); 

Y, W ; H — rch widh its moust regiular prezent yu'S. 
TH (thin)^ D H {dhen = then) ; SH (shwr = sure) ; ZH (si'zhur = seizure) ; 

NG (singer^ ingraft), NGG {lingger)^ N'G {in'got) \ X — hs (exklwsiv) ; 

NK (inki^ inklu'd\ N'K (in'kosm) ; j (baud^ bbun^ mauring). 


Vanel daigrafs ar disolvd bai dhe former leter teiking dhe long-mark, hwser aplikabl, 
az in arke'ikf sto'lk; cedherwaiz, bai dhe mark ov daieresis, az m folding y Juddizn. 

T'hy d'hy rhy z'h expres dhe separet saundz ov dhi'z leterz, az in naitrhudy mis'kdp. 

N'k and n'g ar praktikali rekwaird ounli hwen dhi aksent iz on dhe presiding vauel ; 
for hwen dhi aksent koemz &fter dhi'z kombineishons, n haz 61wez its proper saund, and 
k or g komensez dhe uekst silabl. 

Xiz yu'zd in dhe pri'fix eoj befo'r konsonants, az exiieimy excheinjy extri'm. 

Taipografikal Ekwivalents. — In kapitalz and in fansi taip, .a .0 (or plein A o) = ^ 6 ; 
'b *A 'o = 6 & 6 ; and a,i 0,1 = ai oi. 

Wl troest aur ri-derz wil not bi alarmd at salt ov dhi aboe'v Alfa- 
bet, az if it wer intended tu bi a fresh adishon tu dhe long* list ov 
" ski-mz " olredi soebmited tu dhi Asousieishon. Wi put forward 
dhis kombineishon, adapteishon, and extenshon ov " Yu-nion " and 
" Kompendioes " simpli in fulfilment ov aur promis tu provaid a 
no'teishon for dhe kolekshon and komparison ov diferent stailz ov 
ortho'epi. For dhis poerpos, it haz bi*n rekwizit tu introdius fo*netik 


distinkshonz hwich ar not nesesari, and hwich wud i'vn bi embaras- 
ing, in popiular raiting. Spi-king jenerali, soech distinkshonz ar 
dhouz reprezented bai dhe sainz enklouzd in ang'giular brakets, 
hwail i'vn dhe tu* sainz pleist widhin koervd brakets ar rekwaird 
mi-rli for orthoepikal naisiti, and never serv tu konvei distinkshonz 
ov mi-ning. Dhe vauel ski-m wud dhces bi rediust tu dhe komonli- 
rekognaizd siks long and siks short vauelz, and dhi ounli adishonal 
oenbraketed simbolz rezoe'lt from dhi admishon ov et, au Az difthongz, 
besaidz r, o- SkZ vauelz. Tu braket aidher peer ov dhi'z simbolz wud 
bi tu prejudis an important kwestion ov ortho'epi. 

Dhe simbol e (e doted laik t) iz ment tu reprezent a vauel -sannd 
betwin dhat in pit and dhat in pet^ and r&dher thiner dhan French e. 
It iz herd az an aksented vauel in dhe Skotish pronoensieishon ov 
woerdz laik " ill," and iz dhe yu'zhual Ingglish saund ov e, ai, or a-e 
in soech termineishonal silablz az dhouz ov " boxes, potted, college, 
captain, village." Mr. Sweet konsiderz dhat bouth oenaksented e 
and t jenerali teik dhis saund in Ingglish, and dhat pi-pl sei pit'e^ 
devaid^ rejididt'e, (Edher fo'netishanz wud distinggwish tii* saundz, 
az mf'elisiti SLXid filosqfi, Noubodi, hauever, pretendz, dhat e in dhe 
former woerd iz pronaunst az m felon. 

In dhe sainz a and d wi hav adopted a method parshali emploid in 
French and Italian, ov yuzing dhe greiv aksent tu mark oupn saund. 
Soem personz meik nou distinkshon betwi*n dhe vauel in " past " and 
dhat in " pat," boet oedherz pronauns " pass, path " widh a diferent 
vauel from dhat hwich dhei yuz in " gas, hath." Dhe distinktiv 
vauel in " pass, path " iz not olwez a, boet iz soemtaimz a, and okei- 
zhouali a- (a). Dhi extent tu hwich eni soech distinkshon afekts 
dhe vokabiulari ov diferent spi-kerz olso si'mz tu vaeri konsiderabli. 

In prbjekt and pi^ojekt^ wi hav dhe seim sort ov idiomatik modifi- 
keishon ov saund, thru dhe transpozishon ov dhe tonik aksent, az in 
prezent and prezent^ ounli dhat dhi oenaksented o doez not bekoem sou 
klous az tu bi konfiiizd bai enibodi widh dhi « in prudenshal. HIt 
wi hav oendautedli tii* saundz, woen ov hwich okoe'rz in aksented, 
and dhi oedher in oenaksented silablz. Dhe distinkshon ov pozishon 
iz soefishent for ordinari raiting ; boet tu expres 61 personal noushonz 
ov pronoensieishon in woerdz laik " politician, political, pollute, polite, 
polemical, polarity, polar, pole, poultry," wi wont not ounli o and o, 
boet 0* (o) and ow, if not olso a. 

Tu ekzemplifai dhe saund ov a, wi giv dhi e in ^'pertain" (widhant 
prejudis tu dhe prezens or absens ov a), and wi mei ad " papering " 
az an ekzampl in hwich dhe vauel kan bi apri-shieited apart from r. 
Dhis sain iz intended tu reprezent dhi obskiur or niutral vauel hwich 
ueni personz^ wud rait in dmosng^ k^nient^ s9pouz^ hndishdny av9rish99^ 


Dhouz hu wud aplai a in dhis wei, hauever, shud konsfder dhat dhe 
vauelz obskiurd in 9kitLs, k9mend^ sdpouz^ moest stil bi distinktivli ritn 
in akiuzeiskm^ hbmendeishdn^ soepozishdn; 6lso dhat konsistensi wud 
rekwair litl (BDemfatik monosilablz tu bi pleist on dhe seim futing az 
CBdher oenaksented silablz, dhoes introdiiising dhe prinsipl ov per- 
sonal speling, ak6rding tu i*ch raiter'z aidi-a ov stres or emfasis. 

Widh dhe long vauelz, dhe dot iz adopted insted of dhe meikron 
(a* for a, ets.), bekdz dhe later iz not taipografikali aveilabl for d and 
fl?, and it mei bi moT intelijibl tu yu-z dhe seim mark for 61 dhe sim- 
bolz. Dhe meikron, tu*, iz moech les komon in printing-ofisez dhan 
dhe greiv (a) and dhe serkoemfleks {d), Wi hav aplaid dhe serkoem- 
fleks az dhe long ov dhe greiv, akording tu presedent, dhe " pet " 
vauel bi'ing j^nerali dhe " greiv " or oupn ^, hwich haz e for its long 
{dhou it iz moT konvi-nient hrr tu mark e az dhe klous saand). Bai 
dhis areinjment wi provaid in " 6 " a gud simbol for dhe brod saund, 
widh ''' 6 " az its pendant ; hwail dhe yu-s ov " a " for dhe mi-dial 
oupn saund li*vz " a " (or " a* ") for dhe valiu givn tu it in Amerika. 
For ordinari raiting, f, e*, o*, tr (i, ^, o, u) ar kouvi-nientli reprezented 
bai Mr. Pitman'z niu skript formz ; boet e (hwen yu'zd), d, and 6 ar 
sou infri'kwent az hardli tu rekwair niu raiting leterz. 

Ov koTs, e* and o* wud bi yu'zd bai soem person z tu dhi exklu'zhon 
ov dhe difthongz ei and^ac; boet i'vn hwen dhe later ar fuli aknolejd, 
simpl e si*mz tu bi okeizhonali rekwaird, az in ke-otik^ arke'ik (if not 
in takspe'evy brikle'er^ ets.), hwail o- iz not ounli wonted in analogoes 
pozishonz (az in kcrinsaid^ po'etri^ pleigo'er)^ boet veri fri-kwentli in 
radikal long silablz presi'ding dhi advknst aksent ov soech derivativ 
woerdz B.zfo'netik^ no'biliti^ ro'mantik, Simpl o in ko-niferoes wud klash 
widh obsMiir o in konekshon ; boet dhe best Ingglish and Amerikan 
fcnetishanz agri* dhat dhi u " vanish " iz not herd widh oenaksented 
long 0, moech les widh dhe short saund (az in filosbfikal), 

Bai S wi mi'n veri m-rli dhe tru* long ov e in " ferry " (French e in 
" f^te"), hwich iz dhe moT komon Ingglish pronoensieishon bouth in 
" fairy " and " fare." Boet in woerdz laik " fare," and les fri'kwentli 
in dhouz laik " fairy," meni personz bouth in Inggland and Amerika 
pronauns dhe naro long ov dhe " pat " saund. Wi dhserfor ad6pt 
dhi Amerikan " a " (" a* ") tu reprezent dhis later " pare " saund, and 
aplai " a, ^" for dhi Amerikan " a, d " (az in fdst^fddher). Boet for 
praktikal speling wi prefer " »," az a kompromaiz betwi-n " e " and 
" a* ". Az pri'vioesli remarkt, " a* " iz soemtaimz yu-zd in " ask, after, 
path," boet bai diferent spi-kerz from dhouz hu sei par^ parent, 

Dhe sain r iz rekwaird in reprezenting dhe pronoensieishon ov per- 
sonz hu omit Ji (semivoukal r), and ce' iz nesesari for dhouz hu meik 
a distinkshon betwi^n " earn " and " urn," hwail sinking r similarli in 


bouth (d*n, cfh). Seem sprkerz sei 9j, and oedherz om, for bouth " er " 
and ^' ur "; hwiul amoeng soem, ha distinggwish dhi'z, dher iz diverj- 
ens in regard tu ^'ir"; sou dhat wi mei ^xp^kt tu hav soech varaietiz 
az byd^ bddd^ b9rd^ berd^ boe'd^ bceud^ bcerd^ for " bird." 

In dhe difthongz ai, au^ dhi a haz dhe *•' past " saund, bai pozishon, 
az in dhe kombineishon <u. In ekzamplz ov ortho'epi, haaever, not 
ounli aa, boet dt, om, mei bi ritn tu denout rekognishon ov dhe par- 
ticular saund ov a, Tu reprez^nt a mo-r obskiiir inishal element in 
dhe difthongz, dft, du mei bi yu*zd ; hwail 9i 9u^ or at, a?M, or posibli 
ai, a?M, mei beter expres soem personz' apri-sieishon ov dhe saimdz. 
Boet in praktikal raiting dhe brdd tipikal sainz at, au ar konsfderd tu 
iuklu'd 61 soech spesifik varaietiz. Dhe difthong iu mei bi spesifikali 
dif erenshieited intu tw, tw, ta (az in miutiiuzl^ fiuttau), or intu yw, yu^ y9 
(az in myutyual^fyutydj) ; boet in eni keis yu iz ritn inishali. 

Amoe'ng dhe konsonants dhi ounli oenyu'zhual sain iz j, expr^ing 
an impeifekt r, BefoT dhe vauel ov a vemakiular afiks or ov a soeb- 
joind woerd, trild r repleisez d kfter wi*k vauelz, az in entdjt^ entartng — 
fbd sevn yvrz oj, mo'u^ for eit yi'rz or ouvdd ; boet r iz siuperdded tu d 
after strong vauelz, az in abhodring (widh hwich kompser abhorent^ 
not formd widhin dhe langgwej), tu abhodr i-vL Meni personz sei 
a, o, a*, 6B-, ra, ea, era, o'9^ wa, for du, 6.^, 9d, ced^ i'd^ ed^ a'd^ o'd^ wd^ and ad 
a trild r befoT a vauel. 

Dhe tonik aksent, hwen it doez not f6l on dhe ferst silabl, shud bi 
markt in personal speling; boet in a fikst no-teishon intended for 
jeneral yu-s wi kan woerk tu ru*lz dhat seiv meni aksent-marks. 

Wi hav dhoes provaided an Orthoepikal Alfabet, hwich, dhou veri 
far from adekwet for dhe poerposez ov dhe saientifik fo'netishan, iz 
probabli keipabl ov expresing 51 jenerali apri'shiabl varaietiz ov pro- 
noensieishon in resi-vd Ingglish spi-ch ; and wi shal bi oblaijd tu eni 
ri-der ov dhi Experimenter hu wil emploi dhis alfabet tu send oes hiz 
aktiual pronoensieishon ov dhi Asousieishon'z " Test Paragraf ." 


In resivd Ingglish spich. dher ar several slaitli diferent pronoen- 
sieishonz ov dhe vauel in " but," and hens it iz vserioesli pleist in dhe 
tabiuleishonz ov fonetishanz. Soem regard it az dhe naro kaunter- 
part ov dhi a in " father," and oedherz az similarli releited tu dhi a 
in " fast." Bouth ov dhiz pronoensieishonz mei bi komonli herd in 
Loendon ; boet it simz tu oes dhat naidher ov dhem iz dhe moust 
jeneral Ingglish oeterans. Dhe "but" vauel hwich wi hav bin moust 
akoe'stomd tu hir and tu yuz mait perhaps bi deskraibd az a mikst 
saund widb a smdl degri ov raunding, "Wi iam^^ ^^\.^\l ^ ^ U^ 


several taimz ouver (sou az tu fiks dhi orgauik pozishon for dhe 
vauel-saund), and dhen, widh dhi organz prepserd tu repit dhe silabl, 
endevor tu sei log widhaut cheinj ov toeng-pozishon, dhe rezoe'lt iz 
laeg^ or dhe ferst silabl ov "luggage." Hir dhi efort tu oeter a bak 
vauel, hwen dhe pozishon for a froent woen iz held, bringz dhe toeng 
intu dhe mikst pozishon ; hwail, az dhe mor efektiv ov dhe tu' ele- 
ments dhoes blended {b) iz a vauel widh dhe lou degii ov raunding, 
dhi amalgam komonli reteinz at list a porshon ov dhis kwoliti. 

Boet, hwot^ver mei bi dhe valiu ov dhe presiding analisis, it iz 
jenerali agrid amoeng fonetishanz, dhat naidher in organik formei- 
shon nor in akaustik ef ^kt ar eni varaietiz ov dhe " but " vauel tu bi 
regarded az saundz ov dhi U taip. Tu dhi ordinari ir, dhi inishal 
saund ov Ingglish "oven" simz r4dher tu bi a varaieti ov dhe seim 
taip az dhi inishal saund ov Jerman "offnen" (or "oeffnen") or dhat 
ov French "oeuvre." Ov dhis taip ov saund cb iz dhi aproupriet 
Romanik reprezentativ, having bin devaizd for dhis foenkshon, and 
not for raiting Latin, in hwich it iz mirli a moenkish interpoleishon 
for separet oe. On dhis simpl viu ov dhe mater, wi ar kwait satisfaid 
widh dhe simbol oe for dhe "but" saund, espeshali hwen wi faind it 
sankshond bai fonetishanz laik Mesrz. Ellis and Sweet. 

On dhi oedher hand, in a sistem ov speling soepouzd tu bi f auuded 
on restord tipikal Rouman valiuz, wi hav dhe greitest repoegnans tu 
adopting w, in eni diferenshieited form or widh eni daiakritikal mark, 
for dhe " but " saund. Dhi efekt ov eni soech areinjment apirz tu oes 
not les inkonggruoes dhan tu yuz e in woen form or widh woen mark 
for dhe " great" saund, and in anoedher form or widh anoedher mark 
for dhe "beat" saund. Tu print " but, but, but," or eni u speling, 
for dhe koerent " but," mei in soem keisez fasiliteit instant lejibiliti 
tu non-fonetik riderz ; boet ivn tu dhem soech noteishon wud bi 
ofensiv in formz laik " muni, kulor, luver;" hwail it moest nesesarili 
render prezent and fiutiur riderz les aprishiativ ov soech spelingz az 
" fut, but" (for dhe koerent "foot, boot"). 

Boet oldhou, for wel-konsiderd thioretikal and praktikal rizonz, 
wi advokeit oe (hwich woz aur oun propouzd simbol yirz agou), yet 
wi hav nou objekshon tu konsoe'lt dhe filing ov aur riderz, and tu 
defer tu eni desaided expreshon ov it, on a point ov teist rlidher 
dhan ov prinsipl. Wi dhserfor ekzibit belou spesimenz ov vaerioes 
posibl reprezenteishonz ov dhe "but" vauel. In dhe ferst eit keisez, 
dhis saund iz exprest bai literal formz intended tu bi distinktiv from 
" U U u ?7 w," az from dhi oedher for komon vauel leterz. In dhe 
nekst for instansez, dhe leter " u," in tu' slaitli difering ould formz, 
or distinggwisht bai daiakritikal marks, iz emploid for dhe " but^" az 
wel az for dhe ''put** and dhe "boot" saxmd, m ^tm-M^fex $i^^^\:t^5ccw 


aar oun personal expiriens in ridlDg, wi think moest bi distrakting 
and konfiiizing ta 61 riderz, ould or yoeng, adepts or novisez in fo- 
netiks. In dhe last for spesimenz, u iz speshali apr6uprieited tu dhe 
"but" saund, at dhe kost ov misreprez^nting dhe saundz tu hwich 
dhe leter properli bel6ngz. 

Az for dhe later eit ov dhi ekzamplz, wi ask not for eni opinion on 
dhiz, sins aur oun iz kwait desaided widh regard tu dhem, and dhaer 
eksibishon iz intended tu akt az ^^ a worning and a kdshon/' In dhe 
former eit ov dhe spesimenz, dhe literal formz ar 61 mor or les aveil- 
abl tu dhi ould-taip printer. Hauever, kapitalz for " «, v, a," and 
ofn dhe sm6l leterz, wud hav tu bi speshali kkst tu reinj ; " u, d, d," 
moest bi koet bai dhe printer (from " p, d "), at an exp^ns in taim 
konsiderabli greiter dhan dhi orijinal kost ov dhe taips; and "a" 
mait rekwair tu bi kast tu reinj, az wel az • tu bi slaitli koet. 

" (E (E oe CE OB ^* iz dhi ounli redi-meid and olwez aveilabl simbol, 
dhe taips biing everihwser at hand for short spesimenz, and prokiiir- 
abl for mor extensiv woerk, laik '' z, k, j," at dhe seim prais per 
paund az oedher taips, widhaut difikoelti tu printer or taipfaunder. 
Dhe woen objekshon tu "oe" iz, dhat it iz a hevi form (sertenii not 
an (EQLI woen), hwich objekshon wud hav mor koujensi if wi pro- 
pouzd tu yuz dhe leter az a " servant ov 61 woerk" in oenaks^nted 
silablz. Wi shud, hauever, az litl think ov meiking a komon droej 
ov '*oe," az ov dhe "pat," or dhe "pet," or dhe "pot" vauel-sain. 
Wi hav dhi apruvd simbol " e " tu reprez^nt dhi obskiur vauel. 

Spesimenz referd tu in dhi ahcs'v Artikl, 

1. Soem ov dhiz ful boendlz ov wdd ar shur tu koem oendoe'n sun. 

2. Sam ov dhiz ful bandlz ov wild ar shur tu kam anda'n sun. 

3. Sum ov dhiz ful bondlz ov wdd ar shur tu kum undo'n sun. 

4. Sum ov dhiz ful bondlz ov wild ar shur tu kum nndn'n sun. 

5. Som ov dlUz ful bondlz ov wiid ar shur tu kom ondo'n sun. 

6. S-em ov dhiz ful b-endlz ov wud ar shur tu k-em «ndB'n sun. 

7. Svm ov dhiz ful bvndlz ov wiid ar shur tu kvm vndv'n sun. 

8. SAm ov dhiz ful bAndlz ov wud ar shur tu kAm AndA'n sun. 

9. Sum ov dhiz ful bundlz ov wild ar shur tu kum undu'n sun. 

10. Sum ov dhiz ful bandlz ov wild ar shur tu kimi imdii'n sun. 

11. Sum ov dh.iz ful btindlz ov wild ar sh.ur tu kiim tindii'n s.un. 

12. Sum ov dheez ful bundlz ov wud ar shuT tu* kum undiin su'n. 

13. Sum ov dheez ful bundlz ov wud ar shoor tii cum undiin soon. 

14. Sum ov dhiz fwl bundlz ov wwd ar shwr tw kum undiin svtu. 

15. Sum ov dheez fwl bundlz ov wwd ar shoor to cum undiin soon. 

16. Sum ov dheez fuul bundlz ov wuud ar shoor too cum undiin soon. 


• _ 



[Dhe foloing reprezeuts dhe fonotipi ov dhi Amerikan AsousieUhon, eksept dhat 'o' iz 
hir printed for 'o' widh a streit or kceryd strouk akros it, and dhat ^i Amerikanz 
ofn yiiz transishonal formz rezembling * fe e * for *i e.*] 

From O. C. BLACKMER, "Esq., A.M., Chicago, U.S. (dated 25th July) :— 

" Mai dir Sur, — Qi am in resit ov yur Julai Spelling 'Experimenter y and shud laic 
tn se sumthing furdher on yur scimz. 

" Qi da not at ol laic *oe' for * short «.* It iz not in eni we sujestiv dv dhi sdand, 
and wil bi mor ecspensiv dhan a nia leter. Az 'oe* iz a dubl leter, ya get onli haf az 
meni leterz ta dhi pannd. Dhis ecses in cost wil sun pe for nia punchez. Hwai not 
at wuns, for dhis saund, select dhi sem form for uper and loer ces — viz. U u ? Wi 
can dhen hav II u for dhi saand in ' foot„ fool.' Agen, smol cap. u mecs a veri gad 
imiteshun, and, dho ta larj, mecs a beter apirans, tu mai ai, dhan *(e." 

" In mai pronunsieshun, ai hav no nid ov 'se.* Qi spel * bating, baring,* az yu spe! 
'oep, oerj,* dhi r in both cesez lengthening dhi short vaaelz 'a* and *oe.* Qi aprav yar 
*ai* and *aa,* for dhi vaael saondz in *pine* and 'sonnd.* 

" <1\ shad laic ta hav ya, in yar necst Experimenter ^ set up sumthing in dhi stail 
ov dhi fursi part ov dhi Julai number, yazing *a* for 'se*; smol cap. *u* for 'ce*; 
c for k. Qi encloz a modificeshun ov hwot oi understand tu bi yur vauel scim, bai 
hwich wi get rid ov dhi dubl leterz *sb* and *oe.* Dhi furst part ov yur Julai number 
wud bi laic dhis : — 

" * In dhi IJfcst number ov dhi Experimenter wi put befor aur riderz a paralel ecsibi- 
shon ov twelv scimz ov old-leter reformd speling. Wi sed dhen, dhat wi had teen penz 
tu prezent dhi spesimenz farli and corectli, and had obtend revizhon ov ich spesimen 
bai dhi othor ov its scim ; and wi aded, dhat it rest/ed widh aur riderz tu giv efect tu 
dhis wurc, and urjd everi wun hu felt an interest in dhi mater tu inform us bai leter 
or p5st-card hwich scim or scimz hi or shi considerd most elijibl for yus in an old-leter 
fonetic piriodical.* 

" Az an ofiser ov aur Speling Reform Asoshieshun, ai hav scorz ov alfabetic scimz in 
mai desc, and hav no dispozishun tu ad tu dhem. Qi beliv in aur scim widh thri nia 
leterz — a, o, u. But yu sim tu invait corespondens, and yu me tec mai sujeschnnz: 
for hwot dhe ar wurth. 

" Qi shal, befor long, send yu sum matirial help, tu asist yu in dhi ecspensez ov dhi 
Experimenter^ — Veri truli yurz, " O. C. Blackmer.** 

From the same (dated 26th July) : — 

" Mai dir Sur, — Qi encloz a fiu brevir taips ov a niu loer-ces u, hwich ai had cast a 
fiu dez ago. Dhar or meni rizonz for adopting dhis niu leter for * short «.* It mecs a 
purfect par widh dhi cap. U, and wi dhen shal hav sics parz — o, S s, V v, W w, Z z, 
and U u. Wi shal olso hav sics udherz hwich nirli par — C c, I i, J j, P p, Y y, and 
U u. It wil bi izili red bai dhi uninishieted, and iz a gad form — * but* iz vastli beter 
dhan * b«t' or yur * boet.* Qi hav truid verius formz for short «, such az u v, but ai 
thine a leter just laic dhi capital iz going tu bi dhi wun I 

" Pardon mi for dhis 2nd inflicshun. — Truli, . " 0. C. Blackmer.** 

[Az Mr. Blackmer iz a jentlman ov akademik koeltiur, dhe prezaiding partner ov a 
greit poeblishing-haus, and a prominent ofiser ov dhi Amerikan Speling Reform Asousi- 
eishon, wi hav everi dispozishon tu trit hiz soejestionz widh respektfid konsidereishon.. 
Beet, befor meiking a fiu remarks on dhem, wi wil expres aur gratifikeishon at dhi 
impriivments meid in dhi Amerikan Asousieishon'z fonotipi, bai giving oep ekwivalent 
aimbolzj bai modifaiing soem objekshonabl spelingz, and bai. siaiii^ t.\3c>\&t ^vql \^\&v 


and embarasing ligation tu dhe konsonant daigrafs. Hwail aur Amerikan frendz hav 
dhces bin aprouching praktikal Ingglish stoilz ov noteishon, wi hav adv&nst tordz dhser 
method, bai adopting a/, au, iu az difthong sainz, and dhy hw in dhe konsonant n5tei- 
shon. DhoBS, wi ar dautles " 61 slouli kcemiug tugedher," akording tn Mr. Blackmer'z 
expreshon in aur Hist ishu. And it iz perhaps az wel dhat aur interaproksimeishon shiid 
not bi til rapid, at dhe kost ov inkonsideret konseshon on aidher said. Aar konstant 
endevor shud hi, tu elimineit dhe bad, and adopt dhe gud, from ich oedher'z sldmz. 

Wi shud bi sori tu hay it soepouzd dhat wi du not aprishieit dhe taip "a" for dhe 
**past" saund, and for raiting dhe difthongz "ai, au," distinktivli from "ai, an." 
Beet dhou wi shud personali bi wiling tu expend dhe taim and trcebl rekwizit tu meik 
dhis diferenshieishon in roumau and italik taips (A a a ^ a. — Q. a a (Z a), wi kauot 
expekt ordinari printerz tu folo ces in dhis laborices sheiping o\r niu taips aut ov ould 
wcenz. Dhi Amerikan transishon taips for ei (e) and t ov dhis speling ar advanteijoes 
for soem poBrposez. Dhouz tu' long saundz okce'r nirli az ofu az 61 dhi oedherz teikn 
tngedher; and if wi ad dhe saund in " note," dher wil bi left ounli abaut woen-forth ov 
aur long vauel-saundz, reknd bai dhe frikwensi ov dhser rekoeVens. Besaidz a sain for 
dhe " but," and perhaps ween for dhe " past " saund, wi wont niu taips for dhe saundz 
in "mate, meet, moat," oenles ei, ou ar adopted az yuzd hir. Az for "A, se (a, 6), 6, ii/* 
dhei mait bi permanentli tolerabl on akaunt ov dhasr komparativ infrikwensi. 

It iz 61 veri wel tu distinggwish dhe "pat" from dhe "past" vauel, and Also dhe 
saund in " pare " from dhat in " pate," if wi faind dhiz diskrimineishonz praktikabl in 
a popiular orthografi ; boet dhiz ar non-signiiikativ (and ofii oenkonshces) veerieishonz, 
and shud not bi markt at dhi expens ov koniiuzing dhe sens-distinggwishing saundz in 
" harry, hairy " oender dhe woen noteishon in " hari." Az for dhe non-signifikativ dis- 
krimineishon in " cronoloji, cronolojikal," aur frendz wil hav tu abandon dhat, az dhei 
hav dcen a similarli cenpraktikal distinkshon in " analisis, analist," and wil r&dher hav 
tu giv dhffir atenshon tn marking dhe signifikativ diferens ov saund in "stock, stalk," or 
in " bellow, below." Dh^ pserz ov wcerdz dhei nan severali konfaund az " stok " and 
"belo," dhou wi shud distinggwish dhem az "stok, st6k," and "belo, belou (belo)." 
Wi kanot meik "a, o, o, u" serv bouth for short vauelz (az in "marry, knotty, arrows, 
pttU") and for nirli koresponding, beet diversli signifikativ, long wcenz (az iu "Mary, 
naughty, arose, pool"). 

Az for dhe form *8e," wi yuz it az a konvinient and aproupriet kompromaiz betwin 
"a" and "6," hwich l^st simbol wi shud hav tu emploi, and not "a," tu reprezent dhe 
mor komon Ingglish and aur oun proncensieishon. 

Widh regard tu "oe," and dhe jeneral kwestion ov dhe reprezenteishon ov dhe "boet " 
saund, wi had an artikl in taip bef5r Mr. Blackmer'z leter araivd ; and vn wil ounli sei 
hir, in adishon, dhat wi hav ofn tu straiv laborioesli tu priiv tu an Angglikan fonetik 
heretik dhat dhe Rouman vauel "u " iz dhe proper woen tu reprezent dhe modem saundz 
in " stood, mood" (stud, mild), and dhat cheinj ov proncensieishon haz renderd dhe yus 
ov dhis leter oeterli inaproupriet in dhe koerent " stud, mud." Wel, wi fansi wi shud 
destroi dhi efekt ov aur argiument 6Itugedher bai having ^fterwardz tu explein, dhat in 
" STUD, MUD," widh a r&dher mor Rouman form ov dhe leter, dhe reprezenteishon 
wud remein cenolterd. Dhis expidient ov " diferenshieishon," or aplikeishon ov kazhual 
varaietiz ov form for diferent valiuz, iz riali m5r perpleksing dhan dhi introdoekshon ov 
niu leterz, and moest eventiuali kost dhe seim for taipfaunding. And, t6king ov expens 
in dhis mater, it iz a misteik tu soeponz dhat wi ounli get haf az meni ov " oe " az ov 
" u " tu dhe paund. Dhi aktiual proporshon iz thri-forths. Beet dhis iz a trivial kon> 
sidereishon, espeshali az a paund ov aidher taip wud fil dhe seim speis. 

Az c in koerent Ingglish orthografi, and in dhat ov every cedher modem langgwej ov 
hwich wi hav eni nolej, eksept Welsh, iz an oensteibl leter, and inefektiv tu expres dhe 
k saund befor e or t, wi think it wud bi tu hard on bouth Ingglishmen and foren stiu- 
dents ov Ingglish tu inflikt on dhem soech noteishon az " Get cept a citn in dhe cichen.*' 
Dhe yus ov bouth c and k wud bi konfiuzing, widh ei {e), ai, iu ofn respektivli rej)lei8- 
ing a, iy u ov dhi ould speling. 

Dhi " u " hwich Mr. Blackmer kaindli sent ocs hapnz tu bi soemhwot laijer dhan aur 
oun sm61 kapital (yiizd aboev), az wil bi sin in " uu," hweer dhe sekond leter iz aurz. 
Dhis iz woen ov " dhe mizeriz ov niu leterz," az Mr. Ellis freizez it. — W. R. E.] 

Printed by W. R. Evaus, 3 Gloucester Slteet, C^jiefeT^. ^v^aas^, London, W.C. 




{Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association) 

London: F. PITMAN, 20 Paternoster Row. 

No. 14] OCTOBER, 1881. \_PHce Id. 

All Communications should be addressed to W. R. EVANS, 3 Gloucester 

Street^ Queen Square^ London^ W,C, 


In Nr. 12 ov dhi Experimenter^ wi ventiurd tu soejest, dhat dhen, 
at dhe komplishon ov a yir'z ishu, personz hu had red its peijez widh 
interest, and hu wer in a pozishon tu giv it pekiuniari soeport, wud 
asfst aur fiutiur eforts bai sending oes stamps or poustal nout in pei- 
ment for kopiz aktiuali resivd. Wi aded remarks hwich indikeited 
dhat wi wer not at 61 sanggwin ov eni konsiderabl rezoelt from dhis 
intimeishon ov dhi akseptabiliti ov help ; for, ivn if wi kud hav esti- 
meited aur aprishiativ riderz at a moieti ov dhouz tu ham aur sm6l 
poeblikeishon had bin regiularli soeplaid, wi wer kwait awaer dhat az 
meni shilingz (ivn widh a fiu pens aded in ich keis for poustej) wud 
not hav amaunted tu a larj soem. Teiking intu konsidereishon hau 
limited a serkl wi adrest, and dhat holidei sizon woz joest komensing, 
hwail alauing for dhe yuzhual persentej ov gud intenshonz ind^finitli 
deferd, wi thdt it posibl, dhou not haili probabl, dhat wi mait obtein 
dhe niinz tu defrei aut-ov-poket expensez tu dhi end ov dhe yir, and 
dhoes bi eneibld tu devout 61 aur speis tu praktikal experimenting 
and profitabl diskoeshon, inst^d ov leting aut a porshon ov it for 
oenfrutful kontrovershal dispiuteishon. 

Aur modest antisipeishon haz bin folsifaid bai dhi aktiual ishu, 
boet in a veri agriabl wei. Dhe sponteinioes and prompt miunifisens 
ov Mr. C. W. Knudsen (hwich iz dhe mor noutabl az hi iz a rezident 
in dhe Yunaited Steits, and not ivn a neitiv spiker ov dhi Angglo- 
Amerikan toeng) put oes at woen strouk in pozeshon ov a soem larjer 
dhan wi expekted tu obtein in dhi agreget ; hwail dhe jenerositi ov 
cedher jentlmen helpt aprishiabli tu krieit an efektiv Soestenteishon 
Foend. Wi hav invested dhe boelk ov dhis foend in dhe Poust-Ofis 
Bank, reteining ounli moeni for risent disboe'rsmeuts ; and aur inten- 
shon iz tu dr6 oepon it moenthli for mir aut-ov-poket expenditiur, 
and not tu ekz6st it rapidii bai charjing it widh dhe valiu ov aur 
oun leibor (hwich iz a kontribiushon wi kan aford tu dhe gud k6z ov 


dhe Rt?f6rni). Dhoes wi raei houpfuli antisipeit dhe prosekiushon ov 
aiir experimental woerk tu a defioit ishu, and shal bi in a pozishon 
til soeplai, az hidhertu, kopiz for fri distribiushon tu memberz ov dhi 

In espeslial, aur peijez wil bi dispouzabi, if konsfderd siutabl, for 
praktikali testing ould-Ieter skimz ov speling selekted for " foerdher 
konsidereishon " in respona tu dhe kanvas ov dhi Asousieishon. And 
wi wil hir teik dhe iiberti ov personali expr^sing aur regret dhat so 
meni memberz hav deleid dhe filing- oep ov dhe peiperz foemisht tu 
dhem. Bcjct wi boup and entrit dhat dhei wil nau kontrfbiut dhaer 
asistaus tu dhe selekshon ov a moderet noember ov skimz for traial. 
Dhi omishon ov a spesifaid taim for sending in dhe peiperz, and dhi 
interroei^shon ov dhe holidei sizon, wil dautles akaunt for delei in 
meni keisez. Boot, nau dhat dhe holidei taim iz ouver, wi wud oerj 
aur frendz tu fil oep dhner peiperz widh dhe neimz ov dhe skimz dhei 
prefer, and tu send dhem in at woens tu dhe Sekretari — aplaiing for 
fresh peiperz if dhei shud hav misleid dhouz olredi resivd. If wi 
permit ofishali-akwaird nolej tu prompt oes tu dhiz entairU personal 
soejestionz, aur exkius moest bi angzaieti tu forward aktiv biznes, 
and dhat wi hir adres ounii Speling Reformerz moustli memberz ov 
dhi Asousieishon. 

Gratifaid and greitful az wi fil in aknolejing dhe liberal kontribiu- 
shonz wi hav resivd, and adekwet az dhiz_ wud bi tu mit aur mor 
direkt aktiual disboe'rsments for moenths from dhe prezent taim, stil 
wi ar not yet in a pozishon tu deprekeit foerdher soebskripshonz from 
aprishiativ riderz. Nau dhat moeni iz in kwestion, and dhat wi hav 
a tanjibl amaunt olredi in stor, aur aspireishon wud bi, tu obtein 
dhe minz for a ful yir'z prodoekshon ov dhis joemal, or a soeksesor 
tu it, and tu meik its peijez dispouzabi, widhaut "charj, for serkiuleit- 
iug eni wel-konsiderd orthografik skim or soejestion. If wi exklud, 
az wi hav leitli doen, propouzalz defishent in orijinal, distinktiv, or 
praktikal kwolitiz, wi shal dlwez bi redi tu print eni orthografik plan 
dhat mei apir tu bi praktikal and at 61 orijinal in karakter. Bekoz 
vaerioes ekzisting skimz mait serv aur poerpos, it doez not folo dhat 
beter areinjments ov soem diteilz mei not yet bi devaizd, or dhat dhiz 
shud not bi konsfderd in konekshon widh dhe methodz brdt tu dhe 
froent bai dhe pending kanvas. Boet dhis kanvas shud at prezent bi 
karid aut, widhaut ref erens tu eni niu propouzalz not konteind in dhi 
Asousieishon'z list. 

A list ov pekiuniari kontribiushonz re^vd oep tu dhe taim ov aur 
gouing tu pres wil bi faund on peij 116. Ov dhe toutal shoun, nirli 
£2 wil hav bin expended on dhis and dhe presiding noember ov dhi 
Experimenter; sou dhat wi hav a balans ov radher mor dhan £8* 



In referens tu dhe kompleint meid in Mr. Janau'z interesting kon- 
tribiushon (printed on peij 115), in regard tu dhe difikoelti ov raiting 
9 and ^, wi mei obzerv, dhat ivn tu dhe rediest ov raiterz everi niu 
skript form wil enteil at list temporari embarasment. Soena formz, 
bai praktis, bekoe'm izi tu everibodi; oedherz, ounli tu soem personz; 
and stil oedherz, tu noubodi. 

Mr. Ellis konsiderz 9 a gud skript form, and tu aur oun hand it iz 
izi, az wi n6u it tu bi tu soem oedher personz' handz. It rekwairz 
mirli dhe seim inishal muvment az a properli meid x; boet x itself iz 
a rial crux tu soem raiterz, hu transleit it intu a simpl kros ( X ). Dhe 
form 9 widh a v toem aded at dhe top bekoe'mz Mr. Pitman'z leter 
for dhe " but " vauel ; and it olso konstitiuts dhe former haf ov dhe 
skript », hwich konsfsts ov 9e kombaind intu woe'n leter, az x doez 
ov oc similarli konjoind. Dhoes skript se iz renderd kwait distinkt 
from skript ob — ^moech az dhe italik print leterz difer hir. 

Az for ^, it mei bi reprezented in raiting bai kwait distinktli meik- 
ing dhe former haf ov x — dhat iz, o — and dhen kariing on a toem 
from nir dhe botom ; dhoes — x. Or, az wi hav tu' formz ov raiting r 
in komon yus — aproksimetli ekzemplif aid az ^ and r — wi mait aplai 
dhe former for " j," and dhe later for " r." Boet wi moest dhen teik 
kaer not tu let fikst maniual habit get dhe beter ov inferm mental 
poerpos, az iz veri apt tu bi dhe keis widh soech " diferensieishonz '* 
ov yu'zhuali indiferent formz. Wi shud konsider, tu, dhat distinktiv 
aplikeishon ov kazhual varaietiz in skript leterz wud ofn bi inefektiv 
in regard tu eni rider, and wud betrei dhe printer intu frikwent mis- 
reprezenteishon ov hiz kopi. 

On dhe houl, wi prefer niu skript formz tu dhi arbitraii diskrimi- 
neishon ov ould woenz ; boet komparativli fiu niu formz dezerv dhe 
peishent praktis dhat 61 ov dhem rekwair. 


It haz bin sed dhat dhi JSngglo-Indian ofishal selfabet iz esenshali 
ansiiitabl for raiting Ingglish, and dhat it haez not safishant vauel 
simbalz. Yet it wud sim dhat dhe moust kaeraktaristik fityar ov 
dhe sistem — dhe j^iis ov dhe letar a for dhe saund dhat okoerz thrf 
taimz in dhe woerd '' assumption " (asampshan) — mait in skm rispekta 
bi veri konvinyant in repriz^nting Ingglish spich. Teiking anaek- 
s^nted silablz intu akaunt, dhis iz dhe moust koman veelyu ov a in 
dhi egzisting orthografi, and a iz dhe letar bai hwich dhe saund iz-. 
moust frikwantli expr^st. 

If wi aplaid a tu dhis yus, and introdiust x and oe for tu saund^ 


pikiiiliar tu Ingglish, wi shud hsev aur praimari vauelz reprizented 
bai — I (dividend), e (revenue), sb (captive), a (culpable), ce (cwrtain), 
(colony), u (cuckoo). In dhis areinjment, dhe faiv letarz t, e, a, o, u 
ich expr^s tii varaietiz ov wkn jenerik saund — ^hwot mei bi kold an 
oupn varaieti, okoerring in silablz widh stres ; and a klous wan, in 
silablz widhaut stres. Hwen dhe pozishan ov dhe stres wud not bi 
obvias from dhe form ov a woerd, dhe greiv aeksent mait bi yiizd tu 
mkck dhi oupn and sBks^nted saundz, aez in dhe f ainai silablz ov ekses^ 
omtt^ embos^ kondisend^ ouvarluk^ or 8BZ in dhe penaJtimets ov insalting^ 
opresar^ sabmisiv^ embbdi. It mait olso bi expfdiant, for dhe prezant, 
tu yuz a in 61 keisez for dhi aeks^nted vauel in " buttock " (batak), 

Dhe klous long vauelz wud bi markt widh dhi akiiit aeksent (aez, 
marin^ niozetk^ faster^ froward^ prudent)^ and dhi oupn wauz widh dhe 
fl^rkamfleks (aez, matirial^ riperian^ fddhar^ plozibl, plural). Bat, in 
aiishan tu dhfz, dhe difthongz ei and ou (neibar, shouldar) sim tu bi 
rikwaird for expresing risfvd pronansieishan ; hwail, ov kors, dhe thri 
difthongz at, au (Jail=. file, /aMZ=i fowl), and oi (Jbit)^ wud haev dher 
^ngglo-Indian and Yuropfan vselyuz. 

Hwer dhi aeksent wud not bi fikst bai nil, or shoun bai dhe greiv 
m^rk (aez abav), it mait bi nndikeited bai dhe invoerted piriad ( • ), 
pleist bif 6r dhe vauel ; aez, aHvieited, 

In kaepitalz, ets. -A -E -I -0 •U=a e \ 6 u ; 'A 'E 'I '0 'U=a e i 6 u ; 
A' E' I' 0' U' (A' E' I' 0' tJ') = a, e, f, 6, li; A,I 0,1 (A,I 0,l) = ai oi. 

Dhe konsonants wud bi yiizd in dhe moust simpl Ingglish fonetik 
faeshan, aez hir adopted, hwioh agdz widh dhi -^ngglo-Indian praek- 
tis widh rigard tu jo, ft, f , d^ ch, j\ k^ g^ /, v, 5, z^ sh^ zh^ w, w, ng^ /, r, 
w;, y, and h, Dhi ounli diskripansi iz in risp^kt tu th^ dh^ hwich dai- 
grafs, laik M, gh, olredi reprizent divoers saundz in -^Ehgglo- Indian 
printing widhaut markt konsonants. Tu meik dhe Sanskrit joA, bh^ 
th^ dh^ kh^ gh^ anmisteikabl tu Ingglish ridarz, it mait bi nesesaii tu 
yiiz dhe daierisis, aez in aur oun naitfiud^ adfiir; hwail dhe Yuropian 
and ^rabik th^ dh^ kh^ gh rikwair in Indian printing sam distiuktiv 
marking, saoh az " Bath, Woerdhing, Kh§,n, Ghilzai." 

A fiu litl woerdz, laik hav^ az^ ar^ bi^ mi^ so^ du^ wud in dhis speling 
haev sekand f ormz hwen andar stres ; aez, hsev^ sez^ dr^ bi^ mi^ sou^ du. 

Dhis noteishan iz probabli az striktli fonetik az eni dhat hav bin* 
sabmited for dhe koman raiting ov Ingglish, and iz az mach in har- 
moni widh jenaral Yurop'an az vndh -fflngglo- Indian yiizej. It wud 
bi supoerfluas tu point aut dhe beniflts tu bi diraivd from impirial az 
wel az intamaeshanal akbrd in dhe yiis ov Rouman letarz. Dhi ounli 
kwestyan iz, hwedhar dhis wud kost m6r dhan its woerth, in kom- 
paerisan widh speling rifbrm ov a piurli insyular kaeraktar. Ov dhaet, 
dhe ridmrz Qv dh^z spesimenz wil form dh6r oun j^jment« 



Test Pasragrdf ov dhi Asomieishan, 

Hir and dher a fiu InggUsh woerdz mei bi faund in dhe yiizhual 
ortho^rafi, hwich liv nou riim for daut sez tu dher pronansieishau. 
Bat dhis iz kwait eksepshanal. Yet wi ar sliur dhat aur speling 
woz orijinali fonetik. It iz nau propouzd tu rivoert tu dhaet prinsipl. 
Bat a divizhan ov opinyan haz arizn sez tu dhe moust siiitabl letarz 
tu emploi. Dhe foloing voershauz ov dhis steitment shou dhe ueityar 
ov sacli ov dhe verias propouzalz olredi meid az kud bi konvfnyantli 
piinted, ich az far az woz posibl in dhi orthoepi ov its othar. In so 
short a paeragraf ounli dhe chff points kud bi inkliided, bat dhi aelfa- 
betik 16 iz jenrali klir, and dhi ai wil bi eibl tu jaj priti wel hwot dhi 
apirans wud bi in printed buks. Meni plsBuz involving radhar inaek- 
sesibl taips haed tu bi entairli past bai. Hens dhe chois meid dkz 
not implai a voerdikt. Dhi Egzekyutiv Kamiti wil sil^kt sach methadz 
az dhei mei think rikwair longgar ilastreishan. Dhi Ingglish Speling 
Riform Asousieishan aez a bodi iz not risponsibl for eni wan ov dhiz 

Trsenslitareishan ov Mr. H, Sweeps Orthoepi, 

In ''Sujestiv'* Speling. 

Heer un dhair u fyoo Ingglish wurdz 
may bi found in dhu yoozhooul authdg- 
rufy, hwich leev noh ruum fu dout az tu 
dhair prununsiaishun. But dliis iz cweit 
icsepshunul. Yet wi u shoor dhut our 
speling wuz urijinuly fo'netik. Its now 
prupohzd tu rivurt tu dhat prinsipl. But 
u divizhun uv upinyun uz urizn az tu dhu 
mohst syootubl letuz too imploy. Dhu 
folo*ing vurshunz uv dhis staitmunt shoh 
dhu naichur uv such uv dhu vairius pru- 
pohzlz olredy maid uz cuud bi cunveen- 
yuntly printid, eech uz far uz wuz posubl 
in dhi authohipy uv its authu. In soh 
shaut u parugrahf ohnly dhu cheef points 
cud bee incloodid, but dhi alfubetik law iz 
jenruly cleer, un dhi ey ul soon bi aibl tu 
juj prity wel hwot dhi upeeruns ud bee in 
printid buucs. Meny planz involving rah- 
dher inucsesubl teips had tu bi inteirly 
pahst bey. Hens dhu chois maid duznt 
impley u vdrdict. Dhi Igzecyootiv Cumity 
ul silect such methudz uz dhay may think 
ricweir longgur ilustraishun. Dhi Ingglish 
Speling Rifaum Usohshiaishun uz u body 
iz not risponsubl for eny wun uv dheez 

Ov kors, dhe long-m^rk mait in dhis speling bi yiizd for dhe klous 
long vauelz, and dhi akiiit seksent tu denout stres ; bat it woz thot 
it mait bi m6r interesting tu egz\bit an egzsempl ov dhi kdhar areinj- 
ment, hwich iz bai nou minz pikiuliar tu dhi -^ngglo-Indian ofishal 
sistem ov orthografi. 


In " JEngglo-Indian*^ Speling. 

Hiar an dhear a fyu Ingglish wo^dz 
mei bi faund in dha yuzhual 6tbografi, 
hwich liv nou rum fa daut scz ta dhea 
pran^nsieishan. B^t dhis iz kwait iksep- 
shanal. Yet wi a shua dbat aur speling 
waz arijinali fonetik. Its nau prapouzd 
ta rivo^t ta dhset prinsipl . B^t a divizhan 
av apinyan az arizn aez ta dha moust syn- 
tabl letaz tu imploi. Dha foloing voeshanz 
av dhis steitmant shou dha neichar av 
s^ch av dha verias prapouzlz olredi meid 
az kud bi kanvinyantli printid, ich az f&r 
az waz posabl in dhi 6thouipi av its 6tha. 
In sou sh6t a paeragr^f ounli dha chif 
points kad bi inkludid, b^t dhi eelfabetik 
16 iz jenrali klia, an dhi ai al sun bi eibl 
ta j^j priti wel hwot dhi apiarans ad bi 
in printid buks. Meni plsenz inv61ving 
radhar inaksesabl taips heed ta bi intaiali 
pSst bai. Hens dha chois meid d^znt im- 
plai a vo^dikt. Dhi Igzekjrutiv Kamiti 
al sil^kt s^ch methadz az dhei mei think 
rikwaia longgar ilastreishan. Dhi Ingglish 
Speling Rif6m Asoushieishan az a bodi iz 
not risponsabl far eni wan av dhiz skimz. 



From Frederick Rutt, Esq., 6 Bamshury Pai% N. 

I send two versions of the Test Paragraph in your orthoepical 
alphabet. The first represents the sounds I should give to the 
words when slowly and separately sounded ; the other shows my 
ordinary colloquial pronunciation. I have used 9 for the turned r, 
as the sounds seem to me identical, or nearly so. 

Test Paragraph, 

Ili'dr and cViasdr eifyw Ingglish woerddz met hv faund in dhv ywzhwal 
Hi-ar and dhasar 9 fyu* Ingglish woe-dz me* bi* faund in dha yu-zhual 
d9thbgrafi^ which liv nou rum f6d dauV az tw dhse9 prouncensieishbn. 
dthografi, which li*v nou rum fa daut az ta dhsea pronoensieishan. 
Beet dhis iz kwait eksepshbnaL Yet wi' dd shwd dhat au9 speling wbz 
Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshanal. Yet wi* a shua dhat aua speling waz 
ourijinali founetik. It iz nau proupouzd tw ri'vce'dt tw dhat prinsipdl. 
orijinali fonetik. It iz nau propouzd ta revoe*t ta dhat prinsipal. 
Beet ei divizhbn bv oupinybn haz arizdn az tw dhv moiLSt sywtab9l let9z 
Boet a divizhan av opinyan haz arizan az ta dha moust syu'tabal letaz 
tw emploi. Dhv fblouing voe'9shbnz bv dhis steitment shou dhv neichw9r 
tu emploi. Dha folouing voe-shanz av dhis steitmant shou dha neichar 
bv seech bv dhv V8e9riees proupouzalz olredi meid az hid bv kbnvi'nientli 
av soech av dha vsearioes propouzalz olredi meid az kud bi* kanvi-niantli 
printed^ i'ch az fdr az wbz pbsih9l in dhv 69thouepi bv its 6thb9. In 
printed, rch az f^r az waz p5sibal in dhi dthouepi av its 6tha. In 
sou sh69t ei paragraf ounli dhv chi'f points kud hi' inklwded^ beet dhi' 
sou shot a paragraf ounli dha chi-f points kud bi* mklu-ded, boet dhi 

alfdbetik 16 iz jenarali klv9^ and dhv ai wil hv eihdl tw jeej preti wel 
alfabetik lo iz jenarali kli*a, and dhi ai wil bi* eibal ta joej preti wel 

whbt dhi' apv9rans wud hi' in printed huks, Meni planz invblving 
whot dhi api'arans wud bi* in printed buks. Meni planz involving 
rddhdr inaksesihdl taips had tw hi' entai9li pdst hai. Hens dhi' chois 
radhar inaksesibal taips had ta bi- entaiali p§st bai. Hens dha chois 
meid doez nbt implai ei voer9dikt, Dhi' Egzekywtiv Kbmiti wil si'lekt 
meid doez not implai a voe-dikt. Dhi -Egzekyutiv Komiti wil selekt 

seech methbdz az dhei mei think ri'kwai9 lbngg9r ileestreishbn, Dhi' 
soech methadz az dhe* me* think rekwaia longgar iloestreishan. Dhi 
Ingglish Speling Evf69m Asousieishbn az ei hbdi iz n^t rvspbnsib9l f69r 
Ingglish Speling Ref6m Asousieishan az a bbdi iz not respousibal far 

eni ween hv dhi'z ski'mz, 
eni iroen 9v dbi'z iski'mz. 


From E. Janau (Zhano'), Esq., 2 Nelson Terrace^ Clapham. 

Ai send yu hiaiwidh dhe Test Paragrkf 6v dhe Speling Refojm 
Asousieishan ritan widh yur ojtho-ipikal alfabet, and az niar az posibl 
akoiding tu mai oun pronoensieishan. Dher aj, hauevaj, e fiu woejdz 
kbnsoejning hwich ai hav h^dle meid oep mai maind. In dhe foeast 
woejd, for instans, mai pronoensieishan, and dhat hwich ai think ai 
Hias moust jenarale, iz hiau^ not hi'd, Dher iz e feint ob saund betwiin 
dhe i and dhe r (dhat iz, 6v kors, hwen dhe ?• iz trild). Dhe ending 
yrazhuale reprfezented bai y iz olso e sojs 6v troebl tu mi. Ai nevaj 
hiar aidhar i or e, boet soemthing betwiin, and foj dhat riizan ai reprfe- 
zent it bai yur e. Ai am olso in daut az tu dhfe best wei 6v raiting 
dhfe fainal -tion^ -sion, -or^ -al^ -od. Dhfe vauel hoejd in dhiiz kbmbi- 
neishanz iz soeatenle shoit oeor9 (toejnd e), boet in derivativz dhfe o or 
a saund iz jenaralfe hcead. Ai think, dheafoj, dhat oldhou ai hav ritan 
kbmbineishQn^ vcedsh^n^ otho^i^ meth^d^ it wud bi betaa, foi dhfe prezent 
at enfe reit, tu kiip dhfe vauel nau yrazd in dhiiz woejdz. Az yu wil 
sii bai kbmpeiring dhis letai widh dh& enklouzd test paragrkf , ai am 
dautful az tu dhfe prbpai speling 6v dhe^ hwich ai olso spel dhi^ dhis 
lataj foam biing prefarabal b^or e vauel saund. 

Boet ol dhiiz obzoeiveishanz biing miirlfe e steitment 6v dhfe difi- 
koelt^z ekspiirienst bai e forfenar in dhfe atemt tu analaiz akiuretle 
dhfe saundz 6v dhfe Ingglish iangguej and tu reprfezent hiz oun pro- 
noensieishan, ai hav greit misgivingz az tu dhfe valiu yu wil set on 
dhem. Ai shud, nevaadheles, laik tu kol yur atenshan tu dhfe tui 
simbalz jl and a, hwich aa vere gud in print, boet hwich aj praktikalfe 
niu letajz in skript, and du not iizile adapt dhemselvz tu a kuik hand. 

Test Paragraph. 

Hir and dher e* fiu Ingglish woejdz mei bi faund in dhi yu-zhual 
ojthbgraffe, hwich Irv no rum for (foj) daut az tu dher pronoensiei- 
shan. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshanal. Yet wi aj shai dhat aoi 
speling woz orijfenalfe fo'netik. It iz nau propouzd tu revoeat tu dhat 
prinsipl. Boet e* divizhan 6v oupinyan haz erizan az tu dhi moust 
siutabl leterz (or letoerz or letaiz) tu emploi. Dhi folo'ing voejshanz 
6v dhis steitment shou dhi neichur 6v soech 6v dhi veiricBS propouzalz 
dlredfe meid az kud bi konvi-nientle printed, rch az far az woz posibl 
iA dhi ojtho'ipfe 6v its othaj. In sou shojt e* paragraf ounlfe dhi chi'f 
points kud bi inklu-ded, boet dhi alfabetik 16 iz jenaralfe kli*j, and dhi 
ai wil bi eibl tu joej prete wel hwot dhi api-rans wud bi in printed 
buks. Menfe planz involving radhar inaksesibl taips had tu bi entairlfe 
pS^ bai. Hens dhi chois meid daz (or doez) not implai e* voejdikt. 
Dhi Egzekiutiv Komitfe wil sfelekt soech methodz az dhei mei think 
rfekwaij Ibnggar iloestreishan. Dhi Ingglish Speling Rfefoam Asousiei- 
shan az e* bode iz not respbnsibl for eu^ T^CfcXi^^or '^^til^ qn ^jKciA^Ksxsia^. 



From C. "W. K.: — ** In regard to the Twelve Schemes, I have pointed out the 'Ana- 
logical * — that iz No. 5 — which, if I had to use it, I would modify a little." 

From B. T.: — "After carefully looking through the Twelve Schemes in the Experi- 
menter for June, I consider the * Compendious ' ranks first, and the ' Conveutional 
Collateral ' second. On first perusal, the ' Union ' seemed very acceptable ; but since 
I have read more of the * Compendious ' in the August Experimentery I should prefer 
a child's book written according to that scheme to one written according to any other 
out of the twelve." 

•»* "NVi hav nau pojblisht 61 dhe ritn opiuiouz dhat wi hav resivd respekting dhe 
Twelv Sklmz. Dhiz opinionz hav bin bouth enkoerejing and instrccktiv tu oes; beet 
dhci ar tu limited in ncrmbcr tu konstitiut enithing laik a definitlv verdikt. Wi shud 
dhsrfor bi glad ov focrdlicr opinionz from personz hu hav lezhur and iuklineishon tu 
form and cxj)rcs diicm. IJoet wi wud rcspektfuli oerj aur ridcrz not tu okiupai dhem- 
selvz widh dhis or cui praivet kanvas tu dhi exkluzhon ov dhdt Gcnderteiku bai dhi 
Asousieishon. Wi mcpst akiiolcj dhat at ween taim wi did not houp for moech praktikal 
efekt from an ofishal kanvas ov memberz, az dhe ncember and varaicti ov skimz bcfor 
dhi Asousieishon apird laikli tu bi konfiuzing; boct, az an enkcerejment tu dhe larj 
noember ov memberz hu hav not sent in dhccr peiperz, wi mei ventiur tu sei, dhat if a 
jeneral expreshon ov opinion shud rczceOt in dhe seim praktikal efekt az dhe parshal 
woen hwich haz olredi bin meid, faiv-siksths ov.dhe forti and od skimz wud at wccns bi 
elimincitcd from kousidcrcishou. Dhe uccmber ov methodz tu bi tested wud dhen bi 
komparativli 8m61 and manejabl. 

Wi kanot ignor dhe valiu ov dhi aprisieishon exprest bai difercnt personz for bouth 
dhe daigrafik noteishon ov "Yunion" and dhe daiakritikal ov " Kompendioes" speling. 
Boct, filing dhat dhis diverjent apruval, tu bi eventiuali efektiv, moest bi konsentreited 
on a kombineishon ov bouth planz, wi ar nau experimenting toardz dliat objekt. Seech 
memberz ov dhi E.S.R.A. az mei apruv ov dhe speling Mr yiizd wil oblaij bai selekting 
az *' woerdhi ov foerdher konsidereishon " bouth ** Yunion" and "Kompendioes," az dhe 
prezent stail iz an amalgam ov dhiz, and iz not formali inkluded in dhi ofishal list; boct 
personz hu desaidedli prefer woen ov dhouz skimz kan vout for it. — W. R. E. 


C. W. Knudsen, Esq., South Norwalk, Conn., U.S. 25 dollars = £ 5 
T. B. Sprague, Esq., M.A., Edinburgh ... ,., 
W. A. Wooler, Esq., Sadberge Hall, Darlington „, 
Henry Muirhead, Esq., M.D., Cambuslang, Glasgow ... 

D. Pitcaim, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn „ 
Colonel R. Cane, R.A., Junior United Service Club ... 
J. Lecky, Esq., Wimbledon 

E. Jones, Esq., 4 Amberley Street, Liverpool ... , 
John Lea, Esq., Elnihurst, Suffolk Lawn, Cheltenham, „ 
Harold Cox, Esq., Marlfield House, Tonbridge 
E. Janau, Esq., Nelson Terrace, Clapham Common (2 years) . 
E. Clegg, Esq., Sussex Street, Rochdale (2 years) ,,, 
Gerald Barker, Esq., Westoe, South Shields ... 
(I. X. ... ... ... ... ... .< 

Professor P. J. Candy, Highfield, Ditton, Cambridge ... 

Wm. Crossing, Esq., Splatton, Devon 

W. Spurrell, Esq., King Street, Carmarthen 

J. Macarthur, Esq., New Monkland, Airdrie 

Miss Beatrice Taylor, Aston Rowant, Tetsworth • ,,, 

Roht. H. "Roe, Esq., Stoke, Devonport 

Total received ^'^'^ ^ '^ 

E5 2 


















Printed by W, R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Stoel, QjxfttTi ^^vwaft^^ft^A^Tv,^ .v:.. 




(Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association^ 

London: F. PITMAN, 20 Paternoster Row. 

No. 15] NOVEMBER, 1881. iPHce \d. 

All Communications should be addressed to W. R. EVANS, 3 Gloucester 

Street^ Queen Square^ London^ W.C, 


Wl hav plezhur in kongratiiileiting" aur riiderz dhat dhe kanvas 
fostitiuted bai dhi Asousieishou haz bin braot tu a praktikal ishu. 
It iz tu bi rigreted, ^rhdps, dhat ounli a mainoriti ov Memberz hav 
meid em ritoern in anser tu dhi ofishal soerkiular. Boet dhis fakt 
ounli shouz, dhat, aut ov meni poersonz hu rekognaiz dhi inkonvii- 
niensez and disadvantejez ov dhe motli edifis ov Ingglish Speling, a 
majoriti hav not eni speshal predilekshon in rigard tu dhe stail ov a 
niu bilding. Dhe figiurz wi ar abaut tu sait joestifai oes in teiking 
dhis viu, in preferens tu woen les feiverabi tu dhe Riform. 

Aut ov 101 Memberz hu aktiuali riplaid tu dhe soerkiular, ounli 6 
signifaid dhaer disapruuval ov aol dhe skiimz soebmited tu dhem, 
hwail 17 diklaind, for vaerices riizonz, tu expres eni chois. Dher 
rimeirid, dhaerfor, 78 hu tuk an aktiv part in dhe silekshon. Az iich 
Member had liberti tu dezigneit eni noember ov skiimz dhat hi thaot 
" wcerdhi ov foerdher konsidereishon," and az dher wer 44 skiimz tu 
chuuz from, it iz soemhwat rimarkabl dhat ounli 280 vouts wer givn, 
or separet silekshonz meid, and dhat 184 ov dhiiz (veri niirli tuu- 
thoerdz) wer in feiver ov 12 aut ov dhe 44 skiimz. Hiving ounli 96 tu 
bi divaided amoengst dhe rimeining 32, or an averej ov 3 for iich ov 
dhe later. Dhe noemberz ov dhe vouts givn rispektivli for dhe twelv 
skiimz ar — 

NEW- LETTER SCHEMES. Compendious ... ... 13 

Pitman's present Phonotypy ... 39 Broad Romic ... ... 12 

" 1847 " Phonotypy ... 14 Utility ... 12 

Pitman's Old-letter Phonotypy 11 

OLD-LETTER SCHEMES.. ^^^^^.^ ^^ 

^•^io^ 19 Dimidian 11 

Popular English ... ... 17 Consistent (Soames) ... 9 

Europic ... ... ... 16 

Dhe magaitiad ov dhe noemberz hiir areiA yl TiO\. Net\ YCK:^xiaxss.^\ 
b(Bt it ahud-bi rimemhevd dhat dhei duifti Te^t\'Lfea\.\v\^vci^ ^':5vaY^\a 



ediokeishonists, or oedher eminent men interested in dhi amendment 
ov Ingglish speling. Beet, liiderz or foloerz, dhe memberz ov attr 
frii Ripoeblik ov Leterz rikorded dhaer vouts on dhe seim futing, 
and tu moar praktikal poerpos dhan mait hav bin expekted. In dhe 
moeltitiud ov kaunsiierz dher haz not, in anr viu, bin a lak ov wiz- 
dom. BcBt it wil hardli bi konsfderd invidioes on aur part tu soejest 
dhat in soem keisez dhe luk ov dhe spelingz, raadber dhan fo'netik 
•merit, haz influenst dhe silekshonz meid. 

Wi ar espeshali pliizd tu faind Mr. Pitman'z niu-leter Fo'uotipi 
facile pinnceps^ widh doebl dhe ncember ov vouts rikorded for eni 
cedher skiim. Persweided az wi hav aolwez biin, dhat an extended 
alfabet shud bi dhi celtimet eim ov dhe Riform, and dhat dhi immii- 
diet yuus ov niu leterz in skuuiz wud bi iikwali advanteijoes and 
praktikabi, wi shal bi kwait kontent tu yiild dhi ediukeisbonal fiild 
tu niu-leter Fo'notipi, az long az similar deferens iz peid bai cedher 
ould-leter orthografists tu a strong priponderanjf ov opinion amoeng 
Rif6rmerz. Dhe 39 vouts for dhe prezent stail ov Fo'notipi, az 
kompaerd widh 14 for dhi "1847" stail, ivins signifikant preferens 
for dhe prinsipl ov " laik formz for laik saundz," hwen dhi adopshon 
ov niu leterz iz in kwestion; and az wi hav oemestli and persistentli 
s(Bp6rted dhis prinsipl, wi kanot bi oedherwaiz dhan haili gratifaid 
at its veri jeneral akseptans. 

Disaided az iz dhe preferens for Analojikal valiuz in rigard tu niu 
leterz, dher iz moar iikwal divizhon ov opinion rispekting dhe moust 
aproupriet maner ov soeplai-ing difishent simbolz bai miinz ov ould 
leterz ounli. Soertenli, dhi Analojikal no'teishon in hwich wi ar nau 
raiting hedz dhe list ov dhe 10 moust feiverd ould-leter skiimz; boet 
it iz klousli folo'd bai a disaidedli Konvenshonal woen. Dhe soek- 
aiiding 3 skiimz, hauever, ar thoeroli Analojikal ; sou dhat 4 skiimz 
aut ov dhe foerst 5 ar ov dhat karakter. In dhe nekst kwintet 
2 ov soech ar aolso tu bi faund, meiking 6 Analojikal skiimz aut ov 
dhe foerst 10, widh an agreget ov 80 vouts agenst 51 for dhi oedher 
said. Nor wud dhis proporshon bi moech olterd bai disending tu dhe 
skiimz dhat obteind fiuer vouts. 

Dhe rizoe'lt ov dhe vouting iz dhaerfor veri enkoerejing tu dhi 
Analojikal skmil ov Riformerz, dhou it iz not soech az tu setl ofhand 
dhe vekst kwestion ov valiuz, widhaut foerdher komparativ printing. 
Boet, tu bi ov riial servis, dhis moest bi kondoe'kted on dhe prinsipl 
ov aplai'ing a " breiking-strein." Tolerabl spesimenz mei bi toemd 
aut in moust propouzd sistemz ov speling, if dhi aotherz ov dhiiz 
hav dhe chuuzing ov dhe woerdz reprizented, or iivn if ounli a short 
and konviinient extrakt bi ekzibited. Espeshali mei dhis bi doen 
Iiwen dhi ekzibiter iz not baund ba\ kompn\j.efts\N wi^^<e&KL\\»\>\\5S.^ 


ov speling, and miksez vaerioes stailz ov orthouipi, sou dhat hi iz 
eibl tu meik eksepshonal adjoe'stment tu miit eni keisez ov difikoeltL 
Efektiv testing kan not bi karid aut, oenles dhe skiim-meiker givz 
a ful teibl ov hiz simbolz widh dhaer diferent valiuz, a kompliit list 
ov hiz arbitrari spelingz widh dhaer pronoensieishonz, hiz ruulz for 
Hiding and marking aksent, and vaerioes osdher partikiularz, sou az 
tu privent eni ambigiuiti in praktis. 

Wi shal aurselvz endever, in aur nekst noeniber, tu giv a kompliit 
expozishon ov Yuunion speling, az aplikabl for orthoepik, jeneral, or 
ediukeishonal pcBrposez ; and wi shal dhen invait a kruusial kompi- 
tishon widh eni skiim ov dhi opozit skuul, on iikwal tcermz az tu 
taipografikal miinz emploid, regiulariti ov no'teishon, and definit ex- 
preshon ov soem partikiular stail ov orthouipi. In dhe miin hwail, 
wi shud wish it tu bi oenderstiid, dhat dhis ruud and simpl daigrafik 
no'teishon iz put forward tu miit dhe kaol for a speling dhat kan bi 
, printed enihwaer widh an ordinari faunt ov rouman taip. Hwaer 
foerdher taipografikal aplaiansez ar aveilabl, or dhi expenditiur ov a 
fiu shilingz wud bi inkoerd tu obtein dhem, dhe printer wil bi eibl tu 
soebstitiut for dhe long-vauel simbolz reg^uleited ekwivalents, hwich 
wil ekonomaiz speis, hwail tu meni poersonz dhei wil meik dhe print 
moar saitli and lejibl. 



[The forms £ 8 t) 1 u (with corresponding capitals) are mere makeshift substitutes 

for new types.] 

Az for yur invitfishon tu expres ml pref erens for a sistem ov spel- 
ing, alow mi tu S£ : 

The problem ov prezenting the ni'ded vouel-sound for the popular 
Inglish languej bt the o'ld leters iz about az practicabl az " tu mfik 
a whisl Ov a pig's tfil." t)'l that can bi don iz tu consider how tu 
prodijs, in O'l respects, the best instrument from so O'quard mati'rials. 

Bot, houever wel manejd, the prodocshon can never bi a ski'm 
that can bi recomended for permanent qs, or for the requlrments ov 
the sku'ls. 

The foloing ski'm mB bi qzd az a mfikshift tu work with f ansy 
leters and od founts, bl soplimenting tu' slnz; which sacrifls eny 
printer wil mfik az wilingly az hi wil work eny other ski'm, if this 
wil Sfiv moT words from O'lterBshon : 

Indic£t the short vouel-sounds in pat^ pet, pit^ pot^ tvib^ put^ h^ — ^ 
9, e i o o u, and ther long sounds b\ a 8\bl «A'b3L\^v\)cL\vL\^\fcx^^^Jar^ 
A' e' I' o) o' w. 


This sin wil help tu a moch simpler exibishon t)v the long vouels, 
and in prinsipl iz the 8£m az the mBcron, pl£St at the sld ov the leter 
insted t>y abov it. 

The "o" haz tu bi qzd bo»th for short aw and short oh^ and the 
long aw iz indicBted bt a modifier ( ) ), which O'Iso servs tu convert 
" i, u, e, th " intu " I, q, 9, dh," respectivly. Bl the qs ov this modi- 
fier the questyon iz avoided, whether i in mine shal bi reprezented 
bl at, et, t€, tt, y, or e, and u in tube b[ im, tw, yu, yoo^ ew, w«, or m, &c. 

Acording tu this skim the Test Words wud stand thos : 


Bot a stil moT simpl and practical skinn for the qs ov sku'ls, and 
for jeneral qs, m£ bi had, if, insted ov qzing the modifier, the folo- 
ing nq leters ar introdqst : £, a, 0, 1, q, for the sounds in aid^ bird^ 
hot^ ice, use; and the alfabet bi qzd acording tu the foloing — 

jRwls yv Speling, 
At the end ov words, qz: y for i, w for «, k for c; and in jeneral 

qz k for c befoT e, i, t', and i); sk for sc; qu for kw; x for ks. 
For inflexyon endings : After p, «, c, k, /, sh, ch, qz t ; elswhfir 

qz d or ed. 
For plu'ral, pozesiv C£S, and the third person singqlar, qz s. 

In order tu ali'vi£t the antipathy agenst the api'rans ov dh, a nq 
tip ( T) ) mB bi qzd for the prezent. 
The test words wil then stand thos : 

T)HEN, DHOS; BOT, PUL, PU'L; CUK, K8RK ; A'MZ; t)iL, £L, 

The l£t departqr Ov " opening-up the diphthongs I and U " haz 
O'lso o'pend a worf£r about how tu reprezent thi'z sounds, az si'n 

If askt whl the tu' dif thongs ai and iu shud bi reprezented bl 
singl leters, when the other difthongs, vi and t?w, ar reprezented bl 
dtgrafs, wi m£ anser, that the sounds Ov ai for the leter " i " and iu 
for the leter "u" ar in mo'st c£ses mi'r intru'zhons opon thi'z leters, 
and that the singl-leter reprezent£shon wil giv a mo'r familyar luk 
tu th^ word, and S£v ttm in rlting and tlp-seting. 

Speling Reformers ar wel aw£r ov the intrinsik dificolty in qzing 
eny alfabet with consistensy, and orj the constrocshon ov a smo'l 
Fonetik Dicshonary bl a competent comity, after the alfabet haz bi»n 

[The neat "modifier" in the above article C*") ^«a w\%%«b\»l>fti "^•^r'i 





(See Paiperz by Mr. E. Jones), 

Beleevd to comhein dhe Macsimum ov Advantejez widh dhe Minimum 

OV Chainj, 

Short Roolz — k — c, befoer <?, t, y, and at dhe end ov wordz. 

y= i, at dhe begining and at dhe end ov wurdz, and in formativz. 
aw J aw J ow = aUf eu, ou^ at dhe end ov wurdz and in formativz. 
iz long at dhe end ov wurdz. 

Heer and dhair a few Engglish wurdz may bee found in dhe 
euzhwal orthografy, which leev no room for dout az too dhair pro- 
nunsiaishon. But dhis iz cweit ecsepshonal. Yet wee ar shoor 
dhat our speling woz orijinaly fonetic. It iz now propoezd too 
revert too dhat prinsipL But a divizhon ot opinion haz arizen az 
too dhe moest seutabl leterz too employ. Dhe foloeing vershonz ov 
dhis staitment sho dhe naiteur ov such ov dhe vairius propoezalz 
aulredy maid az cwd bee conveeniently printed, eech az far az woz 
posibl in dhe orthoeepy ov its author. In so short a paragraf oenly 
dhe cheef points cwd bee inclooded, but dhe alfabetic law iz jeneraly 
deer, and dhe ey wil bee aibl too juj prety wel whot dhe apeerans 
wwd bee in printed bwks. Meny planz involving radher inacsesibl 
teips had too bee enteirly past by. Hens dhe chois maid duz not 
impley a verdict. Dhe Ecseceutiv Comitee wil select such methodz 
az dhay may think recweir longger ilustraishon. Dhe Engglish 
Speling Reform Asosiaishon az a body iz not responsibl for eny wun 
ov dheez skeemz. 

* We willingly insert this specimen, but cannot let the title of " Majority Alfabet *' 
pass without explaining that the designation does not refer to the Association's canvass, 
but to a private one instituted by Mr. Jones, which obtained 27 replies. More votes 
were given for Mr. Jones's own scheme in the official canvass than he received in his 
private one for the modification of that scheme presented above. — W. R. &, 


From "Anglicus." 

I have tried to use your " Orthoepical Alphabet " for representing 
my notions of English pronunciation, but I find your accents and 
dots rather troublesome. Would it not be simpler to take the com- 
mon digraphs ai, aw, ee, oe, oo, &c. as a foundation ? It seems to 
me, that, with a few necessary additions, Mr. Jones's " Popular 
English" alphabet might be. made quite as accurate as ^o\yc owa.* 
Hence, J have borrowed from Mr. Ellis's ^'^ (jr\ossva^^ ^^Jcka $kv!^«j^ «a 
for the vowel in there; also y and V) for tV^ \a»\. A^S!DL<Wi\»\s!L^'^^'Vc.«^^ 


grow^ grew. You will see, I think, that these additional signs are 
quite in keeping with Mr. Jones's scheme, and do not make it less 
" writable, printable, and readable." I have endeavoured to write 
the diphthongs in file, fowl, just as we usually pronounce them. 

Test Paragraph in Extended "Popular English" 

Heeur un dhaeur u fyoow Ingglish wuudz maiy bee fuwnd in dhu 
■yoowzhooul authogrufy, which leeyv noew rwm fu duwt az tu 
dhaeu proeniinsiaiyshun. But dhis iz cwuit icsepshunul. Yet wee 
u shoou dhut uwu speling wuz oerf jinuly foenetic. It iz nuw proe- 
poewzd tu riviiut tu dhat prinsipl. But u divfzhun uv oepinyun uz 
urizn az tu dhu moest syoowtubl letuz too imploy. Dhu foloeing 
vuushunz uv dhis staiytmunt shoew dhu naiychur uv such uv dhu 
vaemrius proepoewzulz olredy maiyd uz cwd bee cunveeynyuntly 
printid, eieych uz f aar uz wuz posubl in dhee authoewipy uv its authu. 
In soe shaut u parugraaf oewnly dhu cheeyf points cwd bee in- 
cloowdid, but dhee alfubetic law iz jenruly cleeu, un dhee uy wil bee 
aiybl tu juj prity wel whot dhee upeeuruns wwd beey in printid 
bwks. Meny planz involving raadhur inacsesubl tuips had tu bee 
intiiiuly paast buy. Hens dhu chois maiyd duz not impliiy u vuu- 
dict. Dhee Igzekyootiv Cumity wil silect such methudz uz dhaiy 
may thingk ricwiiiu longgur ilustraiyshun. Dhee Ingglish Speling 
Rifaum Usoewsiaiyshun az u body iz not risp6nsubl fur eny wiin uv 
dheeyz skeeymz. 

I am, however, no fanatical adherent of " Popular English," and 
am even willing to accept '' Broad Romic," if the Association prefer 
it. So I will transcribe the above into Mr. Sweet's system. 

Test Paragraph in Personal "Broad Itomie" 

Hiar 9n dhaear 9 fyuw lugglish weedz mei bi found in dho yuw- 
zhual aoth'ogrofi, whitsh liyv nou rum fa dout asz ta dhaea pron'an- 
siei'shan. Bat dhis iz kwait iks*epshanal. Yet wi a shua dhat aua 
speling waz or-ijinali fon*etik. It iz nau prop-ouzd ta rivaat ta 
dhset prinsipl. Bat a divizhan av op-inyan az ar'izn aez ta dha 
moust syuwtabl letaz tu imp*loi. Dha folo'ing vaeshanz ev dhis steit- 
mant shou dha neitshar av satsh av dha vaearias prop'ouzalz olredi 
meid az kud bi kenviynyantli printid, iytsh az faar az waz posebl in 
dhi aoth'ouipi av its aotha. In so shaot a paeragraaf ounli dha tshiyf 
points kud bi ink'luwdid, bat dhi aslfab'etik lao iz jenrali klia, on dhi 
ai wil bi eibl ta jaj priti wel whot dhi ap'iarans wud biy in printid 
buks. Meni plsenz involving raadhar inseks-esabl taips hsed ta bi 
intaiali paast bai. Hens dha chois meid daz not imp*lai a vaadikt. 
Bhi Igz'ekyutiv Kamiti wil sibekt satsh methadz az dhei me thingk 
rlk'woiQ longgor ilestTeishan. Dhi liigg\\ala. ^^m^^YV^ssisL %«^\^. 
ei'sbeu sbz 9 bodi iz not ris-ponsobl iax em -^otl «^ ^JfeoyL ^BAyoa. 


From J. Lecky, Esq., Wimbledon, 

The accompanying version of the Test Paragraph aims at repre- 
senting — very roughly, of course — a common form of educated pro- 
nunciation in the South of England. In writing the diphthongs, 
I have used only broad and general signs — ai', aw, oi, for instance, 
being intended to include ae, ao, oe, and other varieties. 

As the accented vowels are represented differently from the un- 
accented, it is unnecessary to mark the stress. Several words have 
other forms than those here given, such as : — va»9re9s^ othouepe, 

EQt 9n dhaT 9 fyuw Ingglfesh W9«dz mei bfe faund fen dhfe yuwzhul 
dthograffe, wfech liyv nou rum fo daut ez ta dha'a pronoensfeeishan. 
Bat dhis fez kwait feksepshanl. Yet wfe a sho»9 dhat aua spelfeng 
waz erijfenlfe fonetfek. -Et fez nau prapouzd ta rfeve't t9 dhat prinsepl. 
Beet 9 dfevizh9n 9v apinygn 9Z 9rizn az t9 dh9 most syuwt9bl letaz tu 
femploi. Dh9 folofeng va'shanz 9v dhis steitmant shou dh9 neichar av 
soech 9v dha vaTfeas prapouzlz olredfe meid az kud bfe kanviynyantlfe 
printed, iych az far az waz posabl fen dhfe 6tho>fepfe av ets 6tha. 'En 
so sh6t a paragraf ounlfe dha chiyf points kud bfe fentluwdfed, boet 
dhfe alfabetfek 16 fez jenralfe tlia, an dhfe ai fel bfe eibl ta joej pritfe wel 
wot dhfe api'rans ad biy fen printed buks. Mene planz fenvolvfeng 
radhar fenaksesabl taips had ta bfe fentaiale past bai. Hens dha chois 
meid daz not emplai a va'dikt. Dhfe fegzekyativ kamite wel selekt 
soech methadz az dhei me think rekwaia longgar ilastreishan. Dhfe 
Ingglfesh spelfeng rfef6m asousfeeishan az a bodfe fez not rfesponsabl far 
enfe woen av dhiyz skiymz. 

From D. PiTOAIRN, Esq., M.A., Lincoln's Inn. 

I find your Orthoepical Alphabet too nice an instrument for my 
use. I have attempted to write the Test Paragraph in that alphabet 
modified in such a way that I can use it ; that is to say, without 
using most of the symbols you have put in brackets, and using the 
o to represent the vowel-sound in pot. 

If the second vowel in carpet is distinctly pronounced, I have no difficulty in saying 
whether it is an i or an e. It seems to me generally to be an i, though I should pre- 
fer to spell it with an «?. 

The vowels in past and palm are the same to my ear, except that in the latter word 
the vowel is more dwelt upon, and in the former is pronounced sharper or louder com- 
pared with the rest of the word. In Walker's time they seem to have pronounced that 
word and a good many others (as they do now over a large part of England) with the 
vowel-sound mpaty so as to make it rhyme with hast — a word I have perhaps not well 
chosen, for by some persons (I don't know where they come from) that is pronounced 
with the A. 

Both 6*% iu potato are the same to me as the n in poaty less dwelt upon, especially 
the first. The vowels in pert and in the first syllable of pertain and purqle are to ma 
the same. I have used the symbol 9 to represent tlae sovxxv^. k^^Wi, \Jfts, n^cw^-'srsssss^. 
in pare and that in the first syllable oi parent are tome Wvfc a^AXve*, >2B».\.V'a»^»^>'^ 
diphthong composed either of a and 9 or oi e ai\d a. \ doiCl xwA>^xCvafc «xvn ^x^SlxsNsiCvsvv 



between the sounds yon represent by at and ^t, or those you represent by au and 9u, 
except as modified by stress. 

I consider ^, t*, o' as each representing a clato of impure vowels, the general effect 
of which is the same, and the first part of which is so variable that no attempt should 
be made to analyse the compound sound. 

I find much fewer words in the Test Paragraph in which I differ from what I believe 
to be your orthoepy than in the first page of the last number of the Exfterimenter. I 
may not have been very consistent in my essay to write the paragraph. In some cases 
I have given the actual pronunciation, and in others what I should try to pronounce if 
speaking with a view to give what I may call the oratorical or high, rather than the 
colloquial pronunciation. 

This remark is not quite accurate, and requires explanation. There are a few cases 
in which I should spell differently from what I believe to be the correct representation 
of usual good pronunciation 

The words <7, bf^ and to have two pronunciations. I think I should prefer to spell 
them alwayt) as pronounced when strong emphasis is thrown on them ; that is to say, 
r, bi\ and tw. The termination -ure, in nature and other words, is generally, I fear, 
pronounced even by the educated yd (though they would not admit it), and by the 
vulgar ydBy or yddr^ or ydr ^ and sure is actually pronounced shd^ though every one 
would admit it was wrong. 

The whole question of orthoepy is a difficult one. I think we shall have to make an 
authority to which we shall all bow. At present, I think the supposed correct pronun- 
ciation of the capital ought to be the general guide, with perhaps exceptions in two 
classes of words represented by lost and pcut. 

Tffst Paragraph. 

Hi<9 aud dhe>a a fiu Ingglish W9'dz me' bi faund in dhi iuzhul 
othografi, hwich li'v no" rum fo daut az tu dhe'o pro'ncEnsie'shii. 
Boet dhis iz kwait eksepsheiial. Yet wi" k shue' dhat aii9 speliDg 
woz o'rijinali fo'netik. It iz nau pro'po'zd tu ri'V9«t tu dhat prinsipl. 
Boet a divizhon ov o'pinyon haz e«rizn az tu dhi mo'st siutabi letaz 
tu emploi. Dhi folo'iiig v9'8honz ov dhis ste'tmeut she dhe iie«tiu9 
ov soech ov dhi vaiioes pro'po'zalz olredi me'd az kud bi konvi«nyentli 
printed, i'ch az f^ az woz posibl in dhi otho'epi ov its 6th9. In so« 
shot a paragraf o'dH dhi, chi'f points kud bi" inkliudid, beet dhi alfa- 
betik 16 iz jenerali kli«9, and dhi ai wil bi e'bl tu joej priti wel hwot 
dhi api'rens wud bi" in printid buks. Meni planz involving radh9 
inaksesibl taips had tu bi' entaioli past bai. Hens dhi chois me'd 
doez not implai a V9'dikt. Dhi Egzekiutiv Komiti wil selekt soech 
methodz az dhe' me' thingk rekwai9 longg9 iloestre'shon. Dhi Ing- 
glish Speling Refom Aso'sie'shon az a bodi iz not responsibl f6 eni 
woen ov dhi'z ski'mz. 


Previously acknoledgcd 
E. Jones, Esq., Liverpool (2nd donation) 
C. B. Arding, Esq. ... 

J. A. H. Murray, Esq., LL.D., Mill Hill, Middlesex 
A. J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S., Argyll Road, Kensington 
Tito Pagliardini, Esq., Upper Berkeley Street 
Alexander Thompson, Esq., Brussels 
Samuel Stronge, Esq., Belfast ... ... ..< 

Total received 

... £10 6 






*•• 9 




... S.\'3l. ^ 


Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucestei Stteat, Q>««a ^^^sas^^^swAa^,^ .^. 


(Not iseued by the Engtuh Spelling Reform Amociaiioa.) 
■ London 1 F. PITMAN. 80 Patbhsobtrr How. 

DECEMBER, 1881. 


•D «. 




nlnmc nf this . 

7 Nuiiibcr. 


(Jl O S " *« [— 'ntl"3« the first Vnlnmc nf til!!. Jniimnl, fc 

IR 3 "I ^^ "'''I ^'" ^'^ is^od with Qiir Jmiiisry Nuiiibci 



2 ft n O Te -itited that in this present one we "IloiiIiI 

r H. X mplete espoaition of Union spelltDfr, but, on 

■* ^ ? 1^ ud^d that It would l>e better to defer tlni t ) 

f \ irtliime Id the mean time as an e^pedi 

^ L L'l'iued copies of the following' L rtular and 

Statement of Principlp-. Khn,h will explain themselves — 

Dbab Sib, — II appears to he not only desirable, but positni-li/ 
necessary, in order that Spelling Meformers may amve at a common 
undersUmditig, and that a standard may be established far esttntaitni) 
ike comparative value of diverse proposals, that a numher of definite 
principles shmUd he formvlaled for general recognition. 

As an initial step in such direction, the following draft Statement 
of Principle has been drawn up, in which careful endeavour has been 
made to define what has to be done, without dictating how it should 
be done. Proof -slips are now sent to a few leading Reformers, in the 
hope that each will mark in the margin any modifications he may 
consider advisable, and sign the Paper subject to such qualifimtions. 

As it is intended that the Statem^ent of Principles, with nofcs of any 
proposed modifieaivms, shall be published in the December number of 
the Spbllino Expbrisehtkr, in order to form the basis for work in a 
nevyyear and a new volume, a prompt reply will greatly oblige. 

It should he understood that these Principles are intended to apply 
to such a " re-constituted Spelling " as that indicated by the terms of 
the Spelling Reform Association's Prospectus, and have no reference 
to "partial corrections" of the existing Spelling, which may be pro- 
posal in addition to, or in d^ault of, a substantially new Spelling. 
ilcspectJ'uXl'a youT«, 
S Ofoueegter Slreet, W.C. "^ . ^- ^^ *-^^- 

14 JVbv. 1881. 



1. A re-constituted Spelling for the English language should be 
based upon a simple and systematic alphabetic scheme. 

2. Every symbol in such scheme should have a name indicating 
and containing its ordinary power. 

3. Every symbol should always have the same yalue, at least in 
similar positions. 

4. Eveiy sound should always be expressed by the same symbol, 
at least in similar positions. 

6. The re-constituted Spelling should have no irregular word- 
fonns or intricate orthographic rules, which would entail for several 
generations the learning of TWO arbitrary and complex Spellings, 
instead of only the ONE already in use. 

6. The new Spelling should determine the pronunciation of every 
word, at least as practically and definitely as do the notations in 
standard pronouncing dictionaries, and should not require to be 
interpreted in such works by a third notation. 

7. The general construction of the re-constituted Spelling should 
be so contrived as to enable a child instructed in it to pass without 
senous embarrassment to the now established Spelling. 

8. The construction of the Spelling should also be such as to 
make it intelligible without special study to persons conversant with 
the old Spelling. 

9. It is desirable that the new Spelling should be so constituted 
as to facilitate, rather than to impede, our literary relations with the 
rest of the world. 

10. The re-constituted Spelling should be so arranged that its 
introduction would involve the least possible disturbance or initial 
expense in printing-ofiices. 

11. It is desirable that in ultimate practical use the new Spelling 
should not be more difficult to write, or more expensive to print, 
than the old one. 

12. It is also desirable that it should not be essentially and intrin- 
sically less legible and sightly, either in print or manuscript, than 
the existing orthography. 

Subject to any modification or reservation suggested hy me on the 
margin hereof^ I generally approve and accept the Principles forviu- 
lated above, as those which should be observed in any re-constituted 
JEnglish Spelling proposed for popular use. 

Out of some three dozen prominent Reformers to whom the above 
was sent, the following returned tke ioxm V\\)ft. \)Dft ^^-ax^tlon duly 
sig-aed, subject to marginal amendmeuts ot vem^TV?. \vfi?c^ ^\^q.^^\i^ 
t/'w/r respective names : — 



1 — Omit " and systematic." 

"Systematic" opens fiu* too wide a door — for example, to Melville Bell's or 
Sweet's. "Simple" is enough. I believe "systematic" impossible. No scheme 
under consideration, and none based upon Roman forms, are so. 

2-^Omit the whole clause. 

Desirable for school teaching, but not necessary. Not used in the best existing 
alphabets, and in some respects not practicable, especially in printing-houses. 
At any rate, not fundamentsd — a mere "by-law," and it has nothing to do with 
the written form. 

3 and 4 — Alter ^ as suggested below. 

By the insertion of the qualifying words " at least in similar positions" the others 
are rendered nugatory. All that is needed, and I believe all that is possible, or 
attained even by Bell and Sweet, is that "the same combinations of symbols 
should represent the same combinations of sounds, and conversely, on all occa- 


5 — Omit the clause, or put as a corollary to 3 and 4. 

"Irregular word-forms" are aimed at such things as /in Dimidian, or to, of, &c.; 
but they are excluded by 3 and 4. " Intricate orthographic rules " are also 
excluded by 3 and 4. These points may be mentioned as corollaries ; they do 
not need stating as fundamental points. The part "which would entail," &c. 
is an observation, and not a principle. 

6 — Insert " received " before " pronunciation." Name dictionaries. 

I would mention specific dictionaries, as Walker, Smart, Ogilvy ( = Cull), Webster 
( = Goodrich), Worcester, Fulton aud Knight (not Nuttall). None of these are 
by any means as good as they might be ; but we should do much if we got as 
good phonetic spelling as any of them. 

7 — Omit " serious " before " embarrassment." Add as below. 

" Serious" opens the door too wide. I prefer to say "without trouble," and add 
at the end " so that to learn the new spelling first, and the old spelling after- 
wards, should be much less laborious than to learn the old alone." This I con- 
sider to be the charter of a reformed spelling. 

8 — Omit " special " before " study." 

" Special " imnecessary. All study directed to a purpose is special. I want them 
to read "at sight." 

9 — Omit the whole clause. 

I don't think it advisable to consider any world beyond that of English speakers, 
which is wide enough. The interpretations which might be put on this clause, 
implying "universal alphabetics," would be generally quite impracticable. The 
problem as limited to English is difficult enough, in all conscience. 

11 — Omit "ultimate" before "practical." 

Any new spelling would necessarily be for a few years more difficult to read, write, 
and set in type ; but the word " ultimate " may be used to cover wonderful 
intricacies of form and new types. Take the Cree syllabic, for example. Take 
Comstock's, or 1847 alphabet. 

12^-'0mit " essentially and mtrinsically." 

This opens too wide a door. Thus I consider the phonetic use of accents not 
legible, at least to weak and young and old sight, and that the stress use of 
accents is doubtful in this way. I think of French, German, Swedish, and 
Spanish, together with Polish and Bohemian, where I see accents in practical 
use. Yet hundreds of reformers would consider accents not to be "essentially; 
and intrinsically " less legible and sightly. 

Signatory Clause— After " popular iis© " add '•'•'WX.Vj \vCk \ssR»sia» ^<3^- 
slder that tbey formulate the v7h.o\e qyi^^^KoTj.."' 



3 — Substitute " Every symbol should have a valae which for practi- 
cal purposes is always the same." 

4 — Substitute " Sounds which for practical purposes are the same 
should always be expressed by the same symbols." 

7 — For " as to enable a child," &c. substitute " as not to impede a 
child in learning the now established speQing." 

(Rev. Prof.) A. H. Sayce (M.A.) 

2 — This is scarcely an important principle. 

J. H. Gladstone (Ph.D., F.R.S.) 

I do not think that any qualification or reservation is needed. 

(Prof.) J. D. EVEBETT (M.A., D.C.L., P.R.S.) 

(Without qualification or conunent.) J. Westlake (Q.C., LL.D.) 

6 — This within the limits of the Pitman-Ellis vowel scheme. I do 

not agree with the Bell or Sweet analysis. 
Signatory Clause — " Generally " underlined. 

(Col.) R. Cane (M.A.) 

2 — Substitute " The name of every symbol should be, so far as pos- 
sible, its sound." 
I think, with the exception of the six explodents, the sound represented by eaeh 
symbol should be taught to be pronounced separately, and as the name of the 

3 — For " at least in similar positions " substitute " approximately." 

4 — Omit " at least in similar positions." 

5 and 6 — Result from 3 and 4. 

7 and 8 — Are true as a practical necessity for introducing a reform. 

9 — I don't think this is worth practical consideration. 

David Pitoaikn (M.A.) 

5 — Omit " which would entail . . . ♦ already in use." 

6 — Omit " and should not require .... THIRD notation." 

8 — For " intelligible without special study " substitute " easily intel- 

— After " facilitate " mseri ^^ as far as practicable." Omit *' rather 
than to impede." 

Chas. B. Arding. 

5 — For " which would " substitute '^ because these would " entail. 
1 2— Omit " and sightly." 
Signatory Clause — Insert " or educational " before " use." 

P. G. Pleay (M.A.) 

^0 and 1 1 — Nothing must be sacrificed to t\ie ^frnXfex^. 



3 and 4 — Omit " at least in similar positions." 

We need not provide for the sHff^t shades which differentiate an accented syllable 
from an unaccented one. 

6 — Nos. 3 and 4 properly carried out would ensure this. 

7 — Not if this should interfere with No. 6. 

8 — Any consistent scheme would ensure this. I find that most 

people can, if they choose, read any phonetic spelling after half an hour's trial. 

9 — Of course. But this cannot be attained with the so-called 

English vowel system. This would widen the gulf between them. 

11 — The new writing should be as easy to teach to children as the 

old, and the spelling far easier. But any new forms and any new spelling must 
be difficult to those who are accustomed to the old. We can only hope to educate 
in them unsophisticated children, who have nothing to unlearn, and must not 
attempt it witn adults. 

12 — As to what we call sightly^ it is a question of habit. We do not 

think Greek, or Gothic, or Armenian, or Arabic unsightly, because all of these 
systems harmonize within themselves. All we have to do is to make our new 
letters harmonize in general forms with the present Roman alphabet, and the eye 
will soon accept them. What would be unsightly, would be to jumble together 
letters belonging to different systems, as in my third alphabet of forty years ago. 

Tito Pagliardini. 
1 — a. " Simple." A relative term about which opinions would differ. 

What some persons would call simple, others would call complicated. 

h, " Systematic." System in the formation of an alphabet is of 

small consequence, compared with consistency in its application when formed, 
if resemblance to the common spelling be attained. 

2, 3, and 4— Yes. 

5 — " Irregular," " intricate," " arbitrary," " complex." See la. 
6 — For " determine the " substitute " indicate a received." 

The spelling for orthoepists would need more refined distinctions than would be 
required for ordinary purposes. 

7 — " Serious." A matter of opinion, until tested by experiment. 

8 — " Special." See la above. 

9 — The nearest resemblance to present and past spelling is of far 

more importance than concurrence with the spelling of foreign tongues. 

10 — Not essential. 

A popular demand would soon be met by traders {ix. printers and publishers). 

11 and 12— "More difficult," "legible and sightly."— See la above. 


5 — Omit " which would entail," &c., as involving debatable matter. 
9 — Prefix " Subject to the above," it is desirable, &c. 

I gladly subscribe this after your verbal explanation. Several of the principles are 
simply truisms which have been already stated and acted upon by Mr. Ellis and 
others, including yourself. Briefly expressed, what we want is — a printable, 
readable, teachable, writable system of phonetic spelling with the present letters 
only. I wish to emphasize the fact that the system should be specially adai^ted 
for ieachiag purposes, and that in signmg t'iiU lieaen^ ^»Sl>&^^ \ft ^^^5»&^ 
in detail any inference that may be dravm. itoui \\.. 



2 — It is not clear how the letters denoting the short vowel-sounds 

should be named ; but I suppose they ought to have such names as are required 
here. Then they must have some such names as at, et, it, ot, ut, wt, which 
will seem rather queer. 

3, 4, 5, 6 — ^Very important. 

9 — Important, and a strong reason for doing without new letters. 

Laura Soames. 

9 — Omit the whole clause. 

This paragraph had, I think, better be omitted, as it might commit the Association 
to a Continental vowel system. 


6 — Is not this superfluous after the preceding five principles ? 

7, 8, 9, 10 — These objects are undoubtedly desirable in themselves; 

but they should yield, if necessary, to the primary end of uniform spelling. 
Nos. 7, 8, and 9, however, are pretty certain to be attained by any system likely 
to be adopted. 

A. Bassett Hopkins (M.A.) 

7 — Omit " The general construction of " at beginning of clause. 

8 — Omit " without special study." 

Every re-constituted spelling, however little it may depart from the received one, 
will require special study before it can become intelligible to any reader. 

James Leoky. 

3 — Of course, as far as is practically possible. Narrow Romic 

embodies this principle more perfectly than Broad Romic, but it is impracticable. 

5 — I should perhaps be inclined to use the pronoun /, and a very 

few others. 

6 — Insert " for practical purposes" after " should not require." 

The student of phonetics would always need a more refined representation. 
Qy. This refers to pronunciation, not to spelling ? 

9 — Add at end " especially with America." 
10 — Insert '' other considerations being equal " after " arranged." 
U—Omit " and sightly." 

Simply a matter of taste, and one on which it would be extremely difficult to agree. 

Some of these principles may conflict with each other, and probably will do so. 
For example, Nos. 10 and 12. On the whole, I like the statement very much. 

John Tenney. 
3 and 4:-- Omit in both clauses " at least in similar positions." 

Haeold Cox. 

2 — " Containing its ordinary power." Therefore h should not be 
called "aitch," as in Mr. Pitman's alphabet. This I have always thought has 
tended to confusion in its use. 

7, 8, 9 — These will require a little acconmiodation one to another. 

W. Spurbell. 

J do not see how I could improve upon the above, though I am 
afraid that the carrying-out of aU tkeae ^Tmc\^\6a Vi5^ ycq^^ ^sXswmSc^ ^afSksnlt^ 
if not altogether impossible. ^ 




Dhb rezolts ov die long-delaid canvas hav at length been publisht, and in sum sens, 
az f ar az dhay go, dhay ar satisfactory; but dhay sertainly do not go very far. Con- 
sidering dhat sum 12,000 copiz weekly ov dhe Fonetic Jumal ar sirkeulaited, and dhat 
dhe memberz ov dhe E. S. R. A. number about 240, it duz seem a litl disapointing 
dhat so few hav ecsprest dher opinionz upon dhe skeemz submited too dher voets. 

It iz eezy too bee weiz after dhe eevent, but I aulwayz deprecaited dhe polisy ov pub- 
lishing too dhe wurld, and inveiting dhe voets ov memberz upon 40 or 50 skeemz. In 
my ecspeeriens, dhe number ov personz hoo ar boeth competent and dispoezd too ecspres 
eny opinion ov valew upon deetailz ov a sistem ov speling iz very smaul indeed. 

It iz no eus crying oever spilt milk. Wee must acsept dhe pozislion az it stands, and 
ask ourselvz, Whot necst ? 

Dhe pertinent cwestion now too bee askt az too eny skeem iz, " Whot purpos iz it 
intended for?" Iz it for scoolz? Iz it for filolojists? Iz it for fonolojists? Iz it 
for Personal Orthoeepy? Or iz it for aul, or a combinaishon ov eny, ov dhecz objects ? 
Dheez cwestionz hav ofen been askt, and aut now too bee anserd, if our disciishonz ar 
too leed too anything. 

I t«ik it dhat dhe B. S. R. A. iz nuthing if not edeucaishonal. I for wun dont object 
too discusing dhe best method ov rejistring personal orthoeepy ; but it duz seem too race, 
wee hav a reit too ask our frendz too tel us plainly whedher dhay intend dher skeemz 
ecsclwsivly for personal orthoeepy, or ecsclwsivly for scoolz, or for boeth. 

Lwking at dhe 12 skeemz at dhe hed ov dhe list, I feind Glosic, which woz by its 
distinggwisht author ecspresly intended for whot iz now apropriaitly termd Personal 
Orthoeepy, and Dimidian by dhe saim author intended for Scoolz. 

I feind it hard too beleev, unles I hav it from himself, dhat Mr. Sweet cwd seeriusly 
ask Mr. Mundella too permit Broad Romic too bee euzd in Board Scoolz. Europic iz 
ecspresly staited too bee intended for literary purposez, whcil Sujestiv iz edeucaishonal. 
Pitman'z Oeld-leter Fonotipy iz ecspresly intended az a temporary maiksliift for uewz- 
paiperz, dhe New-lcter Fonotipy beeing intended for scoolz. 

If dhis bee so, dhen Glosic, Broad Romic, Europic, and Oeld-leter Fonotipy ar out 
ov dhe runing for scool purposez, in dhe termz ov our Memorial too dhe Edeucaishon 
Department. In dhis way dhe feeld ov debait iz very considerably naroed. 

I hav no wish too corner dhe talented editor ov dhe Experirnenter^ but I feel wee 
shwd pres Mr. Evans too tel us az too '* Union,'* which standz at dhe hed ov dhe list, 
whedher dhis skeem iz intended first and cheefly for scoolz, for personal orthoeepy, or 
for eny udher purpos or purposez ; and I am glad too see sum indicaishon in dhe Ejipe- 
rimenter, dhat wee ar at last too cum too dhe point upon a definit isew. 

I rejois too feind Mr. Pitman'z skeem widh new leterz at dhe hed ov dhe list, but I 
regret dhat so few hav ecsprest an opinion out ov dhe toetal number ov Memberz. I 
voeted for dhis skeem az a tribeut too Mr. Pitman'z long and valeuabl servis too dhe 
cauz bv fonetic reform, not az aprooving ov every prinsipl or ov every deetail ov dhe 
skeem, nor az having a very strong faith in dhe feezibility ov new leterz. It iz, how- 
ever, dhe oenly skeem widh new leterz which iz aleiv, az dhe Americanz say, aud I 
hartily wish it too hav a fair treial in scoolz. 

Dhe points at isew now ar dheez : — 

Ar wee too hav a sistem ov Speling widhout new leterz speshaly adapted for Scoolz ? 
If so, iz dhis sistem az regardz dhe long vowelz too bee fraimd on dhe prinsipl ov 
"leik formz for leik soundz," or on dhe prinsipl ov "curent English euzej"? 

I taik it dhat dhe voets given for Popeular English, Eutility, and Dimidian, dho ser- 
tainly not very formidabl, and far from "impleying a verdict," shwd bee aded twgedher, 
az indicaiting jeneraly dhe neumerical strength ov dhe anserz too dheez cwestionz. 

Wee must never forget, however, dhat dhe cais wil bee feinaly deseided, if deseided 
at aul, in a seupeerior coert — a Parlementary Comitce, and practicaly by Parlement 
itself, az regardz dhe Nashonal Scoolz. 

Widh dhis understanding, I wil gladly taik pott \vi3\i^"V«^vft%^\x«!isv''' Xk^-s^^^- 
poezd hy dhe editor. Wee hav beea " beetlng a\)0\\t ^t \iw^V ' \w^^ 'k«x>S., ^^»Sk*^ vu ^.-^ 


teim wee shwd cnm too dhe point and leey vaig jeneralitiz. I sertainly agree dliat every 
author hoo wishez hiz skeem too hay " furdher consideraishon" shwd stait cleerly — 

1. For whot purpos dhe skeem iz intended; 

2. Giy a Compleet Alfabet ov Simbolz for Soondz ; 

8. Giv distinct roolz for deaplicait simbolz, and ecsepshonal spelingz, if eny; 

4. Stait upon whot baisis dhe skeem iz firumd ; 

5. Dhe Standard ov Orthoeepy adopted. 

[We publish this specimen of Mr. Jones's spelling the more willingly, as it strikingly 
exemplifies the necessity for formulating a Statement of Principles to regulate the eflfbrts 
of would-be orthografic renovators. Mr. Jones is never tired of repeating the question, 
in reference to any other person's proposed scheme, "What is it for?" or of reiterating 
that he himself wants " a reformed spelling for schools." Now, designating a sphere of 
operation for an appliance is very different from defining the nature and purpose of the 
appliance itself. What we want to know is, not where Mr. Jones proposes to use his 
spelling, but for what reason and purpose it should be used anywhere. 

To our mind, it seems that there arc two very useful purposes which a phonetically- 
reformed spelling should achieve in education. It should indicate to pupils (and also 
to teachers) the most approved pronunciation of the language ,* and it should familiarize 
a child with the simple use of alphabetic writing, without perplexing him with arbitrary 
and anomalous notation. 

As to the former purpose, Mr. Jones's spelling certainly does not indicate, much less 
represent, any style of pronunciation that ever was used, is now used, or is ever likely 
to be used, in speaking English. It would often mislead, not only pupils, but youthfiil 
teachers who placed any reliance upon its erratic notation, as in forms like " sirkeulait, 
Bertainly, aulw^ryz, ecsclu7sivly, apropriattly, memorial, comit^<?," all used above. 

For the latter purpose we have mentioned, Mr. Jones's spelling would be especially 
unsuitable. Not only is its alphabetic scheme defective, redundant, and incongruous, but 
the spelling itself is thickly studded with arbitrary word-forms, and could not be written 
from dictation with anything like certainty, unless the writer had memorized the nota- 
tion of every individual word that he was required to reproduce. We doubt whether 
Mr. Jones himself could explain by what rules he wrote above : " delaed, aulwayz — 
vale^etable, vo«7el — crying, impl(?ying, treial — aprooving, ecscl««ivly — Goertj hoard — 
b<7eth, dont — consid<?ring, rejistring," &c. 

We are sorry to differ from Mr. Jones with regard to Glossic. We consider Glossic 
and Suggestive to be the only two schemes on an 'English' basis which could serve the 
purposes of "a reformed spelling for schools." Our objection to either relates to the 
materials, and not to the workmanship, of their construction ; while our objection to 
Mr. Jones's spelling has reference even more to workmanship than to materiids. 

From the six Analogical and four Conventional old-letter schemes brought to the 
front by the Canvass, Mr. Jones eliminates the typical scheme of either class (Glossic 
and Broad Romic), as not " worthy of (his) further consideration j" and then he finds a 
pretext for throwing Europic overboard in the preference evinced by its own parent for 
some of his other children. But why should Mr. Pitman's dotted notation be excluded 
on one side, and not Mr. Rundell's on the other ? The former is as practicable and as 
practical as the latter in every way; and we fancy Mr. Pitman and his supporters would 
prefer his old-letter scheme to Mr. Jones's, if new letters were excluded from schools. 

Having by his own arbitrary selection reduced the schemes to three of either class, 
Mr. Jones wants the votes of all three on his own side to be " added together as indi- 
cating generally the numerical strength of the answers to these questions." When he 
has added them together, he will find the result to be 40 votes, given by 27 individuals. 
But he will allow us to perform the same operation for the three Analogical schemes, 
by which we arrive at a total of 42 votes, given by 31 persons. So that, even allowing 
Mr. Jones to make his own selection of schemes for comparison, he is in the minority. 
What does it all prove, however, except that a considerable minority of reformers have 
yet to be " educated " up to the standard of the majority ? — W. R. E.] 

i?*r. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., £2 ; Dr. W . VVeioT. \0«. •, B..liQ\t Bulterfill, Esq., St. 
— making, with amount already ackiiow\e9i^eA., «b loXsJi ol S\^.\&.^4. 

Pi'inled hy W. R. Evans, 3 Gloucester Street, Qjxftw^ ^^>^^^^»^^^^^^^ '^- 






Vol. II. 
January 1882 to April 1883. 

FEED, PITMAN^ 80 PATET;,lJ\OaT¥i'gii ^Jyi^ ^ '^ ■ ^ ' 

Price 2t. in cloth. 



Revised "Union" Spelling ... 1 
"Union" and "Suggestive" (Com- 
parative Specimens) 4 

"Broad Romic" with New Letters 6 
Statement of General Principles ... 7 
Correspondence: — The New Educa- 
tion Code — Anglo-Teutonic Co- 
operation ... ••• ••• 7 

Schemes for further Illustration (Ed.) 9 

Exposition of "Suggestive" Spelling 10 

"Popular English" 14 

"Broad Romic" ... 17 

"Union" 21 

"Utility" 25 

The 5 Schemes in Similar Orthoepy 27 





Old Types and New (Editorial) ... 29 
Bifohr dhi Orthouipists (Editorial) 31 
Amoeng dhi Orthouipists (Specimens) 35 
Orthographic Tools and Orthoepic 

Uses (Editorial) ... 37 

Dr. Frsenklinz Fo'netiks (Editorial) 41 
Fo'netik Investigeishan (Editorial)... 45 
Correspondence: — Old Types and 
New — Breath Nasals — Clashing 
Orthographies — Vocal R — Revised 
"Cheilic"Spemng ... ... 48 

Correspondence : — " Cheilic " and 

" Visible Speech " 69 

Experimenter Fund (Notice) ^. 84 


The Raw Material of Speech 63 
Moulded Elements of Speech id. 
Vowel-sounds : — 
The Material of which they are made 54 
The Manner in which they are made ib. 
Modification by Resonance Chambers 55 
Simple and Mixed Resonances ... 56 
Some Theories respecting Vowel- 
formation ib. 

Vowels of Simple Resonance ... 61 

„ Mixed „ ... 64 

Illustrative Table of Simple and 

Mixed Vowels ... ... ... 68 

Arrangements of the Vowel Sc^e . , 69 

Close and Open Formations ... 70 

Vowel Nomenclature 71 

Vowel Quantity or Length ... 72 

Inquantitative, Non - Syllabic, or 

Transient Vowels ... ... 73 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs ... 74 

Whispered Vowels 75 

Nasal Vowels 76 

Consonant-sounds i — 

How distinguishable from Vowel- 
sounds ... 77 

The Material of Consonant-sounds 78 

The Forms of Consonant-sounds ... 79 

Illustrative Table of Consonant- 
sounds 80,81 

The Local Positions of Consonant- 
sounds ... ... ... ... 82 

Remarks on the Table of Consonant- 
sounds. ... ... ... «•• 85 

Survey of the Tabulated Consonant- 
sounds : 

1. Simple Explodents ... 86 

2. Aspirated „ ... 92 

3. Nasal ,, ... 93 

4. Simple Continuants ... 95 

5. Sibilant „ ... 99 

6. Vibrant „ ... 101 

7. Liquid „ ... 104 

8. Vocal „ ... 107 



[Yaunian SpeKng.] 

Dhe speshal objekt for hwich dhis nesiserili an dizainedli obskiur 
litl Joemal waz started waz expleind in dhe briif noutis hwich folo*d 
dhe taitl in dhe f oerst ishu ; an dha^t noutis formd a safishant pref es 
tu aur foerst volyum, dhe kontents ov hwich hardli went in eni wei 
biyond dhi objekt profesedli in viu. Dhis prezant volyum, tuu, waz 
kamenst on similer lainz ; beet bifohr it had advaanst far dhi Ingglish 
Speling Riform Asousieishan meid a silekshan ov Sevn Orthograefik 
Skiimz for foerdher ilastreishan, aut ov a larj noember reprizenting 
meni difrant taips ov pro-pouzd rif ormd speling. Wi dhen bigsen tu 
fiil dhat it wud bi ounli a profitles distraekshan ov atenshan tu gou 
on egzibiting foerdher cheinjez ov dhi orthogrsefik kalaido'skoup. 
Az Yuunian Speling waz amoeng dhe silekted fiu, wi mait hav meid 
its eksibishan and aedvokasi dhe speshal woerk ov dhi Experimenter ; 
beet wi thaot it wud bi invidyas tu giv kontinyual prominens tu 
ween skiim tu dhe disadvaantej ov oedherz, and yuusles tu shou dhe 
difrant silekted skiimz in kompasrisan, til iikwal kondishanz had bin 
setld bai aothoriti for seech kompaerisan. 

Hwail dhi Egzekyutiv Kamiti ov dhi Asousieishan waz engeijd in 
hwot wi expekted wud bi dhe difikalt, deliket, an pro-traekted taask 
ov pripehring a "test" for dhe skiimz, an geting dhe skiimz intu a 
steit tu bi tested, wi tcernd aur atenshan tu dhe wcerk ov " Fo-netik 
Investigeishan," intending, aez wi sed in Nr. 22 (p. 46), tu " bigin bai 
investigeiting dhe neityer ov aol dhe moust komanli-yuuzd spiich- 
saundz, pro'siid tu egzaemin hau meni ov dhiiz mei bi aidentifaid in 
risiivd Ingglish pro'noensieishan, an finish bai endevering tu fiks on 
dhe moust aproupriet and expiidyant Ro'maemk simbalz for reprizent- 
ing dhem m ordineri raiting." 

Hwen wi kamenst on dhe foerst part ov dhis oenderteiking, wi had 
nou aidiia ov gouing intu it widh soech diiteil az wi aektyuali haev 
doen. Boet wi faund dhe skoup ov aur investigeishanz irrizistibli 
expaending aez wi pro-siided ; sou wi wer f ein tu let dhe soebjekt teik 
its oun kohrs, sins wi faund it impraektikabl tu kiip it widhin soech 
baundz az wi had intended. Dhe rizoelt iz, not bai eni miinz a kom- 
pliit triitis on fcnetiks, boet a priti ful diserteishan on elimenteri 
spiich-saundz from dhi aenalitikal point ov viu. Hwedher aur leiber 
in dhis maeter wil, aez wi houp, help tu advaans fo'netiks biy6nd dhi 
empirikal steij ov a yoeng salens, oedherz moest joej ; boet sou far az 
kompitent joejmen/; haz bin olredi exprest tu ce;a^\\. t^\v:st* ^^'^ 'vt'^xs^ 
dbi aBprihenshan ov sensher az a prizcemptyvvas s.^cX^s^.• 


Aur o'rijinal intenshan, az rigardz dhis senalitikal part ov anr 
wcErk, waz miirli tu prizent in briif dhe jeneral rizoelts araivd set bai 
Mesrz. Elis, Swiit, an Bel, from huuz eibl fo-netik raitingz wi 
had loernt moech, €ind espeshali from dhouz ov Mr. Elis. Boet wi 
faund dhat in rigard tu soem points, on hwich dhiiz jentbnen wer at 
vehrians in dher viuz, dhi atempt tu ditcBrmin hwich waz rait ounli 
led oes tu difer from aol ov dhem ; hwail in rigard tu cedher points, 
on hwich tiiu or aol ov dhem apiird tu agrii, wi felt ceneibl tu adopt 
dher joint kon*kluuzhanz. Wi thaot, dhehrfor, dhat aez dhe saiens ov 
fo-netiks iz stil in dhe tentativ steij, it mait bi mohr yuusful for oes 
tu giv aur indipendant viuz in aur oun wei. If dhiiz pruuv tu bi az 
wel faunded az wii biliiv, ounli gud kan rizoelt from aur poeblishing 
dhem ; boet if dhei ar siin bai oedherz tu bi faleishas, dhei wil drop 
stilborn intu obskiuriti. 

Insted ov wishing eni tairo tu seksept aur viuz widhaut kwestyan 
or foerdher investigeishan, wi wud advaiz him tu stoedi Mr. Melvil 
Belz Vizibl Spiich^ Mr. Henri Swiits Hasndhuk ov Fo'netiks^ an 
Mr. A. J. Elisez Spiich in Song an Pro'noensieishan for Singerz (dhe 
tuu laast-menshand buks bii-ing riiali mohr ov sistimaetik triitisez on 
fo'netiks dhan dher taitlz mait implai) ; and espeshali wi rif oer tu eni 
ov dhiiz woerks az konteining valyuabl informeishan apon fo-netik 
partikyulerz widh hwich it haz not bin part ov aur plsen tu diil. 

Akording tu aur prougrsem, wi shud nau gou on tu an aidentifi- 
keishan ov Ingglish saundz, an tu a silekshan ov praektikal simbalz 
for dhem ; boet iivn if aur mental an fizikal enerji had not bin ouver- 
taekst for moenths, in raiting " kopi " az it woer from hsend tu mauth, 
and ofu in kompouzing mseter in taip widhaut haeving hsed taim tu 
put it priivyasli on peiper, stil wi shud bi puld oep in aur kohrs bai 
pikiunieri kondishanz. Sins aur intimeishan in Nr. 26, dhat widh 
dhe priivyas ishu dhi Experimenter Foend had bin egzaosted, and a 
defisit ov 10/3 had akruud, wi hav risiivd nou pikiunieri eid, eksept 
10/- sent promptli an sponteinyasli bai Mr. Elis, widh dhe rimark 
dhat dhis wud koever aur defisit niirli, an dhi expreshan ov a houp 
dhat dhi Experimenter wud gou on. It haez gon on tu dhe komplii- 
shan ov dhi " Autlainz," aet a kost tu oes hwich wi kud il afohrd, an 
for hwich dher iz boet a rimout chaans ov aur bii'ing rikuupt bai dhe 
sell ov volyumz.* Boet hseving nau koem tu a lijitimet haolting-pleis, 
wi fill seem riliif in meiking dhis dhi end ov aur prezant joerni. 

* I^j-perimenter Voljumz (I. or II.), Uuud m ololX ^t«& 'is.mV-, «t\i^xsSsi^jOa. 
baund in ween, prais Ss. 6d. Poust-frii from " N^ . ^. ^^«=^^» ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^'^^ ^'^^ 
S^aare, W,C., " or thrau dhe treid from IP. Pitmm, »z ^et im^tvxA «a \w\x. 




{N'ot issued hy the English Spelling Reform Association?) 

No. 17— Vol. II.] 

JANUARY, 1882. 

\^Price One Pfnng 

*^* All Communications should be addressed to W. R, Evans, 3 Gloucester Street, 

Queen Square, London, W.C. 


The Executive Committee of the E. S. R. A. having adopted the 
Statement of General Principles printed on page 7 post^ we now feel 
both compelled and encouraged to make the comparatively small 
modifications in Union Spelling which appear requisite to bring it 
up to the standard of those Principles. At present we content our- 
selves with the following formal exposition of the i*evised scheme, 
leaving to future issues of the Experimenter a more detailed explana- 
tion of the new arrangements and of the reasons for which they 
have severally been made. 



The simple vowel letters M and CE (as much single letters as W), and the consonant 
digraphs, are included in the "alphabet," according to practice found feasible and bene- 
ficial by nations who use Roman letters, in a proximately phonetic fashion. 







A a 


a — ah 




M dd 


aet — at 

follow? (2) 

— oh 

B b 


bi — be 

(E oe 

subvert (2) 

(£t — ut 



chei — chay 




D d 


di — de 

R r 

?*oar (2) 

oer — ur 



dhi — the 

S 8 


es — ess 

£ e 

beverage (3) e — eh 

SH sh 


ish — ish 

F f 


€/— ef 

T t 


ti — te 



gei gay 



ith ith 

H h 


hei — hay 

U u 

cwckoo (2) 

W — 00 

I i 

P% (2) 

i — 9 

V V 


vi — ve 

J J 


Jez— jay 

W w 

i(?it, quit 

wei — way 

K k 


hei — kay 

X X 


ex — ex 

L I 

Vittle (2) 

el — el 


yet, filial 


M m 


em — em 

Z z 


Z\ T*^ 

N n 


2)e?i — en 



tKx — ^tX\^ 


Complete Vowel Scheme. 

The vowel roiiibinatioiis are intended to be spelt out, by naming in saccession the 
letters of which they are severally composed, thus either actually expressing (as with ii, 
Uft^ <fi, OM, ai, an), or readily suggesting (as with a/?, <w, aery er), the sounds which 
the digraphs represent. But, for reference and comparison, it may be well to give the 
fall vowel scheme, including diphthongs and "vocal r" combinations, as below: — 



re a 

W oe 





atom aUnic 

pap«*] «ttcr 






ao aa 

[ae] - 





[fl c, /rrca] 

^rrea almond [p«i] — 






ai au 





f/le fowl 







ar oer, er 




m^re [ui«re] 


mar murHer morning mourumg 



aur iur 


sour -pure 

Special Uses of certain Synibols. 

Simple a is used only for an obscure aA-sound — in open syllables before the accent of 
a word \va in anpiditiy sapfai)^ and in both open and close syllables after the accent (as 
in koma^ kotnaz, koman). Practically the same sound is expressed by ce iu close sylla- 
bles before the accent (as in aiebmiC), and by e before a trilled r after the accent (as in 
miiteriy kiiteri). 

[Normal short a would be expressed by <f, as when pdtt is preferred to paaaf] 

Simple <?, besides the distinct sound in spent and the above-mentioned obscure sound 
before r, expresses a thinner obscure sound in terminatioual syllables and in the article 
dhe (as in richeZy rented^ praivet, dhe koiej). 

The sound expressed by the symbol or is often little more than a rounded or labialized 
obscure sound, especially after the accent, where the dot may be omitted except before 
inflectional z and d (as in po'tenshaly impotent y windoy %oindar%). 

Simple i and m, besides their stopped sounds (in distrikty Gudwiid)^ represent slightly 
different sounds at the end of unaccented syllables and before inflectional % and d (as in 
penitent y peniz — senshual, ishud). 

The symbol iu is intended to express a vowel diphthong, iu which i is generally the 
shorter, and u the longer element, and it is written iu such positions as the other diph- 
thongs might occupy (as in intpiut, konstitiuty tribiut — like invait, expidaify lontrait). 
But when iu is shortened in a weak syllable, by its initial element being consonantized, 
and the other reduced to the time of a short vowel, yu is written (as in imftyuteishany 
komtityuent — like inviieishany expiidlent). At the beginning of words, after prefixes, 
or after vowels, ywi is employed (as in yuuth, misyuuzy traiyuun)y in accordance with 
the view of orthoepists that the initial element is consonantized in such positions. 

In Mr, [^ehr,'] aer, ohr, nury air, aury iur, the r represents only a semi vocal munnur, 
unless followed by a vowel in the same or a subjoined word, when r indicates its proper 
trilled sound in iiddition to the murmur (as in apaeranty a paer ov gitevz). 

With ar and or there is generally little murmur to represent, and with eer less ; but 
r in these symbols marks long vowel-sounds which usually have a distinctive character 
{armz, tort being distinguishable from aamZy saot), and is itself fully pronounced before 
a vowel iu a subjoined word (as, tu siour abaut). Before the vowel of an affix, a second 
r must be written to represent the trill (as in marring y rikcerring, abhorring), because 
a, oBy o (like z", <?, tCy o, u) have their ordinary sounds before r followed immediately by 
a vowel (as iu martin, rikierant, abhorant), 

Unaccentable vocal er should be regarded as a conventional abbreviation of long vocal 
o?r. It not only differs in. effect from simple a (as in sarendery adenda)y but involves 
a trilled r before the vowel of an afRx (a* iiv sarendering) y e remaining obscure. 
[Trilled r preceded by a normal voYfe\-sov\Tvi\., «ca Vtv ^cqWjv^v \itv5v\w\vi>a.t.\Qn, may be 
represented by r\ as in par'ty hoerUl, per\ pehr\ moItT\'\ 


Digraphic letters arc divided by a dot, when required to represent tlicir own separate 
powers, as in ri'Uereit, ko'intidtfnt, Moro'ingy mirhapy nait'hudy ad'hur^ in'yrt-ind. 

Digraphs are similarly divided from a preceding or a following letter with which one 
of their elements might combine, as in miidi'iivai, ko'iival, sii'ing, huraO'tPff, saoring, 
greiishy emploi'tpffy [invtfh'ingy bittoh'ing^ 

The digraph ng represents simply the guttural nasal (as in tingery kingli) ; therefore, 
when the sound g is added, a second g should be written (as mjinggery tinggii). The 
combination nk may be regarded as a digraph = ngk. The proper sound of n before k or 
g is shown by the dividing dot (as in in'keeiUy in'goi) ; but it would be safe to omit the 
dot before a following accented syllable (as in kfmkcety cevgreitfui). 

The following, and perhaps a few other little words, are spelt as unaccented syllables 
when there is no stress upon them; but when they are under any stress, they take the 
second forms given in different type : — a, ae ; avy sen ; amy eem ; andy send ; aty set ; 
aZy scz; biy bii ; biny biin; daZy dccz ; duy duu; dhavy dhscn; dhaty dhact ; dhefy dhaer; 
dhiy dhii ; «r, ar ; erty art ; haVy h(ev ; hasty ha^st ; haZy h(cz ; hady heed ; heVy hocr ; 
ki, hii ; A», huu ; hwery hwaer ; kaUy kicn ; miy mii ; tOy sou ; thaly shscl ; shiy shii ; 
iUy tan; waHy woen ; toaZy woz ; toer^ wocr (waer) ; toiy wii ; giy yii ; yu, yuu. 

The definite article is dhe (cloMrst) before consonants, and dki (worMier) before 
vowels or whe^ nnder stress. 

Accent Rules. 

General R/ile. — Simple a, o*, vocal ^r, the combination ^//, and syllabic / and 17, are 
unaccentable ; so also are simple t and u before other vowels. The rest of the simple. 
or compound signs are capable of receiving the accent. 

When not determined by the preceding general rule, nor by the accent-mark ( ' ), the 
stress should be read in accordance with the fallowing rules : — 

A.— //t ITords of Two Sgf fables, 

1. On the final syllable, when this contains 

/?, opy a vowel digraph, or a vocal r com- 
bination (other than er), and the itiitinl 
syllable has one of the simple vowels, a, 
ey i, Oy u. 

2. On the initial syllable in all other cases 

(unless its vowel be unaccentable). 

B. — In Words of Three or mnri* Sgliables. 

1. On the last syllable, when the first syllable 

is iriy cen (un), disy or miSy prefixed to a 
word of the form A. 1. 

2. On the last syllable but one, — 

a. When this contains <?, cpy any vowel di- 
graph, or a vocal r combination (other 
than «•); 

h. When its vowel is followed by sh or zhy 
or by more than one consonant, and the 
word ends in a/, an (an, on), anSy anty 
as (ass, ous, us), ip, or gt^r (ure) ; 

e. When the word ends in ik-s ; 

d. When in a trisyllabic word the first syl- 
lable is unacentable. 
8. On the third syllable from the end in other 

cases, except those under the next rule. 
4. Ori the fourth syllable from the end, — 

a. When the second syllabic from the end 
does not come under B. 2, and the third 
contains an unaccentable vowel-sign ; 

h. When the word ends in abl-Zy abliy ansi-z, 
asi'Z, »nsi-Zf eri-z (erjr, ary, ory), pre- 
ceded by a single ronsonant-soiiiid, and 
by^ a ample vowel 


Ritrickt, (Kskces, eksiid, bihonf, divoelj, 
perhwi);:, iu'kluud, bifaol, embaaui, 
krnseid, dispouz, konfaid, scrmaunt, 
konfiut. cnjoi, siiisiir, diklaer, dibar, 
pervoert ritort, implohr. 

Finish, ecbj.tkt, scervil, fiimeil, fainait, 
(amid, pro'tekt, permit, dyuet.) 

Indiskriit, inegzfckt, oenbiliif, oenkon- 
soernd, disripiut, disrigard, misper- 
siiv, misadvaiz. 

Fgzfcktli, diskoever, inhiirant, krieiter, 
impruudant, instaolment, divautnes, 
konfaiding, pervoersli, misfortyun. 

Difishant, ofishal, rivizhan, konsistant, 
ripentans, dijestyan, expensiv, kon- 
tinjant, inventiv, trimendas, instru- 
mental, invidyas, konjektyer. 

Spfczmodik, scnjelik, meethimsctiks. 

Ai)elant, permisiv, akwital, pro'gresiv, 
fermented, garoted, ko'ketish. 

Indefinit, monotoni, konstityuent, sen- 
tisipeit, kaunterpart, inabiliti. 

Imperativli, korpyulensi, apriishiativ, 
ditiirioreit, vaeri'igeit, intelektyuali, 
Februeri, Jpenyueri, intenshanali. 

Feiverabl, \iemK^Ui, \\\%?i\\»3Q\\,\«ix- 
tansi, d\aVt\\^«kVim/\x«^>arMB^,^ 
Vaa\z, mo«iiv«^, ^^w^co«vx,Vw^«cv> 
admomim, Oioim\VAsfvi, ^mxXKWL* 


Complete Vowel Scheme. 

The vowel rotnbinatioiis are intended to be spelt out, by naming in saccession the 
letters of which they are severally composed, thus either actually expressing (as with tV, 
»/', <f<, OM, ai, a»), or readily suggesting (as with a<f, ao, (er, er), the sounds which 
the digrafihs represent. Hut, for reference and comparison, it may be well to give the 
fnll vowel scheme, iticludiiig diphthongs and " vocal r" combinations, as below : — 




a3 a 

[9] oe 




cAhiragc i 

r7tom atone 

pap<pr] «ttcr 




• • 



ao aa 

[ae] - 





[flic, /rna 

ffn-a fllinond [p«i] — 






at au 





f/le fowl 







ar oer, er 




m^re [marre] 


mar mvrd^ morning mo«ming 



aur iur 


sour -pure 

Special Uses of certain SyniboU, 

Simple a is used only for an obscure aA*sound — in open syllables before the accent of 
a word tas in inpiditi, sapfai), and in both open and close syllables after the accent (as 
in koma^ komnz, koman). Practically the same sound is expressed by eg in close sylla- 
bles before the accent (as in sceb/nif), and by e before a trilled r after the accent (as in 
misteri, hiiftei'i), 

[Normal short a would be expressed by a, as when pant is preferred to paastJ] 

Simple <?, besides the distinct sound in spent and the above-mentioned obscure soiuid 
before r, expresses a thinner obscure sound in terminational syllables and in the article 
dhe (as in richeZy rented, praivef, dhe kotej). 

The sound expressed by the symbol o* is often little more than a rounded or labialized 
obscure sound, especially after the accent, where the dot may be omitted except before 
inflectional z and d (as in po'tenthal, impotent, windo, windo'z). 

Simple i and w, besides their stopped sounds (in distrikt, Gadwiuf)^ represent slightly 
different sounds at the end of unaccented syllables and before inflectional z and d (as in 
penitent, peniz — sen-shual, ishud). 

The symbol iu is intended to express a vowel diphthong, iu which i is generally the 
shorter, and u the longer element, and it is written in such positions as the other diph- 
thongs might occupy (as in impiut, konstitiut, tribiat — like invait, expidaif, kontrait). 
But when iu is shortened in a weak syllable, by its initial element being consonantized, 
and the other reduced to the time of a short vowel, yu is written (as in imiti/uteishan, 
konstityuent — like inviteishan , expiidient). At the beginning of words, after prefixes, 
or after vowels, ywt is employed (as in yuuth, misyuuz, traiyuun), in accordance with 
the view of orthocpists that the initial element is consonantized in such positions. 

In iir, [tf^r,] aer, ohr, nur, air, aur, iur, the r represents only a seniivocal munnur, 
unless followed by a vowel in the same or a subjoined word, when r indicates its proper 
trilled sound in addition to the murmur (as iu apaerant, a paer ov g!(pvz). 

With ar and or there is generally little murmur to represent, and with cer less; but 
r in these symbols marks long vowel-sounds which usually have a distinctive character 
{aniiz, sort being distinguishable from aamz, saot), and is itself fully pronounced before 
a vowel in a subjoined word (as, tu stwr abaut). Before the vowel of an affix, a second 
r must be written to represent the trill (as in marring, Hkaerring, abhorring), because 
a, oe, o (like i, e, ce, o, u) have their ordinary sounds before r followed immediately by 
a vowel (as iu mariin, riherant, abhorant), 

Unaccentable vocal er should be regarded as a conventional abbreviation of long vocal 
cer. It not only differs in. effect from simple a (as in sarender, adettda), but involves 
a trilled r he^ovt the vowel of an afRx (tv* iiv sarendering) ^ e remaining obscure. 
[Trilled r preceded by a normal voYfe\-sov\Tv<5L, «ca vw ^cq\\a^\ ^xvyoA\\vixa.t\Qn, may be 
represented by r\ as in part, hoer^d, per\ peJir\ moltr*.'^ 


Bigraphic letters are divided by a dot, when required to represent their own separate 
powers, as in ri'iternt, ko'insidunt, ioro'mg^ mirhap^ nait'hud^ ad'hiify in'yrrind. 

Digraphs are similarly divided from a preceding or a following letter with which one 
<^ their elements might combine, as in miidi'uval, ko*iivaI, tii'ing^ haracciftg^ sacing, 
greiishy emplai'ingy linvtfA'ing, bistoh'ing^ 

The digi-aph ng represents simply the guttural nasal (as in tinger, kingK) ; tlierefore, 
when the sound y is added, a second^ should be written (as mjinggery tinggli). The 
combination nk may be I'egardcd as a digraph = ngk. Tlie proper sound of n before k or 
g is shown by the dividing dot (as in in'kcenty in'goi) ; but it would be safe to omit the 
dot before a following accented syllable (as in kfmkcety cgf.greUful), 

The following, and perha|)8 a few other little words, are spelt as unaccented syllables 
when there is no stress upon them; but when they are under any stress, they take the 
second forms given in different type: — a, ae; avy sen; amy eem; andy Knd; aty set; 
€tz, sez; bi, bii; biny biin; daZydccz; duydwi; dhaPy dhffin; «^^a/, dhact; <M^r, dhaer; 
dhiy dhii ; er, ar ; frt, art ; haVy h(ev ; hasty ha^st ; haz, h(cz ; hady heed ; heVy hocr ; 
ix, hii ; A», huu ; hwer, hwaer ; katiy kicn ; miy mii ; sOy sou ; thaly shscl ; shiy shii ; 
iu, tuu; wan, woen ; waZy woz ; toer^ wocr (waer) ; toiy \\\\ ; giy yii ; yUy yuu. 

The definite article is dhe (cloMrst) befoi*e consonants, and dki {vorfhicr) before 
vowels or whe^ under stress. 

Accent Rules, 

General R/tle. — Simple a, o*, vocal ^r, the combination ^//, and syllabic / and tiy are 
unaccentable ; so also are simple i and u before other vowels. The rest of the simple. 
or compound signs are capable of receiving the accent. 

When not determined by the preceding general rule, nor by the accent-mark ( ' ), the 
stress should be read in ar<x)rdance with the following rules : — 

A. — In Words of Two Sgf fables. Examples, 

1. On the final syllable, when this contains Ritrickt, diskces, cksiid, bihanf, divoelj. 

/p, fl?, a vowel digraph, or a vocal r com- 
bination (other than er), and the itiitinl 
syllable has one of the simple vowels, a, 
ey », Oy u. 
2. On the initial syllable in all other cases 
(unless its vowel be unaccentable). 

B. — In Words of Three or tnf>rf Sgl/ables. 

1. On the last syllable, when the first syllable 

is tff, cen (un), disy or miSy prefixed to a 
word of the form A. 1. 

2. On the last syllable but one, — 

a. When this contains a, cpy any vowel di- 
graph, or a vocal r combination (other 
than er); 

b, When its vowel is followed by sh or zh^ 
or by more than one consonant, and the 
word ends iu af, an (an, on), anSy anty 
as (ass, ous, us), ivy or ger (ure) ; 

e. When the word ends in ik-s ; 
d. When in a trisyllabic word the first syl- 
lable is unacentable. 
8. On the third svllable from the end in other 

cases, except those under the next rule. 
4. Oii the fourth syllable from the end, — 
a. When the second syllable from the end 
does not come under B. 2, and the third 
contains an unaccentable vowel-sign ; 
h. When the word ends in abl-z, abli, ansi-z, 
asi'jg, ifHsi-Zf eri'Z (erjr, ary, ory), pre- 
eeded by a aingle consonant-sound, and 
by^ a simple vowel 

perhflcps, in'kluud, bifaol, embaam, 
krnseid, dispouz, konfaid, scrmaunt, 
koufiut, unjoi, siiisiir, diklaer, dibar, 
pervoert ritort, implohr. 
Finish, ecbj.ikt, scervil, fiimeil, fainait, 
(amid, pro'tekt, permit, dyuet.) 

Indiskriit, inegzrckt, oenbiliif, cenkon- 
soernd, disripiut, disrigard, misper- 
siiv, misadvaiz. 

Fgzfcktli, diskoever, iuhiirant, krieiter, 
impruudant, instaolment, divautnes, 
konfaiding, pervcersli, misfortyun. 

Difishant, ofishal, rivizhan, konsistant, 
ripen tans, dijestyan, expensiv, kon- 
tinjant, inventiv, trimendas, instru- 
mental, invidyas, konjektyer. 

Spiczmodik, scnjelik, meethimrotiks. 

A]>elaut, permisiv, akwital, pro'gresiv, 
fermented, garoted, ko'ketish. 

Indefinit, monotoni, konstityuent, een- 
tisipcit, kauntcrpart, inabiliti. 

Imperativli, korpyulensi, apriishiativ, 
ditiirioreit, vaeri'igeit, intelektyuali, 
Februeri, Jpenyueri, intenshanali. 

Feiverabl, ytemK^Ui, \\\%.'^\»3a\\,VAax« 
tansv, diaVt\\»«k\vm/\x«J^^awB^,\^- 

admomitn, Oioim\WvL, ^m\\«w«»« 


[^Vuuniati Speling,'] 


At prezaut, aafter sou mcech haz bin sed and dcBn on dhe kopirait 
kwestyan az rigardz Inggland and Amerika, it iz interesting tu loem 
in hwot lait dhe piipl ov dhe Silestyal E'mpair viu dhis kwestyan ov 
litereri properti. Hwail it niei bi sed dhat dher iz noii stsetiut lao 
07 kopirait in Chaina, dher iz on dhi oedher haend an oenrftn lao dhat 
iz iikwali efektiv. From a peiper on dhis soebjekt, red aet a niiiting 
ov dhe North-Chaina braanch ov dhe Roial Eishiaetik So'saieti, wi 
faind dhat on dhe taitl-peij ov niuli-poeblisht buks in Chaina dher iz 
not infriikwantii a kaoshan agenst dhaer oenaotheraizd poeblikeishan ; 
shouing dhat litereri properti iz laiabi tu bi stouln, send dhat ridres 
iz afohrded tu aotherz dhoes rongd. 

Dhe Piinal Koud, hanever, wil bi scBrcht in vein for an enaektment 
on dhe soebjekt ov kopirait. Chainiiz lao, indiid, haz never konsiivd 
it neseseri tu spesifai dhtet partikyuler form ov roben hwich kon- 
Riats in dispoiling a skoler ov dhe fruut ov hiz toil, eni mohr dhan tu 
neim dhe prodoekts ov hoezbandraen and ailizanz az oender dhe pro*- 
tekshan ov dhe lao ; aol alaik bii'ing rigarded az properti bai naetyural 
rait. Hens, dhouz hu infrfnj dhe raits ov an aother ar laiabi tu a 
poenishmeiit ov a hcendred blouz and thrii yiirz diiporteishan, if dhei 
print and sel hiz woerks widhaut aothoriti ; boet if dhe trespas gouz 
nou fcBrdher dhan printing, nou kopiz haeving bin sould, dhe poenish- 
ment inflikted iz ounii fifti blouz and forfitiur ov dhe buks and bloks. 
Dhe rait ov exkluusiv reprizenteishan dhoes pro'tekted iz not ounli 
vested in dhi aother, boet iz held in poeipitiuiti bai hiz aerz and 

likwal pro'tekshan iz givn tu inventerz and diskoevererz ; dhe sek- 
shan ov dhe Piinal Koud dhat teiks konizans ov larsiniz ov a greiv 
knerakter sekting at dhe seira taim bouth az a kopirait and a paetant 
lao. Dhe pro'doekshanz ov artists aolso koera oender its opereishan ; 
and in aol dhiiz keisez dhe raits ov dhi individyual in hiz properti, 
hwedher it bi litereri, artistik, or mikaenikal, ar triited az aideutikal 
in prinsipl, send az iikwali inhiiraut and ineilyanabl. 

Dhis iz woen rlspekt in hwich dhe Chainfiz ar a long wei alied ov 

oes. Aur kopirait lao iz in meui partikyulerz il-difaind, and its asoer- 

shan friikwantli liidz tu expensiv litigeishan ; hwailst an inventer, 

aafter perhaepa raeni yiirz hard woerk and stoedi, and ofn dhi expen- 

ditiur ov not a litl moeni (or taim, hwich tu him miinz moeni), kaenat 

haev dhe prodoekt ov hiz injiniuiti prizoervd tu him oenl^s hi iz eibi 

tu pei aut a /arj raiind soem ov mcam t\\ poarches dhe pro'tekshan ov 

aur paetant Jao, and dhis, iWn dlaew, o\xxi\\ ^ot ^\vH>L\\.<i^ \is&\s^i«t vt 

jri'irz. — (Ads&pted from CheimUrzez Joerual.'^ 


[Sujestiv Speling — Yooniun Orthohipi,'] 


Ut prezunt, ahftur soh miich huz bin sed und dun on dhu copireit 
cwestyun uz rigardz Ingglund iind Umericu, it iz intur^sting too 
liim in hwot leit dhu peepl ov dhu Silestyul Empeir vyoo dhis cwes- 
tyun ov liturury propurty. Hweil it may bi sed dhut dhur iz noh 
statyoot law ov copireit in Cheinu, dhur iz on dhi lidhur hand un 
linn'tn law dhut iz eecwuly efectiv. From u paipur on dhis subject 
red at u meeting ov dhu North-Cheinu brahnch ov dhu Roiul Aishi- 
atic So'seiety, wi feind dhut on dhu teitl-paij ov nyooly-piiblisht 
buucs in Cheinu dhur iz not infreecwuntly u caushun ugenst dhair 
linauthureizd piiblicaishun ; shohing dhut liturury propurty iz leiubl 
too bi stohln, and dhut ridres iz uf6hrded too authurz dhiis rongd. 

Dhu Peenul Cohd, houevur, wil bi surcht in vain for un enactment 
on dhu subject ov copireit. Cheineez law, indeed, huz nevur con- 
seevd it nesesury too spesifey dhat partfcyoolur form ov robury 
hwich consists in dispoiling u scolur ov dhu froot ov hiz toil, eny 
mohr dhun too naim dhu products ov hiizbundmen und artizunz uz 
lindur dhu pro'tecshun ov dhu law; aul uleik beeing rigarded uz 
propurty bey natyoorul reit. Hens dhohz hoo infrinj dhu reits ov 
un authur ar leiubl too u punishment ov u hundred blohz und three 
yeerz deeportaishun, if dhay print und sel hiz wurcs widhout auth6- 
rity ; bdt if dhu trespus gohz noh f lirdhur dhun printing, noh copiz 
having bin sohld, dhu punishment inflicted iz ohnly fifty blohz und 
forfityoor ov dhu buucs und blocs. Dhu reit ov ecscloosiv reprizen- 
taishun dhus pro'tected iz not ohnly vested in dhi authur, biit iz held 
in piirpityooity bey hiz airz und useinz. 

Eecwul pro'tecshun iz givn too inventurz und discuvunirz; dhu 
secshun ov dhu Peenul Cohd dhut taiks conizuns ov larsiniz ov u 
graiv caruktur acting ut dhu saim teim bohth uz u copireit und u 
patunt law. Dhu pro'ducshunz ov artists aulso' ciim lindur its opu- 
raishun ; und in aul dheez caisez dhu reits ov dhi indivfdyooul in hiz 
propurty, hwedhur it bi liturury, artistic, or micanicul, ar treeted uz 
eidenticul in prinsipl, and uz eecwuly inheerunt und inailyunubl. 

Dhis iz wiin rispect in hwich dhu Cheineez ar u long way uhed 
ov lis. Our copireit law iz in meny particyoolurz il-dif^ind, und its 
usiirshun freecwuntly leedz too ecspensiv litigaishun ; hweilst un 
inventur, ahftur purhaps meny yeerz hard wiirk und study, und ofn 
dhi ecspendityoor ov not u litl miiny (or teim, hwich too him meenz 
miiny) canut hav dhu product ov hiz injinyooity priziirvd too him 
unles hi iz aibl too pay out u larj Tound svjim on twvjax^ V^<^ ^xix^'s^ 
dha pro'tecshun ov our patunt law, uiid d\i\^., <ieN\i ^<e^^<^«:^"^ '^'^'^ 
u limited numbnv ov yeerz. — (Udapted ii^om CKaxmbwrsie^ Jutu'vxX>^ 



[The following passage is taken from Matthew Arnold's essay on 
Falkland. It is printed, as an experiment, in Broad Romic with six 
new letters, d, J, 3, 1, d, r|, instead of «, sh, zh, th, dh, q or ng. As 
q and X are not required in English, they may be used for the initial 
consonants of qur;aan^ xucar. By spelling the consonant diphthongs 
in etch^ edge thus (etj, edg) w^e set free'c and j. Hence c may stand 
for the German ch in ick^fiiichte^ or for the corresponding stop, andy 
may be restored to its original power as in German ja^ English yes. 
This also releases y, which may be employed in its Roman value, 
still retained in Danish and Swedish, = French w, German 11, Lastly, 
ce may stand for French e«, German 0, — J. L.] 

if Avi a ta faind 9 maatar in da histri av da greit sivl wao, let it bij 
faokland. hij waz &q niaatar av luwsiditi av maind and laadsnis av 
tempar in a straif av inrpaafikt in-telidsansiz an tempaz i-libaral. . . 
/ail wij bleim im fa hiz luwsiditi av maind and laad5nis av tempa ? 
Jffil wij ijvn piti im? bai nou mijnz. dei a whot meik im auaz. 
whot ligk im wid de naintijnl sentjari. hij and iz frendz, bai daea 
luTOuik and houplis staend a'genst di in-aedikwit ai-dialz dominant in 
daea taim, kept onpn daea kamjuwni-kei/ans wid 6i^ fjuwt/a, livd wid 
da fjnwtja. daea bsetl iz auaz tuw, an dat wij pa'sjuw it wid faeara 
honps av sak-ses dan dei did, wij ou ta daea haevii) weidsd it and 
faoln. tu auar igglij reis, wid its in/a'laeriti, its pra*faund fell in aek/an, 
its kantenit fa drijmaz and feilaz, in-aedikwit ai'dialz in laif, msenaz, 
gDvamant. daot, ri'lidsan, wil aolwiz bi a saos av deindsa. ena'dsetik 
aekjan meiks Dp wij digk far im*paafikt nolids. wij iigk dat aol iz 
wel, dat a maen iz folouiij ' a moral impols,' if ij pa'sjuwz an end 
whitj ij ' dijmz av sjuwprijm im-paotans.* wij inrpouz naidar on him 
nar on aua-selvz ^q djuwti av di-saanli) whedar ij iz rait in dijmig it 
sou. hens aua kaoziz ar aofn az smaol az aua noiz a'baut dam iz 
greit. . . . hot let as imiteit da sa-sai-iti av greit tjuw, and meik it 
aua biznis ' tu igzaemin and ri-fain douz grousa propa-zi/anz, whit/ 
leizinis and kan-sent meik korant in vdI ga konva*8ei/an.' 

[Wii er indeted tu dhc kcertiai nnd knindncs ov Mr. Aizak Fitinaii for dhe yuus ov 

dhc uiu taips apiiring iu dhi abcev spesiinen ; and liweii \vi meiisliaii dhat dhe veteran 

and venerabl aposl ov Ingglish Speling Riform went tu hiz ofis on Boksiug-dei, and 

kaold in a holidei-kiiping konipoziter tu luk aut dhe taips for prompt dispfceli tu oes, wi 

fiil shuur dhat aur riiders, laik aorselvz, v?\l ivot \>\ dUpouxd tu skruutinaiz tuu klousli 

dbe "mseching " ov dhe Icterz widh aur o\m. On ^e ^exvex^X wx^s>\^V liN ^vVoiVraidsek* 

0han ovniu leterz, and dhi replikeishan ov o\j1v\. vimii, yi\ me\ ^\ftVQ\xx% «»a\v,— "^ »^,'^I\ 



Which should form the Bcisis of such a Re-constituted Spelling as that 
vuUcated in the Prospectus of the English Spelling Reform Association, 


1. A re-constituted Spelling for the English language should be 
based upon a definite and practically complete alphabetic scheme of 
simple or compound symbols. 

2. Every symbol in such scheme should in similar positions always 
express the same sound ; so that the new Spelling may indicate a 
received pronunciation as effectively as do the notations in pro- 
nouncing dictionaries {e.g. Walker, Webster, Worcester, Smart). 

3. Every sound should in similar positions always be expressed 
by the same symbol ; so that any word may be correctly written 
from the dictation of its actual pronunciation. 

4. The new Spelling should be so constructed as to be an assist- 
ance in acquiring the old Spelling. 

5. The new Spelling should also be so constructed as to make it 
easily intelligible to persons conversant with the old Spelling. 

6. It is desirable that the new Spelling should be so arranged 
that its introduction would involve the least possible disturbance 
or initial expense in printing-offices. 

7. It is desirable that in subsequent practical use the new Spelling 
should not be mechanically more difficult to read or write, or more 
expensive to print, than the old Spelling. 



From Miss LAURA SO AMES, Tramore Lodge, Brighton :— 

May I be allowed to put before your readers a matter which seems very urgent, and 
which has as yet hardly received due attention from Spelliujac Reformers. I am an old 
school manager, well acquainted with more than one group of elementary schools, and I 
fear that there is a hindrance in the way of Spelling Reform which will make all our 
attempts abortive, unless we can first effect its removal. 

The Education Code at present in force requires spelling as well as reading on the old 
system from all children of seven years and upwards, whilst the new Code adds reading 
for children of six years of age, to be required at the discretion of the inspector. Now, 
how is it possible that the children can have mastered a phonetic system, and gone on 
to acquire the ordinary spelling, at this early age? Let the spelling be deferred for two 
or three years, and we might have some chance of success. 

When we have prevailed with the Kducation Department to make spelling on the 
present system an accomplishment for elder children only, we shall have conferred a 
very great boon on the teachers and children, even when they do not use a phonetic 
spelling. It is in the First and Second Standards that spelling is such terrible drudgery. 
And then, more time having been allowed for Tead.\T\^ wv<\. ^\\\\xv%, \3wi. ^^'st ^5«^^^»^ 
would learn to spell with comparatively little tvou\Ae. 


The new Edacation Code is jiut now before tbe country, and criticisms are invited 
from all quarters ; so surely this is the very time for urging such a reform. Every ele- 
mentary teacher in the country would, I believe, support ns in the effort ; and without 
this point gained Mr. Pitman's new reading books, and all other phonetic reading books, 
will be introduced to no purpose. 

I would also add a word as to the use of a new-letter system. Mr. Pitman's new- 
letter scheme has indeed, more votes than any other, but this is an accident owing to 
the number of new-letter schemes being so small, that their supporters were not much 
divided. Taking the twelve schemes which gained most votes, we have only 53 votes 
for new-letter alphabets, against 131 votes for old-letter schemes. Is it not therefore 
higlily desirable that whenever a change in the Code has made phonetic s|)elling possible 
we should introduce phonetic reading books on an old-letter system, and give them a 
fair trial ? For many spelling reformers, of whom I am one, believe that the reform 
will never be accomplished until we decide on restricting ourselves to the alphabet now 
in use. 

Prom Dr. WILIIELM VIETOR, Wiesbaden, Germany.— 

I am afraid I am taking up too much of your time and space by my repeated and 
unasked-for contributions to your excellent little paper. But as, in my opinion, losing 
sight of each other would be the worst thing that could happen to the several national 
spelling reform bodies, I think 1 ought to contribute what I can to keep up the relations 
between the two countries most interested in this subject on this side of the Atlantic. 
It does not devolve npon me to pass any judgment on the results of the canvass insti- 
tuted by the E. S. R. A. But I am quite sure we cannot in this country afford to dis- 
pense with the assistance of England, upon whom I have always looked as our strongest 
ally in the cause of reform. 

It was therefore very satisfactory to me to find "Union" (for which, by the bye, 
together with " Broad Romic," I had voted in returning my answer to the society's 
circular) at the head of the old-letter schemes ; and I sincerely hope the opinion that 
spelling reform ought to be limited to one country will not in England prevail in the 
end. Would it really be so much more diflScult to carry out a reformed old-letter 
spelling with European than with English values ? To the learned it cannot, of course, 
make any difference; and the unlearned, 1 should think, will only remark that spelling 
has been altered, and care little whether they are to write steit or staitf instead of the 
familiar state, &c. Also the reformed pronunciation of Latin, which, as I understand, 
is now being introduced into English schools, appears to facilitate the adoption of Euro- 
pean values. 

If you and we try to carry on spelling reform in two different directions, progress 
must necessarily be much slower, and the international loss will surely counterbalance 
the national gain. No doubt Professor Max Miiller is right in saying (in an article 
lately published in one of our great monthly reviews) that no nation can pay its debt 
to mankind in small money current only in its own country. For this reason I cannot 
fully rejoice to see that Mr. Pitman's present Phonotypy (which in itself I admire very 
much) has carried the prize among the new-letter systems. I am afraid his new signs 
for *A, zA ( J 3 ), for instance, wiU find but little favour abroad. In Germany we are 
using, or at least trying, the Slavonic forms *, z with a superscribed *v,* which are well 
known to every student of languages. And, again, why not retain the old &miliar signs 
(familiar also to German students) h "5 for voiceless and voiced tk ? 

I am sorry to say that the interest manifested in spelling reform in this country can 
hardly be pronounced to be increasing. The ignorance in, and consequently the preju- 
dice against, everything connected with phonetics, is still too great. It is quite possible 
that I shall have to discontinue my Zeitachrift fur Orthographie at the end of the pre- 
sent half-year. It is not contributors we want, but subscribers (although the subscrip- 
tion is only 1*. 6rf. a quarter). At all events, I am much indebted to English scholars 
for favorable comments given on the Zeitscknft in spelling reform and literary papers. 

Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, Queen Square, London, W.C.j and 
Published by F. Pitman, 20 Paternoster Row, E.C. 




{Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association?) 

No. 18— Vol. II.] FEBRUARY, 1882. IPrice One Penny 


The Executive Committee of the English Spelling Reform Asso- 
ciation have taken another important step in the prosecution of a 
very difficult and responsible task — ^namely, the selection of some 
particular orthografic scheme which they may be able to recommend 
to their subscribers and to the public as fitted to constitute at least 
the basis of a national system of reformed and phonetic spelling. 
Accepting the results of the November voting for their guidance, 
the Committee confined their attention to schemes whose supporters 
were numbered by two figures. Of such schemes there were eleven, 
seven of them being the productions of three individual authors, not 
reckoning 1847 Phonotypy as a personal scheme. 

Mr. Isaac Pitman's old-letter transliteration of his Phonotypy 
occupied the place of an independent scheme, but as a mere reflex of 
the new-letter style it did not require separate illustration, because 
its ultimate acceptability would depend on the support received by 
Phonotypy, and the notation would be liable to modifications corre- 
sponding to any that might be made in its prototype. The present 
writer himself had two nominally distinct schemes among the first 
half-dozen on the list ; but, recognising that " Compendious " only 
differed from "Union" in providing diacriticized letters instead of 
digraphs for expressing long vowels, and that this distinctive repre- 
sentation did not require detailed illustration, he withdrew " Com- 
pendious" as a separate scheme, reserving the right to treat it as an 
optional variety of notation. Mr. A. J. Ellis was to the front with 
three really distinct and independent schemes, all qualified for " fur- 
ther illustration ;" but this eminent phonetician decided to rely upon 
" English values " only, and for the illustration of these preferred a 
revision of his " Dimidian," under the name of " Suggestive." His 
withdrawal of " Europic" and " Glossic" left for further illustration 
the following seven schemes: — 1882 Phonotypy, 1847 ditto (2 with 
new letters); Union, Popular English, Broad Romic, Utility, Sugges- 
tive or revised Dimidian (5 with old letters). 

Formal, complete, and definitive Expositions of these seven 


Schemes, as they might have been ultimately revised, were required 
from their authors by the Executive Committee, and we privately 
arranged with the authors of the old-letter schemes to print their 
expositions as separate papers, on the understanding that the matter 
should afterwards appear in the Experimenter. We are thus enabled 
to present our readers with such expositions printed from the same 
type as the official copies. The matter will extend over this number 
and an enlarged one for March. 

As we had to set up the type for all these expositions, and print 
them off, before we could commence work on the present number of 
the Experimenter, we are unavoidably late in issuing the latter ; but 
we shall make up for this by putting the March number to press at 
once, so that our subscribers will probably receive the two issues at 
the same time. 



Dhu teitl iz aulturd from "Dimidiun or Hahf-way" too "Sujestiv" 
Speling, bikauz dhu prinsipl now udopted iz too euz uz kunsistuntly 
uz posibl siich kombinaishunz uv leturz uz wuud mohst redily sujest 
dhu soundz intended too reedurz uv Nomik, dhat iz, kiistumury spel- 
ing. Siich kombinaishunz ar bey noh meenz aulwez dhohz mohst 
rizembling dhu formz found in dhi o'rijinul speling. 

Dhi orth6hipy udopted in dhu prezunt ekspo'zishun iz dhat nohn uz 
" kulohkwiul," dhat iz, dhi orthohipy uv dhu komun speech uv edeu- 
kaited In'glishmen. It ugreez in dhu main widh dhat laid doun bey 
Smart, und udopted bey Wuustur. Biit Sujestiv speling iz kaipubl 
uv reiting eny lidhur orthohipy dhut may bi dizeird — stif, pidantik, 
" kairfuul," stiidid, silabik, eiso'laited (izo'laited), or, uz Melvil Bel 
kaulz it, " vo'kabeulury steil " — ^proVeided linpraktikid und imprak- 
tikubl fo'netik egzaktnes bi not rikweird. Hens dhu Sujestiv ortho'- 
grafik sistum miist not bi jiijd ov bey dhi orthohipy heer udopted, 
hwich, houevur, ugreez widh mey ordinury praktis in piiblik reeding 
un specking. Ut prezunt orthogrufy ulohn haz too bi kunsidurd. 

Dhi indistin'kt vouel iz repriz^nted bey w, und iz aulwez linuk- 
s^nted. Uv kohrs, dhis indistin'kt u konstuntly altiirnaits widh siim 
distin'kt vouel form, dhiis " un aksunt, too uksent," und dhu leest 
stres or emfusis wil bring bak dhi uksented sound, az, " ey sed an 
aksent^ — aksent dhu wiird." But dhu reeul naiteur (naichur) uv 
In'glish speech iz not prizented, unles dhis alturnaishun iz maid 
Dhi uksented nateurul vouel \z avJVwe7» tVtxi u. 


Dhu stres or aksunt miist bi red on dhu fiirst silubl in evury 
"vv^iird (eksklooding dhohz silublz, if eny, hwich kuntain w), unles 
"•Adherweiz indikaited bey un ukeut aksent mark plaist ohvur a sin'gl 
"^i^ouel, or dhu fiirst vouel uv u kombinaishun. U wiird for dhis 
X^iirpus kumensez eedhur a'ftur u "spais" or u " heifun." 

In larj or smaul kapituk, or fansy leturz, (und els'hwair, if found 
nnveenyent,) dhu distin'kshun w, u iz not maid, un dhu plais uv dhi 
si.'ksunt iz not indikaited, az UN USUMSHUN UT UKSITUR ((an* as- 
^sximptiou at Uttoxeter)). 

{For u Kfte, see dhu Short Egza^mph,) 


ee ai 

— ah au oh 

uh 00 


• • 

1 ai 

- a' au o' 



i e 


a' — 

li, u uu 



oi ou 


aiy ohw 5) y 

w hw 'h 



t d ch 



kg 7) f V th dh 

s z sh zh 



I m 


ng, n' (( )) inklohz wiirdz in Nomik. 

) i 


a* 0* u 


ae ao, ue ui, oe oe, aiy 

oey, wi wa* &s* 

iN aN ON UN kh gh, ny ly, rr, p* b*, t* d* k' g* 

Bifohr t, und at dhi end uv wiirdz, z, az, ei, oi ar ritn y, ay, ey, oy, 
^ksept hwen t endz short mono'silublz, uz dhi^ hi^ bikauz dhy^ by 
"wuud sujest dhey^ hey too u Nomik reedur. 

Bif6hr w, und at dhi end uv wiirdz, aw, ow, eu ur ritn aw, ow^ ew. 
Dhu fuul form uv dhi aspiret iz 'A ; biit dhu latur hahf , A, iz euzd 
Snishuly, und a'ftur u heifun or upostro'fy ; dhu formur hahf ( ' ) iz 
euzd for dhu pohst-aspirets (9) ; un dhu fuul form 'A in lidhur kaisez, 
xiz ud'heer^ chetld^kuud^ bee^keiv or hee-heiv = ((adhere, childhood, bee- 

Dhu letur r iz euzd in vairius sensez, ditiirmind bey its beeing 
jenuruly lintrfld eksept bifohr vouelz. It aulso' kauzez ar, or, ur too 
bee pro'n6unst az aAr, aur^ tikr, widh u purmfsiv tril — see (8) biloh. 

Dhu kombinaishun ng iz ubrijd too n* bif6hr ^ un ^, az firCgur^ 
think^ distin^lct. Hwen g folo'z w, u heifun iz insiirted, az in-grohs. 
Similurly long aA, oh ar ubrijd intoo short a', o\ 

Hwen uv three leturz in sukseshun dhu too fiirst, und aulso' dhu 
too la'st, meit form u kombinaishun in dhu skeem, silekt dhu too 
fiirst, unles lidherweiz direkted bey u heifun; dhiis, reeul^ eideeu^ 
seeing^ seeur^ wooing^ woour reprizent ree-ul^ eidee-u^ see-ing^ see-ur^ 
woo'ing^ woo-ur^ un not dhi lin-In'glish re-eul^ eide-eu, se-eing^ se-eur^ 
wO'Oing^ wo-our. 

In speeking uv dhu leturz, dhay huv dhur e\\2ibxLl (^\vxL<&^n\^^ ^S&^- 
betik naimz, and in dikshunuriz dhur o\\V4. otAxa \ m Xfe^^Ssox^ \R5?^ 
reed, eech kombinsMixm riseevz its £o'ii4\\kNA«w. 


SHORT egza'mplz (furnishing u kee too dhu skeem). 

Voueh und Difthongz. 

1) Long or Meediul Vouelz: hee heed hetr^ hay (or haiy) hait pah\ 

fahdher pahni part^ haul haw .sffcfft^ ahoh (or shohw) hoht hohr^ 
d'lfuhring^ pool poor = ((bee bead beer, bay bait pair, father 
palm part, haul haw short, shew boat boar, deferring, pool 

2) Breef Vouelz, not riin 6n too dhu folo'ing konso'nunt: kwolity^ 

aiorta^ Cheina* (pidantik for Cheinu\ august, zo^oWjy^ oho^leit^ 
eide'eu^ iAi^ooe/i5= ((quality, aorta, China, august, zoology, oolite, 
idea, influence)). 

3) Stopt Vouelz, riin on too dhu folo'ing konso'nunt : nit^ net^ nat^ 

gras (aulso* pro'nounst gras^ grahs)^ not^ nut waulnut (waunut)^ 
<7//Mc/= ((knit, net, gnat, grass, not, nut walnut, good)). 

4) Slim Diftliongz : heit hey heying^ hoy hoyish enjoid^ now ulowuns 

uhont^ meat new rinewul euth ew^ haiy^ hohw = {(b\%e buy buying, 
boy boyish enjoyed, now allowance about, mute new renewal 
youth you, bay, bow)). Dhu too la'st wiirdz haiy^ hohw ur heer 
ritn widh dhu difthon'gul form hwich dhay euzhuly (euzhewuly) 
useum ut dhi end uv u klauz, und hwich sum orthohipists rek- 
ogneiz evury hwair. Uz u jenurul rool ey reit hay^ hoh^ hwich 
MAY siirtinly aulwez bi sed. Dhu letur r aulso' pro'deusfez dif- 
thongz in heer heering^ air airing^ pohr pohriag^ poor poorur^ 
hwich must bi lindurstiiud tu meen heeu heeun'ng^ aiu aiuring^ 
pohu pohuring^ poou poouru = ((hesT hearing, air airing, pour 
pouring, poor poorer)); biit dhu latur formz ar not udopted, 
bikauz dhay wuud not bi sufishuntly sujestiv tu Nomik reedurz. 
Dhu kombinaishun n', see (9), indikaits u strong tril, un diiz not 
pro'deus dhis efekt, az Skoch weeiTy^ wairry^ weirry ((weary, 
wary, wiry)), very difurunt from In'glish weery^ waiiy^ weiry, 


5) yet^ wet hwet^ weel hweel^ heity udhur nd'heer^ eethur jMt^hous^ hishiip 

mis^hdp = ((yet wet whet, weal wheel, height, other adhere, ether 
pothouse, bishop mishap)). 

6) pee hee, toh doh, chest jest, kain heil van^hwish, gain geil lan^gwish = 

((pea bee, toe doe, chest jest, cane chyle vanquish, gain guile 

7) feel veel, thin dhen, seel zeel, vishus vizhun — ((^ee\ veal, thin then, 

seal zeal, vicious vision)). 

8) reed raid raw roh roo, eer air ohr poor, part short shurt, tary sory 

hwi^, stahry glohry puhring = ((reed raid raw roe rue, ear wr oar 
poor, part short' shirt, tany sorry hurry, starry glory purring)), 
el, 7num, nun, sing singur fin^gur xrCk distinkt^ unkleen wi-grditfuul 
= ((elly mum, none, sing smgex Biug^t \r^(ii'a1imc\.^\«tf3i^a3^ 


For en Soundz, 
Foren Wurdz in koostant eus, but not yet fuuly iukurpuraited, uud Foren Naimz, 
rikweir ua uproksimet reprizentaishuii. Dhu short voiielz i, f., a\ o, o\ u, uu, 
may bi taikn az sofishontly klobs tu dliu foren souudz, for untraind In'glish 
orgunz uv speech, u riplaising French iueuto*-guturul und Jiirmun feinul ((e)), 
uz (de petit, ruhe)) lu-pH, roou (dhn Htl wun, rest). Dhn long ohpn Italyun 
(( e, o », French (( & )), may bi ae, ao if dizeird, uz (( f^te, uomo )) faift, waomo* 
(feest, man). Dhu French ((u, eu)), Jurmun ((ue ui ii, oe ce d)), may bi ue^ oe 
hwen long, and ui, ce hwen shoi-t, uz « iiber hiille, Groethe bdcke )> uehur huilu, 
Goetu boeku (ohvur, kdvur, Goetu gohts). Dhu French difthongz ((ui oei)) wil 
bikum »ty ceyt uz (( huitres, coup d'ocil » uiytr^ kuu d-oey (oisturz, gla'ns uv ey), 
und French (( ou, o )) in difthongz may bi ritn «?, uz (( oui trois fouettes jjo^Ie )> 
wi tnoahfwaH pwahl (yes three hwips stohv). Dhu fohr French uaizulz may bi 
reprizented bey tN aft os «n, dhu smaul kapitul beeing euzd aulso' amuug italiks 
und laij kapitulz, und ritn az n widh its sekund strohk diseuding ( v ), az in ((uu 
homme vend de bon vin )) van om vas-d bon vim (u man selz guud weiu) ; but 
hwen dhn hohl wurd iz in smaul kapitulz, eiiz dhu loliur kais n, uz (( chantons 
enfans!)) SHAnTOnZ AnFAn, suAuTonz AUFAn (let us sing childrefi). Dhu 
too guturul konso'nunts in Jurmun ((loch licht, tage eiiiige)) bikuin kh^ ghy uz 
lokh likhty tahgha einighu (hohl leit, daiz sum). Italy uu ((gn, gl)) in ((sogno 
soglio)) ar sufishuntly rendurd bey ny ly^ uz taonyo* saoiyu* (dreem sect). Dhu 
strong foren tril iz rr az in Spanish, dhus (( hierro came )) yerro* kcCrme (eium 
meet). Dhu pohst-apiraited ludyun mid Eij'ish-In'glish leturz ar best indikaited 
bey dhu hahf aspiret ( * ), uz t*eim fur t*ay (teim fur tee). Hwen nohn in 
Arabik naimz, italiseiz dhu pikeuliur h k, t d, s z, und mark *ein bey uu upos- 
tro'fy, uz MooAummud 'Ahlee (( Mehemet AH )). Dhi objekt iz meerly tu giv un 
intelijibl, not a striktly akeuret, pro'ndnsiaishun uv foren wurdz insidentuly 

Test Parugrdf uv dhi Usohsidishun^ in dhu prezunt Orthogrufy und 


Heer un dhair u few In'glish wiirdz may bi found in dhu euzhewul 
(euzhul) orth6grufy, hwich leev noh room fur dout az tu dhair pro'- 
nunsiaishun. But dhis iz kweit eksepshunul. Yet wi ur shoor dhut 
our speling wuz o*rfjinuly fo*netik. It iz now pro'pohzd tu riviirt 
tu dhat prinsipl. Biit u divizhun uv o'pinyun huz urizn az tu dhu 
mohst seutubl leturz too employ. Dhu folo'ing* viirshunz uv dhis 
staitmunt shoh dhu naiteur (naichur) uv such uv dhu vairius pro'- 
p6hzulz aulredy maid uz kuud bi kunveenyuntly printed, eech uz far 
uz wuz posibi in dhi orth6hipy uv its authur. In soh short u paru- 
gra'f ohnly dhu cheef points kuud bi inklooded, but dhi alfubetik 
law iz jenuruly kleer, un dhi ey wil bi aibl tu jiij prity wel hwot dhi 
upeeruns wuud bee in printed buuks. Meny planz involving rahdhur 
inaksesibl teips had tu bi ent^irly pa'st bey. Hens dhu chois maid 
diiz not impley u vurdikt. Dhi Egz^keutiv Kumity wil sil^kt siich 
methudz uz dhay may thin'k rikweir lon'gwr \l\\atm%\iNfli, "^\sc"SxJ. - 
gii/ih Speling Rifdrm Usohsiaishun az u \3o4j \l \iO\. ^^'^^v^si^ V^ 
eajr wda av dbeez skeemz. 





Fundamental Prinsipl ov dhe Skeem, 
Dhe simbol for eech recogueizd sownd iz dhat leter or deigraf by 
which dhat sownd iz reprezented ofenest in dhe curent speling : dhe 
simbolz for sowndz not now reprezented too be in harmony widh 
simbolz for relaited sowndz. 


In a siatem ov reformd speling intended for scool and jeneral ews 
in dhe British Eilandz — too say nuthing ov English -speeking peepl 
everywher — dhe standard ov pronunsiaishon it iz considerd shwd be 
EWKiFORM. Wher dicshonariz and awthoritiz difer, or wher dhe 
pronunsiaishon iz dowtfwl or obskewr, dhat indicaited by dhe prez- 
ent oi-thografy iz preferd. 

Children wud be tawt at ferst dhis stif and formal pronunsiaishon, 
which in teim wud be toend down and rownded of bey practis and 
imitaishon ov gwd speekerz. Simbolz can at best indicait jenertc 
sowndz ; dhe spesific or feiner shaidz can oenly be lernt by eer. 

Dhe Alfabet. 


Kee Wordz. 


Kee Wurdz. 
















ail^ may 
awl, lawn, 







hih [milky 







cork, ken, 



01, oy 

oil, boy 






awl, howl, how 





















eider, eye 






















pity, yet 
jam , 



we, pwt 


Noet 1. — Dhe leterz ov a deigraf, when sownded separetly, ar 
diveided by a dot, dhus : — -pothook^ shoi^hand ; misrhap^ diskarten ; 
«w*^«{/i enrgraft ; reenter^ co'operait^ re'iterait^ co'tnsidens^ go'ing, 

2. — Y iz ewzd for t at dhe begiiiing and at dhe end ov wurdz, and 
in formativz from wurdz endmg in y, az play^ plcy^i plc^yd^ playing, 

Acsent RooL 

Dhe acsent iz on dhe/er«i silahl in eech wurd unles udherweiz 


{In strict acordans widh dhe Alfdbet and Noets.) 

Bey dhe fonetic alfabet a cheild may bee tawt dhe art ov reeding, 
not flooently but wel, boeth in fonetic and in ordinary bwcs, in thi-ee 
munths — ^aay, ofen in twenty owrz ov thuro instnicshon, — a tasc 
which iz rairly acomplisht in three yeerz ov toil bey dhe oeld alfabet. 
Whot faadher or teecher wil not gladly hail and emestly wurc for 
dhis grait boon too edewcaishon, dhis powerfwl masheen for dhe 
dif ewzhon ov nolej ? 

Heer and dher a few Engglish wurdz may bee fownd in dhe 
ewzhwal orthografy, which leev noe room for dowt az too dher pro- 
nimsiaishon. But dhis iz cweit ecs^pshonal. Yet wee ar shoor dhat 
owT speling woz orfjinaly fonetic. It iz now propoezd too revert 
too dhat prinsipl. But a divizhon ov opinion haz arizen az too dhe 
moest sewtabl leterz too employ. Dhe folo-ing vershonz ov dhis 
staitment shoe dhe naitewr ov such ov dhe vairiuz prop<5ezalz awl- 
redy maid az cwd bee conveeniently printed, eech az far az woz 
posibl in dhe orth6eepy ov its awthor. In soe short a paragraf oenly 
dhe cheef points cwd bee inclooded, but dhe alf abetic law iz jeneraly 
deer, and dhe ey wil bee aibl too juj prity wel whot dhe apeerans 
wud bee in printed bwcs. Meny planz, inv6lving radher inacsesibl 
teips, had too bee enteirly past bey. Hens dhe chois maid duz not 
impley a verdict. Dhe Ecsecewtiv Comitee wil select such methodz 
az dhay may thine recw^ir longger ilustraishon. Dhe Engglish 
Speling Reform Asosiaishon az a body iz not responsibl for eny wun 
ov dheez sceemz. 


Rooh ov Tozishon, 

In dhe practiraJ tourking ov dhis Skecin, it \t sigeHted dliat a few Koolz fur Pozisbon 
may be adopted widh advantej, in acordans widb Priiisiplz 2 and 3, dbat every sownd 
sbwd be reprezented by dhe saim siuibol in dhe saiin pozishon, and v>ee v^rsd, and in 
order too meet moer fwly dhe condishonz in Prinsiplz 4 and 5, dhat dhe new speling 
ahwd asist dhe leriier in acweiring dhe oeld speling, and dhat dhe new speling shwd be 
lejibl too prezent reederz. Dhe foloing ar submited. 

\, K \z ewzd for e befoer e, >', and y, and at dhe end ov monosilablz : ken, iin, 
m*fk, milkif. 

2. Monosilablz leik my, hlftfy (ior^^)) &<:• ar ewzd az contracted fomiz for mejf, 

8. Monosilablz leilc 3/?, he, me, te (see), ar ewzd az contracted formz for bee, 
hee, mee, see, &c. 

4. At dhe end ov wnrdz e iz omited after o in wurdz leik/o^, roe, hoe, &c. 

5. Befoer e and k, g Sr. omited in wurdz leik aneor, ink, &c. Awlso dhe second g 

iz omited in wnrdz leik England, longer, &c. 

6. Z* iz rctaind for dhe ferst personal pronown. Would =u)ud, 

{Az intended for Scool Bwks,) 

By dhe fonetic alfabet a cheild may be tawt dhe art ov reeding, 
not flooently but wel, boeth in fonetic and in ordinary bwks, in three 
munths — aay, ofen in twenty owrz ov thuro instriicshon, — a task 
which iz rairly acomplisht in three yeerz ov toil by dhe oeld alfabet. 
Whot faadher or teecher wil not gladly hail and ernestly wurk for 
dhis grait boon too edewcaishon, dhis powerfwl masheen for dhe 
difewzhon ov nolej? 

Heer and dher a few English wurdz may be fownd in dhe ew- 
zhwal orthografy, which leev no room for dowt az too dher pronun- 
siaishon. But dhis iz cweit ecsepshonal. Yet we ar shoor dhat owr 
speling woz orijinaly fonetic. It iz now propoezd too revert too 
dhat prinsipl. But a divizhon ov opinion haz arizen az too dhe 
moest sewtabl leterz too employ. Dhe folo'ing vershonz ov dhis 
staitment sho dhe naitewr ov such ov dhe vairius propoezalz awlredy 
maid az cwd be conveeniently printed, eech az far az woz posibl in 
dhe orthoeepy ov its awthor. In so short a paragraf oenly dhe cheef 
points cwd be inclooded, but dhe alfabetic law iz jeneraly deer, and 
dhe ey wil be aibl too juj prity wel whot dhe apeerans wud be in 
printed bwks. Meny planz inv61ving radher inacsesibl teips had too 
be enteirly past by. Hens dhe chois maid duz not impley a verdict. 
Dhe Ecsekewtiv Comitee wil select such methodz az dhay may think 
recweir longer ilustraishon. Dhe English Speling Ref6rm Asosiai- 
shoD az a body iz not resp<Snsibl for eny wun ov dheez skeemz. 

Printed by W, R. Evans, 3 Gloucester Street, C^jieew %Qj!a»se,\jo\i^w^^ .^A %sA. 
Published by 1\ Pitmati, ^0 ^^itenvo^tex^o^,^.^. 




{Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association!) 

No. 19— Vol. II.] MARCH, 1882. IPnce One. Fenny 



Broad Romic aims at symbolizing phonetically the distinctive 
sounds of educated English : 

1) by providing each distinctive sound with a separate symbol, 

and associating one sound with each symbol ; 

2) by using as few arbitrary symbols as possible, similar sounds 

being denoted as far as possible by similar symbols. 

Distinctive sounds are those which are associated with differences 
of meaning. Thus the minute difference between the vowels in 
"man" and "men" is distinctive, and therefore expressed in Broad 
Romic by «, e ; while the much more marked difference between 
the broad Cockney diphthong in " time" and its more refined pronun- 
ciation, not being distinctive, is left unmarked, both being written ai. 

The practical test of a phonetic system is, that it can be written 
from dictation without spelling lessons when once the values of the 
elementary symbols are learnt. A system which, for instance, writes 
" farther" different from " father," even when both writer and reader 
pronounce them identically alike, requires to be supplemented by 
spelling lessons, and is therefore unphonetic. In Broad Romic both 
the words are written phonetically /aac^Aa. 

But it is possible for two different systems both to satisfy the 
above requirement, and yet for the basis of the one to be more pho- 
netic than that of the other. Thus a system in which long vowels 
and diphthongs are denoted by combinations or modifications of the 
letters denoting corresponding short vowels must be easier to learn 
than one in which the correspondence is contradictory. A system in 
which two such symbols as e and ee denote totally dissimilar sounds, 
while two closely related sounds are denoted by perfectly dissimilar 
symbols, as i and ee, e and az, is on an unphonetic baa\a.^\iQ^^'^^3t 
strictly" phonetic its application of its e\emeivtar^ s^t£^c5v.^ xascj \i!^ 
In actual use. In Broad Romic the two \aat gcoxv^ ol ««a\«c %avM\^ 


are represented by the similar symbols i and ry, e and ei, the digraphs 
representing accurately the diphthongs they stand for. 

The formation of a plionetic alpliabet practically involves a more 
or less complete return to the original Roman values of the letters 
(whence the name Romic\ which at the same time involves an 
approximation to the general Continental values. 

Although in English the original values of the letters have been 
partially obscured, they are still preserved to such an extent that 
any attempt to form a practical phonetic alphabet even on a purely 
English basis absolutely necessitates their restoration. Thus the i 
of " fill " still retains its Roman value so completely that it is the 
only available symbol of the sound it represents, and it would be as 
impossible to write /e^ for '' fill " with the same vowel as in "' feel " 
as it would be conversely to write buud for " bird " on the ground 
of its vowel being the long of that of "bud." The pairs ''pin" and 
" machine," on the other hand, show that it would be perfectly prac- 
ticable to express the latter vowel by some modification of the for* 
mer, as is done in Broad Romic i and iy. The " retention of English 
values," in its popular meaning, really means nothing but the reten- 
tion of UNPHONETic English values. 

But the original Roman alphabet requires supplementing for En- 
glish. This can be done 1) by digraphs, such as c?A, 2) by turned 
letters, such as a, and 3) by new letters, such as /. 

The form of Broad Romic here described is that which excludes 
new letters, utilizing as many of the existing letters as possible, and 
as phonetically as is practically convenient. 

No capitals are used, thick (clarendon) letters being substituted, 
when required. Vowel length is denoted by doubling, ae being 
written instead of aeae^ and ao being formed by analogy. 

The following are the vowel -symbols, those in parentheses being 
optional substitutes for turned letters, or abbreviated spellings : — 
B (I) (a) : wvn^ one ; asdvlt^ adult 
aa (a) : (2) aa, ah, are ; hxiad^ hard ; baariq^ barring 
8B : hset^ hat ; ksetdrsekt^ cataract 
aeo (eo) : hcied^ hair ; faead^ fared ; hriklaeo^ bricklayer 
ai : flai^ fly ; Aata, higher 
ao : lao^ law ; Ixiod^ lord 
aoa (09) : faod^ four ; paoai^iq^ pouring 
au ; hau^ how ; how/j^und^ compound ; ai^, hour 
e ; hed^ head ; in^eld^ msect 

ei; ^^;e^^, weight; A;»ltiveit, c\i\twaV.^\ Ici^A^"^^'^ 
(1) Wntten v, (2) a caivtvoi \>e xxsf^^ fet oa ^w\«aa t> \^ xsJcwas^ 


9 (ob) : nsesh9n9ly national ; gaedkdvd^ gatherer 

oa (oe) : hddd^ bird ; yuwnivdds^ universe 

i : jpiti^ pity ; wikid^ wicked 

iia (io) : hiid^ hear ; niiali^ nearly 

iy : fiyl^ feel ; kliyk^ clique 

o : not^ not ; kwtdlog^ catalog 

oi : oi7, oil ; boid, buoyed 

ou : nou^ no ; folou^ follow ; lou9^ lower 

u : ful^ full ; vaslyu^ value 

UU8 (ua) : jpuv3^ poor ; sainihyuv>9^ sinecure 

uw : fuwl^ fool ; eksihyuwt^ execute 
The following consonant-symbols require specially to be noted, 
the forms in parentheses being optional expansions : — 

c (tsh) : cm, chin ; cddc^ church 

dh : "dhen^ then ; dhidJw^ thither 

j (dzh) : joi, joy ; jr^, judge 

q (ng) : siqiq^ singing ; fiqg9^ finger ; iqJci^ inky 

sh : fish^ fish ; menskdn^ mention. 

th : thin^ thin 

zh : plezkd^ pleasure ; venzhsns^ vengeance 

wh : when, when 

y : yuw, you ; kyuw, cue 
The other consonants have their ordmary values : i, d^f, g (always 
hard). A, k, I, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, z, x may be used for ks, 

T is only written when pronounced as a consonant: rvn (run), 
riidriq (rearing), f(mr aof{faT off). Where pronounced as a voice- 
murmur, it is written d : riidd (reared), taidd (tired), lou9 (lower). 
Where not pronounced at all, it is not written : kaad (hard), faa 
(far), laod (lord). 

Stress is marked by a point before the element upon which it 
begins, as in hi- gin (begin), dh'straskt (abstract). (1) Stress need not 
be marked when it is on the first syllable of a word. 

The above exposition shows how Broad Romic works in its appli- 
cation to Southern English. The representation of Scotch, Irish, 
and Northern English pronunciation would require certain modifi- 
cations, such as — 

1) the writing of r before consonants and finally : hard (hard), 

fardkdr (farther) ; 

2) ii for ty, and uu for uw : fill (feel), fuul (fool) ; 

3) ee for a, and oo for ou : see (say), noo (know). 

(1) I formerly put it after : the change Yfaa sw^^e^VAftiV^ ■^x,"^ »\a^^ . 


Even in representing Southern English, the pronunciation of the 
great majority of educated speakers would oblige us to substitute 
w for wh in wot (what), &c., to introduce a hiatus-filling r in such 
combinations as indiar aofis (India OflSce), and would necessitate the 
admission of a number of optional variations in individual words. 

With the help of new letters Broad Romic might be made consi- 
derably more phonetic than is possible, or at least practically conve- 
nient, when we are obliged to make the best of a limited number of 

I would suggest the following improvements in this direction : — 
Substitution of ^ d for th dh^ j 3 for sh zh^ and g for n^, which would 
involve tj for c, and ds for^, and allow j*' to resume its proper value of 
y in '• you." y would then be available for French w, the German d 
(French eu) being expressed by ce when short, 0^ when long, parallel 
to «, ae. In my German Broad Romic (see Handbook of Phonetics) 
I use X for German ch in acA, c for G. ch in ich^ and there is no 
reason why these values should not be made general. With the help 
of a few other letters we should be able to spell most foreign words 
with considerable accuracy. 


Test Paragraph of the Association in simple Broad JRomic, 

hilar on dhaear 9 fyuw iqglish woodz mei bi faund in dho yuwzhual 
ao'thogrofi, whic liyv nou rum fo daut sez to dhaea pran-Bnsi'eishan. 
bat dhis iz kwait ik-sepshanal. yet wi shuua dhat aua speliq waz 
e'rijinali fou-netik. its nau pra-pouzd ta ri'vaat ta dhsBt prinsipl. bet 
a di'vizhan av a'pinyan az a'rizn sez ta dha moust syuwtabl letaz tu 
im'ploi. dha folouiq vaashanz ov dhis steitmant shou dha neicar ev 
SBC av dha vaearias pra'pouzlz aol*redi meid az kud bi kan*viynyautli 
printid, iyc az faar az waz posabl in dhi ao'thouipi av its aotha. in sou 
shaot a pseragraaf ounli dha ciyf points kud bi in-kluwdid, bat dhi 
selfabetik lao iz jenrali kliia, an dhi ai al bi eibl ta j-ej priti wel 
whot dhi a'piiarans ad biy in printid buks. meni plasnz in'volviq 
raadhar inak'sesabl taips hssd ta bi in*taiali paast bai. hens dha cois 
meid d-eznt im*plai 9 vaadikt. dhi ig'zekyativ ka*miti al si-lekt sbc 
methadz az dhei mei thiqk ri'kwaia loqgar ila'streishan. dhi iqglish 
speliq ri'faom asousi'eishan az 9 bodi iznt ri'sponsabl far eni wvn 
0V dbiyz ekiymz. 





The Alphabet, 

The vowd letters M and (E, and the consonant digraphs, are included in the alphabet, 
^hich contains every symbol to which it woold be both feasible and advisable to apply 
« separate and simple name in practical teaching. 







A a 


a — ah 




M 88 


set — at 

ioWow (2) 

— oh 

B b 


bi — ^be 

(E oe 

subvert (2) 

oet — ut 



chei — chay 



pi — ^pe 

D d 


di — de 

R r 

roar (2) 

cer — ur 



dhi — ^the 

S 8 


65— ess 

E e 

beverage(3) e — eh 



ish — ^ish 

F f 



T t 


ti — ^te 



gei g-ay 

TH th 


ith — ith 

H h 

Ae, wAet {Aioei) hei — hay 

U u 

CVJQ^OO (2) 

U 00 

I i 

pity (2) 


V V 


vi — ve 

^ J 


i^— jay 

W w 

wit, qwit 

wei — way 

K k 


kei — ^kay 

X X 


ex — ex 

L I 

little (2) 

el — el 


yet, filial 

yei yay 

M m 


era — em 

Z z 


zi — ze 

N n 

nun. oryerd 

2^)671 — en 



zhi — zhe 

* Distinct powers are indicated by a figure in parentheses ; in other cases, only single 
powers are exemplified, though often by different italicized letters. 

Complete Vowel Scheme, 

The vowel combinations are intended to be spelt out, by naming in succession the 
letters of which they are severally composed, thus either actually expressing (as with m, 
««, ei, ou, aiy au), or readily suggesting (as with ae, ao, fl?r, er), the sounds which 
the digraphs represent. But, for reference and comparison, it may be well to give the 
full vowel scheme, including diphthongs and "vocal r" combinations, as below: — 

1 e 8B 

city c^ll^irage atom 

ii [eh] ae 

seat [ale, area] area 

a [9] 

atone [pap^r] 

aa [oa] 

almond [p^] 
















o o* u 

otter obey cwckoo 

ao oh uu 

aught oral [opal] cool 

iu oi 

tune toil 

ar oer, er or ohr uur 
mar murder morning mourning moor 

aur iur 

soar p«re 

[Bracketed p, ^^ express a pronunciation in which untrilled r is lost, as in d^, dif99 
(differ, defer), 9 being distinguished from a in soufa (sofa). Bracketed eh,^ andoA ixLtl^ 
bracketed example "opal/* represent moiiop\it^oiL^«\. not?^ yel " ^"^^^"^^ >^ -^^^^^ 
bracketed eAr differs from aer nearly as et doea ttOTa. «t."\ 

[No. IQ^Vol II.J \ 


Special Uf^es of certain Symbols. 

Simple a is used only for an obscure aA- sound — in open syllables before the accent of 
a word (as in tapiditiy taplai)y and in both open and close syllables after the accent (a» 
in koma^ komaz^ koman). Practically the same sound is expressed by ce in close sylla- 
bles before the accent (as in toebmO), and by e before a trilled r after the accent (as in 
tuiiierij Auteri). 
, [Normal short a would be expressed by d, as when pdii is preferred to paiut.'] 

[In imitating a spelling in which obscure syllables and words are represented Eke 
distinct ones, a may be osed both for the "atom" and for the "atone" sound, and a 
be then dispensed with.] 

Simple ^, besides the distinct sound in tpent and the above-mentioned obscure sound 
before r, expresses a thinner obscure sound in close and weak syllables following the 
accent, and in the article dhe (as in richezy rented ^ praivet, dhe kotej). 

The sound expressed by the symbol o* is often little more than a rounded or labialized 
obscure sound, especially after the accent, where the dot may be omitted except before 
final z and d (as in po'tenthaly impotent y windo^ windo'z). 

Simple i and », besides their stopped sounds (in distrikty Gudwud)^ represent slightly 
different sounds at the end of unaccented syllables and before final z or d added to such 
syllables (as in penitent y peniz — tenihualy ishud). 

The symbol iu is intended to express a vowel diphthong, in whieh i is generally the 
shorter, and u the longer element, and it is written in such positions as the other diph- 
thongs might occupy (as in imphity konttitiuiy tribiut—WVt invait, expidaity kontrait). 
But when iu is shortened in a weak syllable, by its initial element being consonantized, 
and the other reduced to the time of a short vowel, yu is written (as in impyuteithany 
konstifyuent — W^e invifei^Aany expiidi^tnt). At the beginning of words or syllables^ 
yuu is employed (as in yuutA, mityuuz, traiyvun)y in accordance with the dictum of 
orthoepists that the initial element is consouantized in such positions. 

In M>, [<?Ar,] aery oAr, uur, air, awr, twr, the r represents only a semivocal murmur, 
unless followed by a vowel in the same or a subjoined word, when r indicates its proper 
trilled sound in addition to the murmur (as in apaeranty apaer ov glcevz). 

"With ar and or there is generally little murmur to represent, and with cer less ; but 
r in these symbols marks long vowel-sounds which usually have a distinctive character 
{armZy tort being distinguishable from aamZy saot), and is itself fully pronounced before 
a vowel in a subjoined word (as, tu ^Icer abavC), Before a vowel in the same word, a 
second r is written to represent the trill (as in marring y rikoerringy abAf>rring)y because 
a, a?, o (like », e, ay Oy u) have their ordinary sounds before r followed immediately by 
a vowel (as iu mariiny rikosranty abAnrant). 

Unaccentable vocal er should be regarded as a conventional abbreviation of long vocal 
oer. It not only differs in effect from simple a (as in tarendery adenda)y but involves 
a trilled r before a vowel (as in iar end f ring — sarender «7), e remaining obscure. 

[Trilled r preceded by a normal vowel-sound, as in Scottish pronunciation, may be 
represented by r*, as in parHy hosr'dy pfr\ peAr\ moAr*.'] 

Digraphic letters are divided by a dot, when required to represent their own separate 
powers, as in ri'ifereit^ ko'insident, soro'ingy mirAapy naitAudy ad'Aiiry in'greind. 

Digraphs are similarly divided from a preceding or a following letter with which one 
of their elements might combine, as in miidi'lival^ ko'iival, sii'ingy Auraaringy sao'ingy 
grei'tsAy emphi'ingy [fnvfA'ing, bfstoA'ing."] 

The syllables which / and « make by their own inherent vocality are commonly lost 
before the vowel of kn affix (as in iravly iravfer—shartn^ sAortning) ; but their reten* 
t/on, as in poetry, may be marked by the dlvidiiv^ dol, Wvja — trawl* er, sKoTtuxiig. 



The digraph ng represents simply the guttural nasal (as in singer , kingli) ; therefore, 
when the sound ^ is added, a second^ should be written (as infinggert singgli). The 
combination nk may be regarded as a digraph = ngk. The proper sound of » before k or 
g is shown by the dividing dot (as in in'kcem, in'got) ; but it would be safe to omit the 
dot before a following accented syllable (as in konkcer^ oengreitful). 

X=kt is used only in the syllable ex occurring before consonants (as, extort). 

The following, and perhaps a few other little words, are spelt as unaccented syUables 
when there is no stress upon them; but when they are under any stress, they take the 
second forms given in different type: — a, ae; a», fen; am, eem; and {an), send; at, set; 
as6, sez; bi, bii ; bin, biin; daz, doez ; du, duu; dhan, dhan; dhat, dhfet ; dher, dhaer > 
dhi, dhii; er, ar; ert, art; fer, for; hav, hsev; hast, hfest; haz, hsez; had, hsed; 
her, hoer ; hi, hii ; hu, hnn ; htoer, hwaer ; kan, ksen ; mi, mil ; so, sou ; shal, shsel ; 
shi, shii ; tu, tuu ; wan, woen ; waz, woz ; wer, woer ; wi, wii ; gi, yii ; yu, yuu. 

Ov and./rom, when unemphatic, are considered to have the rounded obscure vowel, 
written by o in this spelling (as renoveit, ween ov eit); but av and f ram, like any other 
imitative spellings, may be used in expressing a specific orthoepy. 

The definite article is dhe {clothest) before consonants, and dhi (worMfer) before 
vowels or when under stress. 

Accent Rules, 

General Rale. — Simple a, o', vocal er, the combination yu, and syllabic / and n, are 
unaccentable ; so also are simple i and u before other vowels. The rest of the simple 
or compound vowel signs are capable of receiving the accent. 

When not determined by the preceding generid rule, nor by the accent-mark ( ' ), the 
stress should be read in accordance with the following rules : — 

A. — In Words of Ihoo Syilables. Examples. 

1. On the final syllable, when this contains Ritrsekt, diskces, eksiid, bihaaf, divoelj, 

a, oe, a vowel digraph, or a vocal r com- 
bination (other than er), and the initial 
syllable has one of the simple vowels, a, 
e, X, o, u. 
2. On the initial syllable in all other cases 
* (unless its vowel be unaccentable). 

B. — In Words of Three or more SyUables. 

1. On the last syllable, when the first syllable 

is in, oen (un), dis, or mis, prefixed to a 
word of the form A. 1. 

2. On the last syllable but one, — 

a. "When this contains a, oe, any vowel di- 
graph, or a vocal r combination (other 
than er)i 

b. When its vowel is followed by sh or zh, 
or by more than one consonant, and the 
word ends in al, an (an, on), ans, ant, 
as (ass, ous, us), iv, or yer (ure) ; 

c. When the word ends in ik-s ; 

d. When in a trisyllabic word the first syl- 
lable is unaccentable. 

3. On the third syllable from the end in other 

cases, except those uuder the next rule. 

4. On the fourth syllable from the end, — 

a. When the second syllable from the end 
does not come under B. 2, and the third 
contains an unaccentable vowel-sign ; 

b. When the word ends in abl-z, abli, ansi-z, 
asi'Z, ensi'Z, eri-z (ery, ary, ory), pre- 
ceded hy a single consonaat-soond, and 

by a simple vowel. 

perhffips, in'kluud, bifaol, embaam, 
kruseid, dispouz, konfaid, sermaunt, 
koufiut, enjoi, siusiir, diklaer, dibar, 
pervoert, ritort, implohr. 
Finish, sebjekt, scervil, fiimeil, fainait, 
(amid, pro'tekt, permit, dyuet.) 

Indiskriit, inegzsekt, oenbiliif, oenkon- 
scernd, disripiut, disrigard, misper- 
siiv, misadvaiz. 

Egzsektli, diskoever, inhiirant, krieiter, 
impruudant, instaolment, divaatnes, 
konfaiding, pervcersli, misfortyun. 

Difishant, ofishal, rivizhan, konsistant, 
ripentans, dijestyan, expensiv, kon- 
tiiijant, inventiv, trimendas, instru- 
mental, invidyas, konjektyer. 

Sptezmodik, senjelik, msethimsetiks. 

Apelant, penmisiv, akwital, pro'gresiv, 
fermented, garoted, ko'ketish. 

Indefinit, mouotoni konstityuent, sen- 
tisipeit, kauuterpart, inabiKti. 

Imperativli, korpyulensi, apriishiativ, 
dkiinoreit, vaeri'igeit, intelektyuali, 
P'ebrueri, Jsenyueri, intenshanali. 

Feiverabl, perishablz, inevitabli, hezi- 

Vaa\z, \Tvo%fii\SA, ^w^^Tt%\x,Vw:^'st\, 
ai9Lniom\«t\, ^oTCKsX^xsa., ^ws!2>\KtvL. 



1. — In dhi Orthouipi konsiderd moust sskseptahl and siutahl fer jeneral 

pcehlik yuu8, 
Hiir an dhaer a fiu Ingglish woerdz mei bi faund in dhe yuuzhual 
orthografi, hwich liiv nou mum fer daut sez tu dhaer pro'noensiei- 
shan. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshanal. Yet wi er shuur dhat aur 
ftpeling waz o'ri jinali fo'netik. It iz nau pro'pouzd tu rivoert tu dhset 
prinsipl. Boet a divizhan ov o'pinyan haz arizn sez tu dhe moust 
siutabl leterz tu emploi. Dhe folo'ing voershanz ov dhis steitment 
shou dhe neityer ov soech ov dhe vaerias propouzalz olredi meid az 
kud bi konviinyantli printed, iich az far az waz posibl in dhi orthou- 
ipi ov its aother. In sou short a pasragraaf ounli dhe chiif points 
kud bi inkluuded, boet dhi selfabetik lao iz jeuerali kliir, an dhi ai 
wil bi eibl tu joej priti wel hwot dhi apiirans wud bii in printed buks. 
Meni plaenz inv61ving raadher inaeksesibl taips hsed tu bi entairli 
paast bai. Hens dhe chois meid doez not implai a voerdikt. Dhi 
Egzekyutiv Komfti wil silekt soech methadz az dhei mei think ri- 
kwair longger iloestreishan. Dhi Ingglish Speling Riform Asousiei- 
shan sez a bodi iz not risponsibl fer eni woen ov dhiiz skiimz. 

2. — In dhi Orthoh'ipi exprest hat Mb. Elis in hiz Sajestiv rendeinng, 

Hiir an dhehr a fiu Ingglish woerdz meh bi faund in dha iiizhiual 
(iuzhal) orthografi, hwich liiv noh mum fer daut sez ta dhehr pro'- 
noensiehshan. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshanal. Yet wi er shuur dhat 
aur speling waz orfjinali fo-netik. It iz nau pro-pohzd ta rivoert ta 
dhaBt prinsipl. Boet a divizhan av o'pinyan haz arizn sez ta dha 
mohst siutabl leterz tu emploi. Dha f olo-ing voershanz av dhis steht- 
mant shoh dha nehtiur (nehcher) av soech av dha vehrias pro-pohzalz 
aolredi mehd az kud bi kanviinyantli printed, iich az far az waz 
posibl in dhi orthoh-ipi av its aother. In soh short a pse'ragraf ohnli 
dha chiif points kud bi inkluuded, boet dhi selfabetik lao iz j^nerali 
kliir, an dhi k\ wil bi ehbl ta joej priti wel hwot dhi apiirans wud bii 
in printed buks. Meni plaenz involving raadher inaksesibl taips hsed 
ta bi entairli pdst bai. Hens dha chois mehd doez not implai a voer- 
dikt. Dhi Egz^kiutiv Kamiti wil silekt soech methadz az dheh meh 
think rikwair longger ilastrehshan. Dhi Ingglish Speling Riform 
Asohsiehshan sez a bodi iz not responsibl fer eni woen av dhiiz skiimz. 

[Dhe pozishan ov dhi seksent, in bouth Spesimenz, iz everihwer fikst bai dhe prisiid- 
jng Rnulz, elcsept in dhe fin keisez in hwich dlie mark iz printed. Mr. Elis aknolejez ; 
dhat biz ai, oh ar ofn difthongz, and himself jenerali pro'nannsez dhem az soech ; boet, \ 
to avoid eni ohjekshmi, dhiiz svmbolz ^av '\ATiTeTi^eT^\TL«KA.\\i%Kaxa«a.\»xm^ 
e4, oA ov aur vaoel skiim.] 




Vowels, — The symbols a*, e-, r, o-, w (capitals A*, E-, I*, 0*, U*) 
stand for tbe name sounds of the several letters, except that u' is oo, 
and not the long u as in use. This latter sound is expressed by u ; 
and the sound of a \n father and/a?- by a (capitals U*, A*). 

The vowels a, e, e, o, u are sounded as in pat^ pet^ pit^ pot^ put. 
For the sound of u in hut^ D d (cut from D p), italics D », are used. 

The combinations ar., or are to be pronounced as aV, aur,, unless a 
vowel follows, e.g. art^ arid — orJ, orijin. The combinations ar^ o'r 
are to be sounded as mV, oar^ not as ai.r.^ oa.r. 

Except before r in weak syllables, » is used to represent both the 
sound of u in hut^ and generally any obscure vowel not otherwise 
provided for. 

The symbols er are, in combination, pi-oiiounced as vr^ except a 
vov^el follows, in which case the e and r are separately pronounced. 
The former will be used in weak syllables, and the latter in strong, 
as is done with respect to er and ur in Mr. Ellis's " Dimidian." 

The digraphs au^ ou^ oi are sounded as in laud^ loud^ void. When 
they are absolutely final, aw^ ow^ oy may be used instead. In like 
case (and also before i) y and y may be used for % and v ; e.g. pity^ 
pitying — reply^ replying. 

The digraphs ai and ee may be used for a* and e- in strong sylla- 
bles ; and when the former is absolutely final, or precedes i, ay may 
be substituted for it ; e.g. May^ nay^ stay., staying. 

It is proposed that the word " eye " shall be exceptionally spelt 
ey» The plural would be eiz.^ and the verb "eyed" would be eid; 
and "eying" would be eying ^ following the rule that y is substituted 
for t when the latter precedes another i. 

The words "you" and "youth," and their derivatives, are spelt 
yw and ywth^ &c., and not w' and u'th. 

Consonants. — The symbol N' w* is used for ng before g and k; eg. 
fiwger tov fingger. N* n* may be used for the French nasal sound in 
en, 0/2, an, tin, &c. 

Th th are used for the " voiced " sound of fA, as in THEN, then ; 
and rh th for the "breath" sound, as in FHIN, thin. The new 
forms in these symbols are cut from F f . 

Accent. — Stress is marked by an acute accent. This accent may 
be omitted when the stress is to be laid on ttie ?it^\. s^^"!^^^ ^^ *0c«> 



The objekt which iz saut tu be* obtaind by meenz ov the U'tility 
Alfabet aad the pre'seeding ru*lz iz a graiter rezembluns tu the spel- 
ing now in fashun than iz posibl with an eekwuly konsistunt u's ov 
an alfabet eksteuded by di-grafs meerly or by nu' formz ov ti'ps. 

It iz konseeded that the braiks in the midl ov wurdz ar very dis- 
agreeubl tu eiz akustumd tu the kouipaktnes ov ordinery print. 
Thay ar, houever, ov grait advautej tu the iuraer by so* obviusly 
iudikaiting tlie modifrd sound ov the leter imeedietly pre*seeding 
the braik. The disjointed apeeruns ov the wDrdz kan ov kors be* 
avoided by the u'niform u*s ov di-grafs, az in " poast, moast, eideea 
(i*de-a), euneiting- (u'ni-ting)," or by adopting nu' formz ov sin*gl 
ti'ps. Most pursunz, houever, objekt tu ad tu the number ov leterz 
iFi eny very komun wurdz. Thay ar not satisfi-d with the ashu-rpns 
that on the ho'l the number ov leterz iz not inkreest. 

On the uther hand, the inkonveeniuns and ekspens ov intro'du'sing 
nu* ti-ps tu eny larj ekstent ar very grait. Eventu'uly, houever, nu' 
ti'ps may be* kauld for, and thay kud moT eezily taik the plais ov 
modifid leterz than ov di-grafs. That iz tu say, thair wud be* far 
les disarainjment in printing ofisez, and disturbuns tu the eiz and 
habits ov reederz, in the wun kais than in the uther. 

With refei-uns tu the chois ov simbulz for the soundz ov th it may 
be- remarkt that eny sistem ov reformd speling iz hevily handikapt 
az regardz popu'ler faiver which rekwi-rz the akseptuns ov the spel- 
ingz faadher^ mudher^ hrudher (fa'ther, muther, bruther, in the sti'l ov 
speling now be*ing ilustraited). 

It iz hily probubl that sum reederz wil feel dispo'zd tu say that 
eny sistem iz aulso* hevily handikapt which adopts such spelingz az 
" popu'ler faiver," insted ov " popu'lar faivor." It must, houever, 
be* born in mi-nd that kwestiunz ov ortho-epy ar kwi-t distinkt from 
tho'z relaiting tu the chois ov simbulz. 

The i'de-a ov u'zing the turnd peeriud (•) az a di*akritikl mark iz 
boro'd from Mr. Ellis's Glosik, whair, houever, it iz u'zd, az aulso* in 
Dimidiun, tu indikait stres or emfusis. It iz not intended that the 
dots shal be* u'zd in manu'skript, az modifi*d formz ov egzisting 
manu'skript leterz kan eezily be* eksperimented upon, and ad6pted 
after tri-ul. 

The U'tility Alfabet iz submfted for konsideraishun az a baisis for 
posibl kompromi-z between nu' and o-ld leter skeemz. 




[The following five renderings of one passage all conform to the standard orthoepy of 
Smart's Dictionary as nearly as the different alphabets appeared to permit. The rules 
of each scheme for the use of duplicate symbols have necessarily been literally and 
STRICTLY followed, and deviations from the scheme-maker's usual style of spelling are 
only made in scrupulous observance of his own rules, or in adherence to the orthoepy. 
Of the consonants it need only be said that Smart's hw is allowed to be represented by 
the loh of tliree of the schemes, as virtually expressing the same sound. For the vowel- 
sounds in " rick, reck, rack, rock, ruck, rook," or for those in " peat, pate, palm, pall, 
pole, pool," there was no difficulty in finding the appropriate equivalents in any of the 
schemes, as our orthoepical authority recognises the diphthongal sounds indicated by 
Broad Romic <?£, <?//,>though not those represented by its £y, uio (replaced below by the 
simple- vowel alternatives m, uu). Of the brief vowels. Smart identifies e in "below" 
vnth i in "billow," and recognises the same sound in unemphatic "be, me," &c.; but 
he has distinctive signs for the middle vowel-sounds in " parody, congrz^ent, occapy," 
which have mostly to be represented below by long- vowel symbols. In the diphthongs, 
ai^ ally and oi represent Smart's actual analysis of his own signs " i, ou, oi," while he 
regards the initial element of long and brief diphthongal "u" as always consonantal, so 
that eiiy eWy or w', below, represents his yod (andy^r?). Smart considers that r marks 
"guttural vibration" in " enter = eutur," and in "far, for, fern, furl" (distinguishing 
accented er and ur) ; while in " peer, pare, pore, poor, sire, sour, pure," he recognises 
the interpolation of the natural vowel before r [peur, pa'ur, po'ur, &c.]. Broad Romic 
really represents such distinctions : the other schemes, except Popular English, vary the 
values of r by rules of position.] 


when tun elijibl (aor inelijibl) partiz yu'nait dhem'selvz in dhe mferid steit, dhei er 
prouvorbioli sed tu tai a not widh dheer t^qz whic dhei kaant isn'tai widh dheor tiith. 
dhis shouz dlio popyulor ai*diie ev dhi indisolyu'biliti ev dhe mserij tai, aez proverbz 
jener^li duu shou dhi iner noushenz ev dhe popyules on soushel kwestyenz. dhe skrip- 
tyurel in'j'eqkshen, dhet " e meen shel forseik hiz faadher end hiz m'sdher, end kliiv tu 
hiz waif," siimz nouwheer tu hev im'byuud dhe maindz ev dhe louer aorderz widh haier 
ri'gard fer dhe ko'nyuubiel tai dhen in dhis k'entri. dhe di'voers koert mei juu'disheli 
di'zolv konjngrel yuunyenz, b^t dhe piipl or iiidis'pouzd tu rekognaiz persenz ez truuli 
frii huuz friidem hez bin prou'nauust bai a j«jez di'krii. nou pruudent iqglish wumen 
wud laik tu bi wuud bai e di'voerst mteu. uaor iz dher m«c laiklihud ev dhe komen 
fonks ri'lreksiq in dheer epriishi'eishen ev dhe baindiq neityur ev wedlok whail dhe fiiz 
dhet mBst bi peid bai e syuuter fer di'voers kon'tinyu «nri*dyuust. e*pon auer yuuzhuel 
"iikwel dispen'seisheu ev JBstis" set e hai prais wi mei perhseps ri'lai fer si'kyueriti 
from s«c e*byuus ev dhe laisens ev di'voers ez ^nfaortyunetli siimz tu e'baund in dhe 
yu'naited steits. bai its bii'iq iizi tu bai di'voers dheer, baierz er nretyureli meid moer 
nyuumeres, end dhe popyuler maind iz grredyueli bai est e'genst dhi ould-fseshend fecnsiz 
perpetyueited e'mwqst bs in ri'gard tu dhe sseqktiti ev dhe nispshel tai. 


Hwen tuu elijibl (or inelijibl) pai-tii yunait dhemselvz in dha meerid steit, dhei er 
pro'voerbiali sed tu tai a not widh dhehr tnengz hwich dhei kaant oentai widh dhehr 
tiith. Dhis shoiiz dha popyuler aidiia av dhi indisolyubiliti av dha mserij tai, sez prov- 
erbz jenerali duu shou dhi iner noushanz av dha popyules on soushal kwestyanz. Dha 
skriptyural injcenkshan, dhat " a msen shal forseik hiz faadher and hiz moedher, and 
kliiv tu hiz waif," siimz nouhwehr tu hav imbyuud dha maindz av dha louer orderz 
widh haier rigard fer dha konyuubial tai dhan in dhis koentri. Dha Divohrs Kohrt mei 
juudishali dizdlv konjugal yuunyanz, boet dha piipl er indispouzd tu rekognaiz poersanz 
az truuli frii huuz friidam haz bin pro'naunst bai a joejez dikrii. Nou pruudent Ing- 
glish wuman wud laik tu bi wuud bai a divohrst msen. Nor iz dher mcech laiklihud av 
dha koman fouks rilseksing in dhehr apriishieishan av dha bainding neityur av wedlok 
hwail dha fiiz dhat mcest bi peid bai a syuuter fer divohrs kontinyu oenridyuust. Apon 
aur yuuzhual " iikwal dispenseishan av joestis" ret a hai prais wi mei perhreps rilai fer 
sikyuuriti fram seech abyuus av dha laisens av divohrs az cenforiyimetli siimz tu abaund 
in dha Yunaited Steits. Bai its bii'ing iizi tubal divohrs dhehr, baierz er nsetyurali meid 
mohr nyuumeras, and dha popyuler maind iz grsedyuali baiaat a^enat dhi Qxild.-te>lk3Na^ 
fsensiz perpetjrueited amoengst ces in rigard t\i d\ia &B&\][k\>\\.\ ^n ^^ \!l^^^ca^\s^. 



Hwcn too elijibl (or inelijibi) partiz euneit dhemselvz in dhu marid stait, dhay uf 
pro'verbiuly sed too tey u not widh dhair tungz hwich dhay kaant untey widh dhair 
teeth. Dhis shohz dhu popeidur eideea av dhi indisoleubility uv dha marij tey, az prov- 
urbz jeneruly doo shoh dhi inur nohshunz uv dhu popeules on sohshul k\nrestyunz. Dhu 
skripteurnl injdn'kshun, dhut " u man shid forsaik hiz fahdhur und hiz mndhur, und 
kleev too hiz weif," seemz nohhwair too huv imbettd dhu meindz nv dhu lohur orduFii 
widh heiur rigard fur dhu koneubiul tey dhnn in dhis kuntry. Dhu Divohrs Kohrt 
may joodishidy dizolv konjoogul eunyunz, but dhu peepl ur indispohzd too rekogneiz 
persunz uz trooly free hooz freedum huz bin pro'nounst bey u jujez dikree. Noh proo- 
dent Tn'glish wuumun wuud leik too hi wood bey u divuhrst man. Nor iz dhur much 
leiklihuud uv dhu komun fohks rildksing in dhair upreeshiaishuu uv dhu beinding naiteur 
Uv wcdlok hweil dhu feez dhut must bi paid bey u seutur far divohrs kontinew unri- 
deust. Upon our euzhooul "eekwul dispensdishun uv justis" at u hey preis wi may 
perhaps rilcy fur sik^urity frum such ubeus uv dim leisens uv divohrs uz unforteunetly 
seemz too ubound in dhu Euneited Staits Bey its beeing eezy too bey divohrs dhair, 
beiurz nr nateuruly maid mohr neumerus, und dhu popeulur meind iz gradewuly beinst 
ugenst dhi ohld-fashund fansiz perpetcuaited umungst tis in rigard too dhu san'ktity uy 
dhu nupshul tey. 


Wlien too elijibl (or ynelijibl) partyz ewneit dhemselvz yn dhu maryd stait, dhay nr 
proeverbinly sed too ty u not widh dhair tunirz which dhay caant untey widh dhair 
teeth. Dhis shoez dhu popewlur eideeu uv dhi yndisolewbility.uv dhu maryj ty, az 
provurbz jeneruly doo sho dhi ynur noeshunz uv dhu popewles on soeshul cwestyunz. 
Dhu scriptewrul ynjunjrcshun, dhut *'u man shul forsaic hiz faadhur nnd hiz mudhur, 
und cleev too hiz weif," seemz noewhair too huv ymbewd dhu meindz uv dhu loeur 
ordurz widh heyur rigard fur dhu conewbiul ty dhun yn dhis cuntry. Dhu Divoers 
Coert may joodishuly dizolv conjoogul ewnyunz, but dhu peepl ur yndispoezd too rec- 
ogneiz persunz uz trooly fre hooz freedum huz bin proenownst by u jujez dicree. No 
proodent Yngglish wwmun wud leik too bi wood by u divderst man. Nor yz dher much 
leidyhwd uv dhu comnn foecs rilacsing yn dhair upreeshiaishuu uv dhu beiuding nai* 
tewr uv wedloc wheil dhu feez dhut must bi payd by u sewtur fur divoers continew 
unridew.«t. Upon owr ewzhooul " eecwul dispensaishun uv justis " at u hy preis wi 
may perhaps riley fur sikewrity frum such ubews uv dhu leisens uv divdefS uz unfdrtew. 
nctly seemz too ubdwnd yn dhu Ewneited Staits. By yts beeing eezy too by divoers 
dhair, beyurz ur natewmly maid moer newmems, und dhu popewlur meind yz gradew* 
uly beinst ugenst dhi oeld-fashund fansyz perpetewaited umungst us yn rigard too dhu 
sangctity uv dhu nupshul ty. 


When tu* elijibl (or inelijibi) partiz u*ni*t themselvz in thn marid stait, thay er 
pro'vnr'biwly sed tu ty n not with thair tungz which thay ka'nt unty'with thair teeth. 
This sho'z thi) popu'ler i'deei) i)v thi indisolu'bility dv thu marij ty, az proverbz jene- 
ruly du' sho* thi iner no'shunz dv thu popu'les on so'shnl kwestyunz. Thu skriptu'rol 
inji/nkshun, thut " i) man shul forsaik hiz fa'ther und hiz muther, imd kleev tu hiz 
wi'f," seemz no'whair tu huv imbd'd thu mi'ndz uv thu lo'er orderz with hi'er rigard 
for thi) konu'biul ty thun in this kuntry. Thu Divd'rs Ko'rt may ju'dishuly dizdly 
konjugul u'nyunz, but thu peepl er indispd'zd tu rekogni'z pursunz uz tru'ly free hu'z 
freedum huz bin pro'ndunst by u jujez dikree. No* pru'dent lu'glish wumun vnid li'lc 
tu bi wu'd by u divd'rst man. Nor iz ther much li'kJihud uv thu komun fo'ks rilaksing 
in thair upreeshiaishuu uv thu bi'ndiug naitu'r uv wedlok whi'I thu feez thut must bi 
paid by u su'ter fer divd'rs kontmu' unridu'st. Dpdn our u'zhuul " eekwul dispensai* 
shim uv justis " at u hy pri's wi may perhaps rily*' fer siku'rity frum such ubu's uv 
thu li'sens uv divd'rs uz unfdrtu'netly seemz tu ubound in thu U'ni'ted Staits. By its 
beeing eezy tu by divd'rs thair, bi'erz er natu'ruly maid mo'r nu'merus, und thu popa*ler 
mi'nd iz gradu'uly bi'ust ugenst thi o'ld-fashund fansiz perp^tu*aited umu'ngst i>8 in 
rigard ta thn san'ktity uv thu nupshul ty. 

Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, QyieeTL ^Qivv3W<i,\Asw^wv,^ .^a «A 
Published by F. Pitman, 20 Pa\mio%t«'^w«,^.^. 




{Kot issued by the English Spelling Reform Association!) 

No. 20— Vol. II.] APRIL, 1882. iPrice One Penny 


We have received from " R. H." a multiplex manuscript copy of 
a pamphlet, other copies of which have probably been circulated 
among- members of the E. S. R. Ai As a private note from the in- 
genious and esteemed author requests our notice of an orthographic 
scheme propounded in the pamphlet, and as this scheme may not be 
adequately appreciated from a manuscript exposition, we put before 
our readers a sketch of it, with an illustration of its working in type; 
There are, indeed, two styles of notation set forth by " R. II." — an 
old^ and a new-letter one ; but typograpical necessity compels us to 
Confine our attention to the former, which is designed " for printing 
without new type." 

Our orthographer adopts a seven-vowel scale, as below : — 

Full — ' i* e -er ar <or w u* 

We may learn mark talk so soon 

Thin — ^i e-B a ^ ou 

Wit bet- ter cjln fol- low too 

It will be observed that the approximate long sounds of " -b, a, m '^ 
are marked by adding r, which is used irrespectively of its presence 
in current spelling (as in " fard'-B, w<orl " =father^ wall\ and must, of 
course, be regarded as always mute. No means, however, seems to 
be provided for distinguishing diverse sound in such words as marry ^ 
marring (" mari, mariio* " ?), 5on^, sawing (" s^ri, s^riio* " ?). 

The eighteen consonants 5, c (cat), cZ, /, g (get), A,y, Z, wi, w, ^, r^ 
5, f, v, w^ y^ z are used ea(ih with its most common power ; the forms 
" f " and " 10 " are added for our Union ch and ng ; the post-marked 
letters t\ d\ s', z^ represent Union th^ dh^ sK zh; while wh is used as 
in wheels and cA, gh are both said to be Scotch. Moreover, it seems 
intended to discriminate what are usually known as the breath and 
the voice nasals, the latter having a dot suffixed ; but phoneticians 
familiar with such distinction will be surprised to find it regarded 
as dependent on what are generally considered mute letters of the 
old spelling, as in "cem, cwm* — ^nip, n-vp^ — i':i^\\,^\';i'wi«iV ^^^'^^J^x'^^ 
Intended for come, comh — nip^ Dnieper — fcaiglit^ gnome. ^\\5^T^%^i>2t^ 


to " loait, iD'ftiin," we will only observe, that by getting a W^hmasi 
to say *' fy nghalon, fy ngwlad," our orthogri^her might learn the 
true initial sounds of the breath and the voice guttural nasal, which 
he uses for the simple n heard in knight and gnome. 

After the fanciful distinctions just cited, the reader should be pre- 
pared to find '• R. H" eccentric in various details of orthoepy, as in 
the following specimen, faithfully copied from the pamphlet : — 


Ah, fard-e! Ai am s*ub d'at d'at niu branf of auB Jorjis fevBit 
wud-bain, whif iz grwiio* ni"B d'i post, not far from d'i nwrt' worl 
mi d4 garden, m^st bi sef tu mez^-e ebaut tu* fi-t « moB in leiot' tu- 
de, Bnles scm mishap iz cDceriio', « it haz s^denli Icost its vaital 
euBJi ; fro Ai hav ce^fuli obzwvd its ret wf incri'S ev«ri wi-c d'is 
mwit', and nwted it daun aciuretli on yu« slet, and Ai loai d'at it haz 
ecspi'rienst no veries'«n, bariio* w«ns diuriio- e despcetli anroiiio* in- 
t«val rof coild pcoBiio* ren. 

The same in Union Spelling. 
(Stress determined by rule when not marked.) 

Aa, faadher ! ai am shuur dhat dhaet niu braanch ov aur Jorjez fei- 
verit wiidbain, hwich iz grouing niir dhe poust, not far from dhe north 
waol ov dhe gardn, mcest bi seif tu mezher abaut tuu fiit or mohr 
in lenkth tudei, cenles soem mis'hsep iz okoerring, or it haz soednli lost 
its vaital enerji ; for ai hav kehrfuli obzoervd its reit ov fnkriis everi 
wiik dhis moenth, and nouted it daun aek^'uretli on yuur sleit, and ai 
nou dhat it haz expiirienst nou vehrieishan, barring woens diuring a 
desperetli anoi'ing interval ov kould pohring rein. 

Every reader will be able to form his own judgment respecting 
the comparative acceptability and effectiveness of these two nota- 
tions, apart from practicability in printing. But we must add a few 
words on the last point. The notation proposed by " R. H." really 
has SIX NEW LETTERS (e, B, w, o, 10, f), and these would cost just 
as much to bring into common practical use as any other six new 
letters would. In a notation like Narrow Romic, intended only for 
technical phonetic purposes, inverted types, mingled roman and italic 
types, and Greek or Anglo-Saxon types, may be conveniently used, 
but not mutilated types. It should be known, however, that turned 
letters impede the compositor, and will not "range" in capitals or in 
most kinds of type (MyM luBm) ; while few printers possess Greek, 
and fewer Anglo-Saxon types. As for cut letters (like e, f), these 
are not only impracticable in small print, but would in any case have 
to be bought as 'types first, wouVd co9.t iout eye ^v^ times as much 
more for cutting, and would be spoWed iot oii^m^x^ \xa^ 


Spelling reformers should understand, that when any additional 
literal forms are used, beyond the twenty-six old letters and «, a?, 
even if the innovation goes no further than inverting old letters, the 
new forms would entail new types for practical e very-day printing. 
If this were better known and considered, the labour of devising 
many futile schemes of notation might be avoided, and the difficulty 
be better appreciated of arranging any practicable, effective, and 
acceptable old-letter phonetic spelling. The first study of phonetic 
reformers should be, to fix the most appropriate and advantageous 
uses of the old letters in representing mpdem English sounds, sup- 
plying deficiencies of the common alphabet by digraphs or existing 
marked letters ; so that we may practically represent sound with 
material as available as that used in the current spelling of English 
or other tongues. Of tried and approved new letters (like most of 
Mr. Isaac Pitman's) we have an ample supply ; but the difficulty is 
to get even such letters into practical use, without wasting time 
and energy over innumerable proposed new literal forms, the inade- 
quacy of which for ordinary use is apparent at a glance to an expert 
in phonetic writing and printing. 


A FlU moenths agou wi pikt oep a praiz at a bukstaol, in dhe sheip 
ov an sBntfik Ingglish Grsemer ritn in Portyugiiz, bai ween Jacob de 
Castro. Dhe taitl-peij ov dhe buk bohr nou deit, boBt obvias intoer- 
nal evidens shoud at woens dhat it waz poeblisht abaut dhe midl ov 
laast sentyuri. Hwot geiv dhe volyum speshal vselyu in aur aiz 
waz an intro'doekteri chaepter on pro'noensieishan, in hwict merii 
Ingglish woerdz wer entairli or parshali repriz^nted akording tu dhe 
vselyuz ov leterz in Portyugiiz. Az in dhset leenggwej aol dhe vauel 
leterz hsBv dher normal Rouman saundz, wi thaot it mait afohrd 
bouth interest and instroekshan tu egzeemin Castro'z trasusliterei- 
shanz. Dhe pro'noBUsieishan hi ment tu expres waz dhaet in yuus 
fohr jenereishanz agou, soem taim bifohr pro-naunsing dikshaneriz • 
keim intu voug, tu baias dhe f oraner widh artifishal viuz ov Ingglish 
orthouipi ; hwail dhe poerpas and methad ov dhe traenslitereiter pri- 
kluuded dhe soespishan ov pervoershan thru etimolojikal prejudis. 

In partikyuler, it shud bi rimemberd dhat aur aother rout bifohr 
dhe raiz ov modern fo-netik salens, and hwen Speling Riform waz 
ounli drempt ov bai filosoferz laik FrsBuklin. Yet, in hiz wei, Castro 
saplaid hiz argyument in feiver ov a riikonstitiushan ov Ingglish 
orthografi. Dhi oupning paesej ov hiz buk, «Aid i^T\i'!K^ ^fck <^nxsJ^. 
WAD in hwich hi riliivz dhe draines ov \i\7» acsJo\^KX) ^^^\53^ '^'^ 


yuumer, mei bi dhoes renderd : — •' Dhi Ingglish not ounli rait in 
woeii iniener, and rii<i in ancBdIier, boet mohrouver dhei dount spiik 
sez dhei riid, or lez dhei rait, boet in a veri heisti faeshan, dhat yuuni- 
voer^ali priveilz ainoeng dliem ; dhe hwich widhaut daut kaozez greit 
harmoni tii foranerz.'** Dhis aospisbas intro'doekshan iz folo'd bai 
a triitis ov twenti smaol peijez, in hwich dhi aother oenderteiks " tu 
express dhi Ingglish selfabet in Portyugiiz stail, az wel az dhe vauelz, 
silablz, difthongz, trifthongz, ets., widh dher distinkshanz, giving 
dhe moiist aedikwet ruuiz, bai hwich dhe kiurias PortyugTiz mei gein 
a iiolej ov dhe seid laenggwej." 

It niid hardli bi sad dhat aur intoerpreter fulfilz ounli a fi-aekshan 
ov liiz promivS. Dhe speis hi aland himself waz oeterii insedikwet fer 
soech an extensiv taask ; hwail hiz stail ov expo'zishan waz koember- 
sam, and hi apehrautli ouverliikt soem ererz ov dhe pres. Dhe moust 
perpleksing fiityer ov hiz speliug iz perhaeps hiz sembigyuas and in- 
konsistant yuus ov dhi akiut aeksent. In meni keisez it siimz riiali 
tu mark dhe sileebik stres, boet in oedherz it iz siupoerfluas or mis- 
liiding if teikn in dha^t sens, and apiirz tu bi intended ounli tu safest 
pikiulia^riti ov saund, az in ^l5 = "axe" (hwich, widh dhe Portyugiia 
vgelyu ov e, reprizeuts aur aeks or ekks) ; hwail in vehrias instansez 
dhe mark siimz tu hav bin kehrlesli or ignerantli mis-pleist bai dhe 
raiter or dhe printer. 

Boot, in spait ov aol shortkoemingz, dhe f closing kolekshan ov dhe 
traenslitei-eishanz prizented bai Castro wil probabli not bi widhaut 
interest, az egzibiting a forauerz indipendant atempt tu render dhi 
Ingglish spiioh ov hiz dei intu a no'teishan soulli intended tu expres 
saund tu hiz koentrimen. Formz laik gled^ eks ( = glad, axe) apiir tu 
indikeit dhi extriim teniuiti ov dhe polait ^-saund ov laast sentyuri ; 
oedherz, laik dag^ hdcs ( = dog, box), dhe difishant rannding ov its o; 
and oedherz agen, laik ^ar^ ( = girt.), dhe braodnes ov its cer. Dhe 
formz ef^ qxierv ( = half, carve) shou dhe tendansi tu atenyueit aa, tu 
hwich a riaBkshan haz sins soeksiided ; hwail dhi expres steitment ov 
Castro, dhat " aol woerdz dhat end in ure saund az Portyugiiz ar^ 
sez nature^ venture^ proceedure^ hwich shud bi red neitar^ ventar^ pro^ 
cidar^" sapohrts Mr. Elisez viu, dhat neityur iz ounli an orthograefik 
pro'noensieishan fer dhi oulder and idio'msetik neiter. Boet perhaeps 
dhe moust keerakteristik iSityer ov Castro'z speling iz dhe rendering 
bai a ov dhe hut saund, az wel az ov dhi oupn obskiur vauel (sez in 
welceaw = nation). Hiz hiiring ov " flood " az^acZ, and ov *^' glad " aa 
gled^ behrz witnes dhat modern fcnetik apriisieishan ov dhiiz saondz 
iz not faunded on afekted ino'veishan ov oeterans. 

* Os Inglezes nao somente escrevem de \i\im thoSlO, eVxa. ^^ Q\i\xQ,\nA&iassihem nad 
Allam como lem, on escrevem, senao pot IwimmoQLO mmi».^\^<i»«3^;^'»'^'o^^^s*^«ak, 
$QtnJ damiaios o que sein 4uvidak causa, gtandje \]k»rmwiaa. *oa Vs»&\^Qi^. 



IngglUh Spelingz* f I 1 Portyugiiz Renderingz, 

Bit tin win gift quick shift ship rich sing Bit tin uin guift qtiic xift xip rich sing 

city bridge kill this wrist giddy finger citi brige kil this rist guitU f ingar 

ginger linger build built guilty physic ginjar lingar bild bilt gilty f izik 

physician begin forgive gypsy condition f izixian biguin ^rguiv gipsi candixiaa 

busy business gizzard winter Christian bizi bizines guizard uintar Kristian 

phthisick phthisical thizik thizicul 


Bed blest length strength rest cell thence Bed blest length estrength rest sel thens 

went guess guest hedge tempt cement uent gues guest hege temt ciment 

debt debtor exempt express gender head det detar eksempt ekspres gendar h^d 

yes yet bread breast gentle merry heavy ies iet bred brest gentil meri evi 

ready ah-eady leopard jeopardy feoffee redi alredi lepard jepardy fefi 

bury [get forget beget] beri [guit farguit biguit] * 

Cat cast can giiat mad lamb catalogue Kat kast kan nat mad lam katelag 

crab glad bag cag gag badge that have creb gled beg queg guegue bege thet ev 

mad fat hat damn ax carry tarry dagger med fet het dem eks qu^ri teri degar 

anger angry example champain Antioch engar engri eksempil xempeiu Entiak 


Accrue apply assure adventure vexation Acru applai axuar adventar veksexian 

physician condition nation determination fizixian candixian nexiau determinexian 

autumn Aaron Canaan perceive gender atain E'ran Keueau parsiv gendar 

debtor letter acre machine Capuchin detar letar ecar mexin Quepuxin 

II ug gum such judge run just dumb flux Hag gam sache jage ran jast dam fldcs 

some blood flood vulgar hunger knuckle sam blad flad valgar hangar naquil 

love loved enough rough young shirt lav laved enaf r6f iong xaart 

girt refer furnish church J^put girl] gart rifar farnix chorche [pat guel] 


Not knot wrong economy economical box Not not "rong economi economical bacs 

dog log dodge lodge cough was want dag lag dage lage caf uas uant 

monarch chronicle condition philosopher manark kraniquil candixian f Uazifar 

geometry geography dialogue catalogue geametri geagrephi daielag katelag 

quality cord short forgive forget quiliti cord xart farguiv farguit 

Sugar good cook could should would to Xugar gud cuk cud xud ud tu 


Seeu meet keep queen knee geese pea pica Sin mit kip quin ni guis pi pli 

sea tea flea clean cease deal veal conceal si ti fli clin cis dil vil concil 

cheap leave meagre field priest inveigle chip liv migar fild prist inviguil 

brief belief believe deceit conceit receipt brif bilif biUv disit cansit ricit 

receive perceive machine people feodary riciv parsiv mexin pipil fidery 

proceedure [yea] fear near appear pierce procidar [ii] fiar niar appiar piars 

cashier chevalier [year] kexiar zevaliar [ler] 

[ EH, EI ] 

Made game cage crazy chaise acre danger Mede guem quege crezi xes ecar denjar 

gaol great they vexation patience saved gel gret the veksexian pexience seved 

nation determination Aaron Canaan hate nexian determinexian E'ran Kenean ^t 

Achara nature pain stain quail rain vain E'kani neitar pein stein queil rein vein 

praise dispraise feign reign champain preiz d\s\it4vL levw teva. tjkos^xsv^ 

Star pair hear tear wear swear care faro ler \iet \>w \At \sjet wsKt ^«t 1«. 

♦ Mrssketed wcerdz in^eit pro-noensieisliaBz tormev^ i\s\\>i^,\ia!X. iim ^x^sx^^a^'^^ 



Laugh psalm yard heart hearken [carve Laf s&m iard hart harkin [querv 

half calf calves bar car] ef kef quelvs ber quer] 


AH tall wall bald scald talk walk law raw Al tal ual bald escald tak aak la ra 
saw gnaw awl crawl broad groat autumn sa na al cral brad grat atam 

audience authority altogether adience atharity altoguethar 

[ OH, OU ] 

Note foe toe cloak boat coat float coast Note fo to clok hot cot flot cost 

ghost comb know more [gold Rome] gost com no mdr [guld Rum] 


Noon move prove shoe accrue bniise frhit Nun muv pruv xu acru brus frut 
recruit pleurisy youth you your yours recrut plurisi iuth iu iuar iuars 

assure insure axuar inxuar 


Pint mind wild bite fine wine shine write Paint maind uaild bait fain nain xain rait 

thine quite guide guile beguile despise thain quait gaid gail bigail dispaiz 

knife knives life lives wife wives high naif naivs laif laivs uaif uaivs hai 

nigh sigh sign design ensign consign nai sai sain disain insain consain 

Isaac dialogue by my thy why apply A'izec daielag bai mai dai ual applai 

deny cypher fire desire dinai saifar faiar dizaiar 


Mouth house mouse rouse doubt ground Mauth aus mans raus daut graund 
thou bounty account cow how now thai! baunti eccaunt can au nan 

[ IU, ETS. ] 

Cube flute huge confute deuce dew few pew Quiub flint iuge confiut dins diiu fiiu piu 
pewter lieu adieu beauty pure [residue piutar liu adiu biuti piuar [residu 

pursue avenue sue proceedure adventure pursu avinu xu procidar adventar 

nature jointure] n^itar jaintar] 

Void toil soil spoil voice joint jointure Vaid tail sail spail vaiz jaint jaintar 

Ounli Spesimen ov Woerdz in Kompo'zishan, 
Sense main av thi 16 instant, ai ev iuars av thi 14 ditto, end rifar maiself tu uat ai 
ev alredy ritin in ensar tu iuar seid letar. This sarves et present tu dizair id tu £eumix 
end pey tu Mistar J. M. tu thi velhu av tu handad paunds, et nan ar m6r taims, ec- 
carding ez hi xal dizaiar it fram iii, teking his bill ar bills av exchenge far uat iu xal so 
farnix him uith end pat it to mai eccaunt, end this mai letar av credit xal be iuar 
saffixient uarant far so duing. 


Mz a not inaproupriet siikwel tu dhi aboev, wi prizent, on dhe tiiu 
folo'ing peijez, renderingz ov dhe Asousieishan'z Test Pseragraaf in 
Yuunian no'teishan akording tii dhe Pro*noensieishan (ndikeited bai 
fohr diferent stsenderd Orthouipists. Taim and kehr hav bin aplaid 
tu meik dhiiz renderingz az feithful az siimd prsektikabl, in ordw tu 
pro* vaid evidens fer fiutyer konsidereishan ; boet at prezant wi ounli 
point tu dhem az egzemplifai'ing dhe kapaesitiz ov Yuunian Speling 
jn expresing veri divoers stailz ov orthouipi. 


Shebidan — A.D. 1780. 

[Sheridan rii>8pelz woerdz bai a simpl and fehrli regyuler no'teishan. Hi, hauever, 
ynnzez biz short a for booth dhe samid in ''canon" and dheet in "canoe," and wii bav 
tn folo him, akording tu a pro'vizhan meid in aor skiiin fer soech a keis. Ov r hi koertli 
rimarks, " Dhis leter aolwez hsez dhe seim saund, and iz never sailant ;** sou dhat, bai 
ancedher pro'vizhan ov aar skiiin, wi htev tu rait r' bwen nou vauel folo'z, bifohr hwich 
r* (or eni r) aol dhe vauel-sainz er sapouzd tu hsev dher normal saundz.] 

Hiir' and dhehr' eh fiu lagglish woer'dz meh bii faund in dhe 
iuzhuel aor'thografi hwich liiv noh ruum for' daut az tu dhehr' proh- 
noenshehshoen. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepahoenel. Yet wii ar' shuur' 
dhat aur' speling woz ohrfjineli [fohnetik]. It iz nau prohpdhzd tu 
rehver't tu dhat prinsipl. Boet a divizhcen ov ohpfnyoen haz arfzn 
az tu dhe mohst siutebl letoer'z tu imploi. Dhe foloh-ing v^r'shoenz 
ov dhis stehtment shoh dhe nehchoer' ov seech ov dhe vehrioBS proh- 
pohzoelz aolredi mehd az kud bii.konviinyentli printid, iich az faar' 
az woz posibl in dhii [aor'thoh-ipi] ov its aothoer*. In soh shaor't a 
paragraf ohnli dhe chiif points kud bii in-kluudid, boet dhii alfabetik 
lao iz jenerali kliir', and dhii ai will bii ehbl tu joej priti wel hwot dhii 
apiirans wud bii in printid buks. Meni planz invaolving rddhoer' in- 
aksesibl taips had tu bii intair'li past bai. Hens dhe chois mehd doez 
not implai a ver'dikt. Dhii Egzekiutiv Koemiti wii sehlekt soech 
methoedz az dheh meh think rehkwair' longgoer' iloestrehshoen. Dhii 
Ingglish Speling Rehfaor'm Asohshehshoen az a bodi iz not rehspon- 
sibl for eni woen ov dhiiz skiimz. 

Waoker — A.D. 1791. 

[Thiio'retikall, dhis orthouipist distinggwishez dhe tun saundz ov a in " canon " aud 
" canoe," and aidentifaiz dhe Iseter widh obskiur o ox u (sez in hiz " kumpus, huzbund, 
stammuk"); beet hi sou komanli yuuzez hiz oun short a inditd^rminetli, dhat wii hav 
tu folo him in aur rendering. Dhi onnli oedher eksepshanal simbal iz dhe fain /r.] 

Hiir and dhehr a fiu Ingglish woerdz meh bii faund in dhe yiu- 
zhiual orthografii hwich liiv noh ruum for daut az tu dhehr prohnoen- 
shiiehshoen. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshoenal. Yet wii ar shiur dhat 
aur speling woz ohrf jiinalii fohnetik. It iz nau prohp6hzd tu riivert 
tu dhat prfnsiipl. Boet a diivizhoen ov ohpfnyoen haz an'zn az tu dhe 
mohst siutabl leterz tuu emploi. Dhe foloh'ing vershoenz ov dhis 
stehtment shoh dhe nehchiur ov soech ov dhe vehriioes prohpohzalz 
aolredii mehd az kud bii konviiniientlii printed, iich az far az woz 
posiibl in dhii 6rthoh'iipii ov its aother. In soh short a paragraf 
ohnlii dhe chiif points kud bii in*kliuded, boet dhii alfabetik lao iz 
jeneralii kliir, and dhii ai wii bii ehbl tu joej pritii wel hwot dhii 
apiirans wud bii in' printed buuks. Menii planz inv6lving radher 
inaksesiibl taips had tu bii entairlii past bai. Hens dhe chois mehd 
doez not implai a verdikt. Dhii Egzekiutiv Komitii wii siilekt soech 
methoedz az dheh meh think riikwair longger iloestrehshoen. Dhii 
Ingglish Speling Riif6rm Asohshiiehshoen az a bodii iz not riisp6n- 
siibl for enii woen ov dhiiz skiimz. 


Smart — a.d. 1836. 

[Dhe vehrias elcwivalent simbalz rikwaird bai Smarts plsen ov daiakritikali marking 
dhe kcerant speliiig hav bin ridiiist, bai dhi asist'ans ov hiz onn "Prinsiplz/* tu ordineri 
Yuunian no'teishan, widh tg and a in dhehr distinktiv yunsez. Smarts apostrofi, haa^ 
^▼er, iz riteind tu indikeit a slait sannd ov i or y in yuuzhu*a/, ets.; aolso hiz erJ] 

Hiir and dhehr a fyuu Inglish woerd2 mei bi faund in dha yuu- 
Kh'ual orthografi hwich liiv nou Fuum fer daiit 8BZ tu dhehr pro*noen^ 
flieishan. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshanal. Yet wi er shuur dhat aur 
speling waz OTijinali fo-netik. It iz nau pro'pouzd tu riv^rt tu dhset 
prinsipl. Boet a divizhan av o'pinyan haz arizn 8BZ tu dhe moust 
syuutabl leterz tn eniploi. Dha folo'ing vershanz ov dhis steitment 
nhou dha neityur (neicher) av soech av dha vehrias pro'pouzalz aolredi 
meid az kud bi konviinyentli printed, iich az far az waz posibl in dhi 
6rtho-ipi av its aether. In sou short a paeragraef ounli dha chiif 
points kud bi inkl'uuded, boet dhi selfabetik lao iz jenerali kliir, and 
dhi ai wil bi eibl tu joej priti wel hwot dhi apiirans wud bii in printed 
buks. Meni pljenz inv6lving raadher (rsedher) inaiksesibl taips haed tU 
bi entairli past bai. Hens dha chois meid doez not implai a verdikt* 
Dhi Egzekyutiv Kamiti wil silekt soech methadz az dhei mei think 
rikwair longger iloestreishan. Dhi Inglish Speling Riform -^ou- 
shieishan sez a bodi iz not risponsibl fer eni woen av dhiiz skiimz. 

Webster-Gudrich — A.D. 1879. 

[Dhis aothoriti rekognaizez dhi a in "canon" az distmkt from dhcet in " canoe,*' 
and indikcits dhe distiukshan bai *&' and cEn-markt 'a* (hiir reprizented bai aur *pe, a*)< 
Dliis *a' iz sed tu bi dhe seim in ordineri spiich az *ii* (aur ce). (Edher speshal fiityerz 
ar f* for dhe former vauel in "d^ise" az distiuggwisht from dlitet in **d/vide," and ef 
for a saund hwich iz sed tu bi aidentifaid widh aer bai meni edyukeited spiikerz.] 

Hiir send dhehr (dhaer) a fiu Ingglish woerdz mei bii faund in dhoe 
yuuzhual orthografi hwich h'iv nou ruum for daut sez tu dhehr pro*- 
noenshieishoen. Boet dhis iz kwait eksepshoenal. Yet wii ar shuur 
dhset aur speling woz o-rijinali fo'netik. It iz nau pro'pouzd tu ri-- 
v^rt tu dhset prinsipl. Boet a divizhoen ov o-pinyoen heez arfzn seZ 
tu dhoe moust siutabl leterz tu etnploi. Dhoe folouing v^rshoenz ov 
dhis steitment shou dhoe neityur ov soech ov dhoe veirioes pro'pouzalz 
aolredi meid sez kud bii konviinyentli printed, iich aez far bbz woz 
posibl in dhi ortho'i'pi ov its aother. In sou short a pseragrsef ounli 
dhoe chiif points kud bii in-kliuded, boet dhi eelfabetik lao iz jenerali 
kliir, send dhi ai wil bii eibl tu joej priti wel hwot dhi apiirans wud 
bii in printed buks. Meni plsenz invdlving rsedher inaksesibl taipd 
hsed tu bii entairli past bai. Hens dhoe chois meid doez not implai a 
verdikt. Dhi Egzekyutiv Komiti wil sM^kt soech m^thoeds sez dhei 
mei think ri-kwair longger iloestreishoen. Dhi Ingglish Speling Ri*- 
form Asoushieishoen sez a bodi iz not ri'sponsibl for eni woen ov dhiiis 

— — - , .1.- 1 I. ■ 

Piinted hy W. R. Evans," 8 Gloucester Street, Qja^^e^ ^^^\5Kc«.,Vwi^^^>^ .^A «o.^ 
Published by F. Pitman, ^0 '^at.mvoftV.w ^w,lL*C,. 




{Not issued bt/ the English Spelling Reform Association.) 

No. 21— Vol. II.] MAY, 1882. [Price One Penny 



The English Spelling Reform Association has now reached a 
stage in its examination of proposed schemes of informed spelling, 
at which it will be compelled to distinguish clearly between ortho- 
graphic instruments and orthoepic applications of them — that is, 
between tools and their uses. It is one thing to supply the means 
of representing all recognised sounds of the English language, and 
quite another to employ those means in expressing received pronun- 
ciation of individual words. Even scheme-makers apply their own 
symbols variously in spelling the same words, or words of the same 
class. For instance, we have seen divergent forms like " ecsckesiv, 
ecscloosiv, ecsclw^iv," all evolved by the propounder of a scheme 
out of an alphabet in which the different italicized symbols had been 
appropriated respectively to the diverse vowel-sounds in " pule, 
pool, pull." If a scheme-maker thus practically asserts his own 
option in using his signs, perhaps according to his passing fancy 
and without any intention of indicating different sounds, he cannot 
reasonably complain if other persons attempt to use his instrument 
for expressing actual varieties of received pronunciation. 

At present, it is not our purpose to enter upon an argumentative 
disquisition in re-^pect to details of orthoepy, and we would willingly 
avoid altogether such a laborious and probably bootless task. The 
question now is, not what orthoepy we shall represent, but whether 
schemes under consideration are capable of writing any particular 
and definite system of orthoepy that may hereafter be adopted as a 
standard. The choice of such a system of orthoepy will have to be 
made after experiments with various systems, and this implies that 
any orthographic scheme selected for really exhaustive trial shall 
be capable of expressing ordmary varieties of orthoepy. Here, by 
the way, we use the word " orthoepy" rather to imply appreciation 
or conception of pronunciation, than simply as a synonym of " pro- 
nunciation " itself, since we are convinced that auditory apprehension 
varies more than vocal utterance, among thosft ^\v.o \vA«t^'9»\, \3^^>si.- 
seJ vea in phonetic matters. 


Considerable experience has made us rather tolerant of WRITTEN 
varieties of orthoepy. After seeing the word " nature ** spelt so as 
to represent the pronunciations neityuur^ neichuur, neitiur^ neichiur^ 
iieityur^ neichur^ tieityer, neicher^ neitya, neicha^ nehtyuur^ nehchuur^ 
nehtiui\ nehchiur^ nehtyur^ tie/ichur^ nehtyer^ nehcher^ nektya^ nehcha 
(Union spelling)— and this in various and discordant notations — we 
have come to think that the difference is here far more one of ortho- 
graphic form than of orthoepic substance. But still we have the 
variety of possible forms before us, and we must make some choice, 
if not in concert as a body, yet each for himself in practising pho- 
netic writing. For our own part, we could be satisfied with any 
one of eight forms out of the twenty given above, and might be able 
to endure any one out of four others ; but we do not care to go into 
particulars on this point. 

What we do wish to impress upon our readers is, that it will be 
naturally expected of any scheme of reformed spelling selected for 
proposed use in schools, that it shall express intelligible and definite 
pronunciation of the language. Writers of school books in any such 
adopted notation will differ as to points of pronunciation, as makers 
of dictionaries have differed before them; but the experience of 
teachers and inspectors will gradually decide the question of the 
best style of spelling, as tested by actual results in the pronunciation 
accjuired by children. But, meanwhile, the means must be supplied 
for making experiments. We cannot shirk the question, because 
whatever we write under the name of phonetic spelling will be con- 
sidered to express some definite pronunciation ; and, moreover, while 
we are making an essay in orthographic reform, we might as well 
write what is, as what is not, heard in speech. 

liCt us only suppose, that, as a compromise between two extremes 
like nehtyuur and neicha^ such an intermediate form as neityer were 
to find general acceptance. Now, it would be clear that to express 
this pronunciation any scheme of notation must be capable of distin- 
guishing the medial sound of y from that of short i. For example, 
the confusion in Popular English of a and y under one phonetic value, 
and the arbitrary restriction of y to the beginning and the end of 
words, or to formatives from words ending in y, would oblige us to 
represent Union neityer by " naitier," which would convey a rhyme 
to Union weitier, Popular English "waityer" (weightier)— the appa- 
rent cross-distinction of i and y in Popular English being due merely 
to an arbitrary spelling rule, and not to the phonetic discrimiuatioo 
which regulates the application of these signs in Union. So with 
" nurtier, paastier " (nurture, pasture), which would inaply rhymes to 
••'durtyer, naastyer;" where Union writes, with phonetic distinctioDy 


noertyer^ paasti/er — dcertier^ naastier. If a scheme can represent with 
certainty nothing between "naitewr" and ''naicher," it restricts our 
choice to two extreme forms, neither of wliich are much favoured 
by dictionary orthoepists. 

We are quite aware that some scheme-makers affect to regard 
their orthoepy — ^whatever it may chance to be from time to time in 
their specimens, or whatever it might possibly be in the thousands 
of English words they have had no occasion to write— as an essen- 
tial portion of their orthographic systems. And it is, of course, open 
to any one to propose the manner as well as the means of spelling. 
If one person chooses to suggest that it would be advisable to spell 
" cumpas, purpos, pompi^s, grampt/5," with the arbitrary distinctions 
of the old orthography partially retained and partially abolished in 
the final syllables, he is within his right ; but his inconsistent con- 
cession to prejudice ought not to operate to the detriment of another 
orthographer, who consistently writes, with Sheridan and Walker, 
" kumpus, purpus, pompus, grampus," but whose alphabet would 
equally allow him to write " kumpas, purpos." So the unphonetic 
" resemblance to the common spelling " which may be obtained in 
the exemplification of one scheme by confusing distinct sounds in the 
final syllables of " ransak, stumak," or of " treipos, purpos," ought 
not to prejudice the specimens of another scheme, whose propounder 
distinguishes the words according to their actual pronunciation, as 
" ransak, stiimuk — treipos, purpus." 

The preceding remarks indicate the puipose we had in view when 
we printed specimens in our March number (pp. 27, 28) of five old- 
letter schemes representing similar orthoepy. To these specimens it 
may now be sufficient to refer, as illustrating the comparative sight- 
liness and suggestiveness of the different schemes when employed 
to express something like speech. As an illustration from a different 
point of view, we now give specimens of two schemes in an artificial 
orthoepy. One of these schemes is stated by its author to be in- 
tended only for writing '• this stiff and formal pronunciation," which 
"children would be taught at first," but which "in time would 
be toned down and rounded off by practice and imitation of good 
speakers." The other scheme is said by its framer to be " capable 
of writhig any orthoepy that may be desired, . . . provided unprac- 
tical and impracticable phonetic exactness be not required." There- 
fore, as it is possible that some members of the Spelling Refoiin 
Association may prefer to represent this " stiff and formal pronun- 
ciation," they should at least have the opportunity of comparing its 
representation by schemes that are generally exemplified in diverse 




1. — In Popular English Spelling^ as stated by the Author of the Scheme 
to be '' in strict accordance with the Alphabet and Notes'* 

Ileer and dher a few Eiigglish wurdz may bee fownd in dhe 
ewzhwal orth6grafy which leev noe room for dowt az too dher pro- 
nunsiaishon. But dhis iz cweit ecsepshonal. Yet wee ar shoor dhat 
owr speling woz onjinaly fonetic. It iz now propoezd too revert 
too dhat prinsipl. But a divfzhon ov opinion haz anzen az too dhe 
moest sewtabl leterz too empI6y. Dhe folo'ing vershonz ov dhis 
staitment shoe dhe naitewr ov snch ov dhe vairius propoezalz awl- 
redy maid az cwd bee conveeniently printed, eech az far az woz 
posibl in dhe orthoeepy ov its awthor. In soe short a paragraf 
oouly dlie cheef points cwd bee incI6oded, but dhe alfabetic law iz 
jeneraly cleer, and dhe ey wil bee aibl too juj prity wel whofe dhe 
apeerans wwd bee in printed bwcs. Meny planz involving radher 
iiiacsesibl teips had too bee ent^irly past bey. Hens dhe chois maid 
duz not impley a verdict. Dhe Ecsecewtiv Comftee wil select such 
methodz az dhay may thine recweir longger ilustraishon. Diie 
Engglish Speling Ref6rm Asosiaishou az a body iz not responsill 
for eny wun ov dheez sceemz. 

2. — In Suggestive Spelling^ representing the same Oithoepy^ as nearly as 

this could be ascertained.* 

Ileer and dher a few Engglish wurdz may bee found in dhe 
euzhwal orth6grafy hwich leev noh room for dout az too dher pro- 
nunsiaishon. But dhis iz kweit eksepshonal. Yet wee ar shoor dhat 
our speling woz orfjinaly fonetik. It iz now propohzd too revert 
too dhat prinsipl. But a divfzhon ov opinion haz arizen az too dhe 
mohst seutabl leterz too employ. Dhe folo-ing vershonz ov dhis 
staitment shoh dhe naiteur ov such ov dhe vairius pi*op6hzalz aul^edy 
maid az kuud bee konveeniently printed, eech az far az woz posibl 
in dhe orthohepy ov its author. In soh short a paragraf ohnly dhe 
cheef points kuud bee inklooded, but dhe alfab^tik law iz jenei-aly 
kieer, and dhe ey wil bee aibl too jiij prity wel hwot dhe apeerans 
wuud bee in printed buuks. Meny planz invdlving radher inaksesibl 
teips had too bee enteirly past bey. Hens dhe chois maid duz not 
impley a verdikt. Dhe Eksekentiv Komitee wil sel^kt such methodz 
az dhay may think rekw^ir longger ilustraishon. Dhe Engglish 
Speling Reform Asosiaishon az a body iz not respdnsibl for eny wun 
ov dheez skeemz. 

* "Dher" is conjectured to have its er pronoanced as in "vershon, revert, verdict,*' 
however that may be. Suggestive provides vocal air for the ordinary English sound 
in "there " or "their," and vocal ur for that in the other three words. 

" Ewzhwal " is taken to have the consonant w, like " cweit, recweir." 

" Which, what" {w being here a vowel) are strictly " uuhich, nuhot " in Suggestive. 

" Pronunstaishon, opinion, vain'us, conveenxently, Asosiaishon." — Popular English 
confusion oft and p prevents distinctive use of the letters in the Suggestive rendering. 
"Fonetic, folo'ing, Comitee, A.ftos\a\a\ion,'* WLem^H'j VJaft ^w^b^IXxVj ^1"P. Eng. o. 
"Orthoeepy " is taken to mean " ortUtf e\>y ," wv^\^ *Q T«\i^«^. 
"Jnclooded, thine'' do not wavvaui l\ie Svvt%eaV\xe ^xfttotXKwi^^'wJi^Q^Aj^HX^^ 



In aur Eipril ishu wiinsidentali meid dhe rimark dhat abaut dhe 
midl ov laast sentyari ounli filosoferz laik Freenklin had yet drempt 
ov a nseshaual speling riform. Boet dhe sageishas aud o'rijinal maind 
ov dhe feimas printer, filosofer, an steitsman kud not konfain itself 
tu simpl driiming in dhis master. Frsenklin, on raeshanal, eko'noniik, 
an soushal graundz, strongli oerjd dhi expiidiensi ov a rsedikal rii- 
konstitiushan ov aur orthografi ; and, laik dhe prasktikal msen dhat 
hi woz, hi put forwerd a plaen ov dhe spesifik kaind ov riform hwich 
hii konsiderd dizairabL Hi aektyuali konstroekted an ortho-graefik 
skiim, and yuuzd it tu soem extent in raiting. Dhat dhis skiim shud 
bi soemhwat kruud an difektiv, iz ounli hwot mait bi exp<^kted, kon- 
sidering hau impoerfektli fo'netik faekts had dhen bin investigeited, 
and hau limited apiirz tu hav bin dhe Dokterz oun woeiking expiiriens 
in dhe maeter. Boet, soech az it woz, wi hiir prizent — 


Vauelz — a 

old folly 



e I 

men did 
name d^^d 

u M 

fool unto 
rule -er 

Konsonants — h g k 
^igh ^ive iE-eep 

S Z i) 
etsevLce wage« Mink 


ij n r 

lo/7^ end art 

f V b 
^ect ever ^s 

t d I 

^eeth deed tell 

p m 

peep ember 

It wil bi siin dhat Fraenklin rekognaizd twenti-siks simpl voukal 
eliments, or joBst az meni az dher ar leterz in dhi ould eelfabet ;* boet 
ov egzisting leterz hi rijekted c, q, ?/, w az diupliket an siupoerfluas 
sainz, hwail diskarding^ and x az severali reprizenting tiiu eliments 
in kombineishan. Hens hi hsed tu intro'dius siks niu leterz — ^tiiu fer 
dhe vaueUsaundz in "not, nut," an fohr fer dhe konsonant-saundz 
exprest bai Yuuniah sh^ ng, th^ dh. Thrii ov hiz niu konsonant leterz 
(hwich it wud bi tuu troeblsam tu imiteit widh taips biyond dhi eelfa- 
betik egzaemplz) er litl mohr dhan diferant modifikeishanz ov ^, and 
er niirli az impraektikabl az hiz 'a' (fer hwich wi moest els'hwehr 
print 't)' or 'o'). Tu Fraenklin, hauever, apiirz tu bilong dhe kredit 
ov hseving invented y and y. 

Dhe Dokter emploiz dhi expiidient ov diuplikeishan fer long vauel- 
saundz, and obzoervz, " Mz tu dhe diferens bitwiin short and long 
vauelz, it iz naetyurali exprest bai a singgl vauel hwehr short, a doebl 
woen hwehr long ; sez, fer ' mend ' rait mend^ boet fer ' remained ' rait 

* Aor truuli injiinyas frend Mr. Bui honldz tn dhe seim ncember at prezant ; beet hi 
diferz from Dr. Frsenklin — in anselisis, bai triiting o vci **\ioW* %a. ^^^Swsti^Vjw^,'*^.^ 
M in "leisure " az a seperet simpl saund (j) ; aw^ *m XLvr\.^vi^«xi) \skl Y^sal\SNs», ^x^sv^^k^. 
or dhi ould leterz fer soem simpl elimeut. 










rimeend; fer 'did' rait rftcZ, boet fer 'deed' rait f/mZ." Yet in praektis 
hi apiirz tu liav rekogiiaizd ee { = arir c//, nan jenerali ei in spiich) az 
ikwivokal. and wi faind him ofn yuuzing e insted. 

Not iirkluuded in dhi aelfabet, boet menshand in rimarks, or yuuzd 
in eektynal speling, ar dhe folo'ing — 

Vauel Difthongz — 
Konsonant Difthongz — 

Pi*8enklinz analisis ov dhe difthong in " destroy " az a trifthong — 
of/t in hiz no'teishan = oai in aurz — iz rimarkabi, dhou not pikiulyer tu 
him ; boet if hiz zf'iz not ment fer a miirli arbitreri daigrsef, hiz aprii- 
fiieishan ov dhe saund ov s in " leisure" iz probabli yuniik. Mz fer 
hiz aidentifikeishan ov dhi inishal konsonant-saundz ov "yet, wet," 
rispektivli, widh dhe vauel-saundz in " pit, put," dhis ounli egzempli- 
faiz a misffiprihenshan hwich haz servaivd tu aur oun taim, in spait 
ov saientifik disizhan rispekting dhi esenshal diferans bitwiin dhiiz 
pehrz ov saundz, and ov sempl expiiriens aez tu dhe ni^esiti fer dis- 
tinggwishing dhem in prsektis. 

Wi mei hiir obzoerv, in iloestreishan, dhat it iz not posibl tu ditcer- 
min from dhe speling hwedher Frsenklinz " graduali " shud bi red az 
grssduali (in fohr silablz), or az gnedwali (in thrii) ; hwail, if dhe 
woerd wer ritn widh dhe seim seh'abet akording tu modein orthouipi, 
" gradiuali " mait bi grasdyuali or grsediwali, Widh dhe gud Dokterz 
apehrant ruul ov raiting singgi vauel z fer long saundz at dhi end ov 
silablz, hiz i and u er espeshali sembigyuas, sez in hiz " qidia," hwich 
mait bi red didya or didia^ boet iz intended fer aidiia. In eni keis, hi 
wud hav faund it imprsektikabl, widh hiz no'teishan, tu rait efektivli 
an konsistantli soech woerdz az "e'en yean, ear year, east yeast, 
ooze woos, wood wooed, soon swoon, soup swoop." 

Boet, in spait ov dhi imperfekshanz insidental tu a tentativ efert. 

Dr. Fraenklinz oithograefik skiim iz a vaelyuabl relik, az ^Louing hwot 

dhis greit praektikal filosofer konsiderd dhe proper methad ov riform 

— ^neimli, dhe reprizenteishan ov olterd modem spiich bai no'teishan 

korispondingli cheinjd, apon dhe prinsipl ov konsoerving senalojikal 

leter-vaelyuz raadher dhan obsoliit woerd-formz. Dhe Dokter leid 

daun fer himself dhe striktli fcnetik kondishanz, dhat dher shud bi 

nou distfnkt saundz in dhe laenggwej widhaut leterz tu reprizent 

dhem ; dhat hwerever leterz er met widh, or in hwot^ver koempani, 

dher saund shud bi aolwez dhe seun ; and dhat dher shud bi nou 

sjupoerffuaa leterz yuuzd in speling — dhset iz, nou leter dhat iz not 

saunded. Dhou. Fraenklin, iivn widh d\ie\ieV^ cw \»!l ^ika niu leterz, 

feild tu kaeri aut hiz oun prinsiplz, partW Wiiu\«i\L on ^.ofcs^ ^l"!i^^>C^ 


distinkshanz az wi hav joest alluded tu, and stil molir thru wont ov 
praektis in fo*netik raiting, yet hiz aidiial iz woen hwich even speling- 
riformer shud kiip in yiu, and endever tu riialaiz tu dhe fulest extent 
permited bai dhe mikaenikal kondishanz ov taipografi. 

In egzddmining dhe soebjoind spesimenz ov Dr. Pi-senklin'z speling, 
dhouz ov aur riiderz hu er not awehr hau artifishal and oenvemaBk- 
yuler woz moech ov dhe dikshaneri " ortho-ipi " dhat keim intu voug 
not meni yiirz leiter, shud rifrein from inkonsideretU asiuming dhat 
woen ov dhe moust eminent men ov hiz oun taim yuuzd a stail ov 
spiich hwich wud hav bin rigarded az oenkiiuth or voelger bai hiz 
kontemporeriz. Boet at prezaut wi wil not sei mohr on dhis point,' 
aez wi houp tu ritoern tu it bifohr long in meiking soem rimarks apon 
vernaekyuler pro'noensieishan and leksiko'graefik orthouipi. 

1. — Spesimen ov Frasnklinz Speling^ widh hiz Niu Leterz reprizenUd 

bai t), q, an Mr, Pitinanz /, i), 1, d. 

So huen sqm endjel, bqi divqin komand, 
Uid rqizii) tempests Jeeks e gilti land 
(Si[tJ az ov leet or peel Britauia past), 
Kalm and siriin hi drqivs di fiuriqs blast, 
And, pliizd d' t)lmqitis t)rdqrs tu pqrform, 
Rqids in di huqrluind and dqrekts di storm. 

So di piur limpid striim, huen foul uid steens 
t)f rqjig torents and disendig reens, 
Uqrks itself kliir; and az it rqns rifqins. 
Til bqi digiiis di flotig mirqr Jqins, 
Reflekts iitj flour dat on its bordqr groz, 
And e nu hev'n in its feer bqzqm shoz. 

Dhe seim in Yuunian Speling. 

Sou hwen soem einjel bai divain kamaBud, 
AVidh raizing tempests sheiks a gilti Isend 
(Soech az ov leit ohr peil Britaenia paast), 
Kaam an siriin hi draivz dhe fiurias blaast; 
An, pliizd dhi Aolmaitiz orderz tu perform, 
Raidz in dhe hwoerlwind an direkts dhe storm. 

Sou dhe piur limpid striim, hwen faul widh steinz 
Ov roeshing torants an disending reinz, 
Woerks itself kliir; and aez it roenz rifainz, 
Til bai digriiz dhe flouting mirer shainz, 
Riflekts iich flaur dhat on its bordsx ^xovs^t.^ 
And a niu hevu in its fe\it Wt^asl ^QrN«^ 



2. — Frxiiklim Leter tu Mia Stttvnsan, widh hit Niu Leterz reprizented 
bat (wof), \\ (nu<), f (wish), q (wing), 6 (thin), S (then). 

Diir Madam, — &i obdfckfqn iu meek 
to rektifqiiq aur alfabet, Sat " it uil bi 
ateuded uiS iiikauviiiiensiz and difik^Itiz," 
iz e natiiral uqn ; far it aluaz akqrs huen 
eni refarmefqu iz proj)Ozd, hueSer iu ri- 
lidfqn, government, loz, and iven daun az 
lo az rudz and huil karidfiz. &i tru kues- 
tfi^n, Sen, iz not hueShiir Saer uil bi no 
difikqltiz ar iukanvinieusiz, bi^t hueSqr 
Si difikuliiz nid not bi siinuounted ; and 
hueSer oi konviniensiz uil not, on Si Iiuol, 
bi gr^qr San Si inkoiiviniensiz. In Sis 
kes, Si difikqitiz er onii in Si biginiq ov 
Si praktis : huen Sd ar uqns ovqrkqm, Si 
advantedfez er lastiq. To qiSqr iu or mi, 
bu 8]>el uel in Si prezent mod, i(i imadtiu 
Si difikqiti ov tfendCiq Sat mod for Si nu 
iz not so grdt, bqt Sat ui mi(it pqrfektii 
git ovqr it in a uiiks rqitiq. Az to Soz 
hu du not spel uel, if Si tu difikqltiz er 
kqinpdrd, viz. Sat ov titfiq Sem tru speliq 
in Si prezent mod, and Sat ov titfiq oi nu 
alfabct, i(i am konfident Sat Si latiir uidd 
bi bqi far Si liist. &d natqrali fol intu Si 
nu mefiqd olreadi, az mqt[ az dhi impqr- 
fckfqnz ov S^r alfabet uil admit ov ; SSr 
prezent bad speliq iz onli bad, bikoz kon- 
treri to Si prezent bad rulz : qndqr Si nu 
nds it uuld bi gud. &i difikqlti ov Iqm- 
iq to spel uel in Si old u6 iz so grSt Sat 
fin atcn it; 6ouzands and Douzands rqitiq 
on to old edf, uiSout ever biiq ebil to 
akuqir it. 'Tiz, bisi(idz, a difiki(lti kon- 
tinuali inkriisiq ; and to forenqrs it mSks 
Si lijrniq to pronouns our laqued[, az riten 
iu our buks, almost imposibil. 

Nou az to **Si inkonviniensiz " iu men- 
Ciin. &i fqrst iz. Sat " ool our etiraolo- 
dfiz uuld bi lost, konsikuentli ui kuld not 
asqrteen Si miiniq ov meni uqrds." £ti- 
niolodfiz er at prezent veri qnsqrteen; 
bi(t sqtr az Sd er, Si old buks uuld stil 
prizqrv Sem, and etimolodfists uuld S6r 
fqind Sem. Uiirds in Si kors ov tqim 
tfendf SSr miiniq, az uel az S6r speliq and 
pron^nsiefiin ; and ui du not Ink to eti- 
molodfiz for S6r prezent miiniqs. If \\i 
fud kol e man e neev and e vilen, hi nuld 
hardli bi satisfqid uiS m\{\ teliq him. Sat 
uqn ov Si u^rds oridfinali signifqid onli e 

lad or e servant ; and Si nSqr an qndqr 
plouman, or Si inhabitant ov e viledf. It 
iz from prezent iusedf onli, Si miiniq ov 
uqrds iz to bi ditqrmind. 

lur seki(nd inkonviniens iz, Sat "Si 
distiqktqn bitwiin nqrds ov difqreut miin- 
iq and similar sound uuld bi distroqid." 
oat distiqktqn iz alreadi distroqid in pro- 
nounsiq oem ; and ui rilqi on Si sens 
alou ov Si sentens to asqi'teen, huitf ov Si 
several uqrds, similar in sound, ui intend. 
If Sis iz sqfirent in Si rapiditi ov diskors, 
it uil bi mqtC mor so in riten sentensez, 
huit[ md bi i*ed leztqrli, and atended to 
mor partiln|larli in kes ov difikqlti, San 
ui kan atend to a past sentens, huqil Si 
spikqr iz hqniiiq qs aloq uiS nu uqns. 

lur tiqrd inkonviniens iz. Sat ** ool Si 
buks alredi riten uuld bi iusles." Sis in- 
konviniens uuld onli kqm on gradnali, in 
e kors ov edfes. Iu and \\\, and nSqr nou 
liviq riders, uuld hardli forgit Si ins ov 
Sem. Piipil uuld loq liim to riid Si old 
n^itiq, So Sd praktist Si nu. And Si in- 
konviniens iz not gretqr San hnat haz 
aktuali hapend in e similar kes, in Itali. 
Formerli, its inhabitants ool spok and rot 
Latin: az Si laquedf t tended. Si speliq 
folo'd it. It iz tru Sat at prezent a miir 
qnlarn'd Italien kanot riid oi Latin buks ; 
So Se er stil red and qndqrstud h\\\ meni. 
Bqt, if Si speliq had nevqr bin tfendfd, hi 
uuld nou hev found it m\{U mor difikiilt 
to riid and n^it hiz on laquadf ; for riten 
uiirds uuld hev had no ril^fqu to sounds, 
Se uuld onli hev stud for Diqs ; so Sat if 
hi uuld ekspres in rqitiq Si i^idia hi hez 
huen hi sounds Si uqi'd vescovo, hi mqst 
inz Si leters epiacopua. In tort, hnat- 
ever Si difikqltiz and inkonviniensiz non 
er, Se uil bi mor iizili siinnounted nou 
San hiraftiir; and si{m tqim or qSqr it 
mqst bi dqn ; or our rqitiq uil bik^m Si 
sdm uiS Si Tfqiniiz, az to Si difikqlti ov 
Iqmiq and inziq it. And it uuld- alredi 
hev bin si^tt, if ui had kontinud Si Saksiin 
spek'q and rqitiq, iuzd bqi our forfaSers. 

Hi am, mqi diir frind, iurs afek[i{netli, 

B. Fkanklin. 
Kreven Striit, Sept. 28, 1768. 

Subscriptions recently received. — John Lea, Esq., Cheltenham, 10^. (additional); 
H. Sweet, Esq., M.A., 10-r; J. B. Rundell, Esq., 2#. 6^.; Richard Hudson^ Esq., 
Skegness, 2«. ^d,\ Gerald Barker, Esq., Westoe, 1«. 6^. (second year). 

^o/, I. of T^ Ujrperimenter, — Bound copies now ready, price 2«. 6fl?., post-free from 
W, R, Evans (as below), or through the tt^Ae iiom ¥. Y\\.Tn»si. 

Priuted by W, R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, C^ueftu S«\\3a.te» \a\v^wi,^ «^,\ «o.\ 
Puhlished by F. Pitman, 20 Pateruoatet ^qn«.1..^. 




{Not issued hy the English Spelling Reform Association.) 

No. 22— Vol. II.] JUNE, 1882. [Pnce One Penny 

Vol, I. of The Earperimenter. — Bound copies mow ready, price 2*. 6^?., post-free frost 
W. K. Evans 3 Gloucester Street, W.C, or through the trade from F. Pitmaa. 


It waz not widhaut a poerpas dhat wi sBded tu dhe taitl ov dhis 
litl joernal dhe woerdz " and Phonetic Investigator," aafter ishuing it 
fer sikstiin moenths az simpli " The Spelling Experimenter." Hwen 
wi started widh aur taask, wi haed dhe kompaerativli limited objekt 
in viu ov pro'vaiding bai miinz ov egzisting taips, or widh dhe finest 
posibl niu taips, a no'teishan tu expres a stall ov orthouipi hwich wi 
sapouzd tu bi jenerali sekseptabl tu speling riformei-z, an aiutabl fer 
dhehr poerpasez. Boet expiirians and riflekshan hav taot oes dhat 
wi moest gou foerdher dhan dhis, bouth tu ssetisfai dhi a&spireishanz 
ov dhi aedvokets ov orthcrgrsefik riform, an tu miit dhe nisesitiz ov 
dhe keis. 

Hwen wi wer friikwantli charjd bai f rendli kritiks widh bolting 
at haaf-mezherz, an sabordineiting fo*netik konsistansi tu etimo-loji- 
kal an konvenshanal konsidereishanz, wi wer kwait konshas ov dhe 
joestis ov dhi sekyuzeishau. Boet wi hsed hwot wi dhen rigarded az 
a riizanabl exkius fer aur modereishan. Luking, az probabli meni 
rif6rmerz stil luk, tu dhe praektikal intrordoekshan ov a riformd spel- 
ing amoeng dhi egzf sting adoelt popyuleishan, wi rekagnaizd dhi 
expiidyansi ov ridiusing cheinj tu a minimam. Aur aidiia woz, tu 
render regyuler an soerten dhe no*teishan ov dhe prominent sens- 
distinggwishing saundz ov dhe laenggwej ; boet tu yuutilaiz aol dhi 
idio'maetik " vaelyuz bai po-zishan " dhat mait help poersanz konver- 
sant widh dhi ould orthografi aidher tu riid or tu rait dhe niu. In 
short, wi felt dhat an amended speling dizaind fer imiidyet popyuler 
yuus moest konsiid moech tu prejudis an tu fo'netik in-kapaesiti. 

Boet wi graedyuali keim tu rigard az yutoupian dhe noushan, dhat 
an oentreind jenereishan ov adoelt riiderz wud at eni taim bi wiling 
or eibl tu meik dhe konsiderabl cheinj from dhe koerant oen-fo-netik 
tu iivn a semi-fo-netik riformd orthografi. Wi bikeim persweided, 
dhat, biyond estaeblishing a staenderd to-uetlk s^\\\i^ i^t <iXsfe ^xsoisv 
ov posrsanz dhat mei rikwsdr it fer s^pesvfit ^x^^^siu^%&^s«5i^«sj«\R^ 


riformerz shud not pres iivn dhe piruuzal ov an amended speling 
apon prezant adoelt riiderz ; dhat dhei shud siik tu obtein ounli poeb- 
lik eekwiesans in a prinsipl, not poeblik adopshan ov an impruuvment 
dhat wud bi larjli oenaprfishieited. Dhe konvikshan gruu apon oes, 
in fsekt, dhat a riformd spelmg' moest bi yuuzd in dikshaneriz and 
oedber instroekshan-buks, an bi intro'diiist intu skuulz az an edyukei- 
sbanal instrument, bifohr its jeneral adopshan kud bi prsektikabL 

In riloektantli rizaining aurselvz tu dhi aidiia ov dhis mohr grssd- 
yual introdoekshan ov riformd speling intu jeneral yuus, wi did not 
imiidyetli expiirians eni konsiderabl modifikeishan ov long-cherisht 
and ofn-exprest viuz in rigard tu dhe kaerakter ov soech a speling. 
Dhe feekt riiali woz, az wi oel'timetli got tu rekagnaiz, dhat, biyond 
aur avaud moutivz ov konsflieiting prejudis an fasiliteiting cheinj, 
wi hsBd a poersanal fondnes fer dhe shredz an skrseps ov etimo-lojikal 
speling. Wi kud, widhaut kompoenkshau, strip of an kaast awei 
dhe boelk ov dhi efiit garb in hwich aur laenggwej iz disgaizd ; beet 
wi wonted tu seiv dhe breid, dhe biuglz, an dhe boetnz, fer dhe 
sapouzd adornment ov a niu dres. It waz ounli slouli an bai digriiz 
dhat wi keim tu riialaiz dhi impro-praieti and in-konviinyans ov dhoes 
pseching tug^dher dhe niu an dhi ould. And 8bz konvikshan gruu, 
wi heziteited at f oerst tu in-koer dhi impyuteishan ov vsBsileishan and 
in'konsistansi. Boet waz aur poersanal konsistansi tu bi pleist in 
kompserisan widh dhi objekt fer hwich wi wer woerking ? And wud 
it bi mohr konsistant tu kling tu persiivd erer, dhan tu embreis dis- 
koeverd truuth ? 

Wi shud wish it, hauever, tu bi oenderstiid, dhat aur niu divelap- 
ment doez not implai rekagnishan ov saundz priiviasli ignohrd bai 
CBS, or reprizenteishan ov a diferant stail ov spiich from dhsBt hwich 
wi aolwez intended tu konvei. Aur noushanz rispekting orthouipi 
rimein moech dhe seim az formerli, and wi hav ounli cheinjd aez tu 
dhi extent tu hwich orthouipi shud bi prsek'tikali reprizented. Ov 
fo'netik raiting wi aeknolej tiiu braodli distinktiv varaietiz. Dher iz 
dhe mohr Iseks an primitiv methad, in hwich, hwail dhe reprizentei- 
shan ov spiich-saundz iz meid dhe miinz tu konvei aidiiaz, yet ounli 
soech aproksimet expreshan ov saundz iz atempted az wil disting- 
gwish woen woerd-form, or thaot-simbal, from anoedher, in order tu 
privent konfiuzhan ov miining. Dher iz aolso dhe mohr egzaekt an 
divelapt methad, in hwich dhi objekt iz, not ounli tu konvei miining, 
boet tu pro'vaid a prsek'tikali sekyuret reprizenteishan ov saund fer 
dhe gaidans ov dhe riider. Dhe former plaen iz safishant in a sistem 
ov short-hsend, or iivn in an orthografi yuuzd ounli amoeng dhe baler 
BD poliabt klaasez ov a neisban,lm rikwair nou instroekshan in spiich, 
bcBt miirli acech an aproksimet Tepr\7ie\i\«v!&\iw«i Q^ «>waA^a*^wW^\i- 



vei miiuing. Dhe IsBter plsBn, hau^ver, iz nesiseri in a speling ment 
tu expres a staenderd ov orthouipi tu piupilz — ai, an tu tiicherz — ^hu 
er not familyer widh dhe risiivd prcnoensieisban ov woerdz. 

If a rii-k6nstitiuted speling iz at foerst tu bi emploid az a tiiching 
aplaians, — if it iz tu bi yuuzd az an efishant prasktikal miinz ov im- 
parting risiivd pro'noensieishaD, and iz tu siupersfid dhe no'teishanz 
in pro-naunsing dikshaneriz,— dhen wi speling riformerz er naidher 
kompeld nor permfted tu impehr its fo'netik efishansi bai meiking 
" konseshanz tu dhe prejudis ov dhi ai." And az skuul children, fer 
meni yiirz tu koem, wil heev stil tu memeraiz dhi arbitreri formz ov 
dhi ould orthografi, it wil bi imprsektikabl tu egzaekt ov dhem dhe 
prilimineri loerning ov a niu no-teishan haeving arbitreri formz similer 
in neityer boet diferant in diiteil. Pro'vaided dhat aur niu orthografi 
bi vizhuali helpful tu dhe riiding ov dhi ould, — ^pro'vaided dhat it bi 
intelijibl tu prezant riiderz hu mei hsBv sektyual niid tu disaifer it, — 
pro'vaided, aolso, dhat it bi posibl tu riid, rait, an print it widh az 
moech miksBnikal fasiliti az dhi egzisting speling,— dhen dhe mohr 
efishantli an simpli fo-netik wi meik it, dhe mohr yuusful wil it bii, 
an dhehrfor dhe mohr laikli tu bi yuuzd. 

It iz widh soech konvikshan in aur oun maind dhat wi pro-pouz, in 
aur nekst an soebsikwent ishuz, tu egzsemin hwot ar dhe riiali esen- 
shal rikwairments in a prsBktikal fo'netik repnzenteishan ov modem 
Ingglish. Wi shal not start widh a fohrgon kon-kluuzhan, dhat wi 
haev tu reprizent " forti saundz, naidher mohr nor les," an dhat hwen 
wi hav pro'vaided a set ov haep-haezerd and hetero'jiinias simbalz fer 
dhis arbitreri raund noember ov saundz, dhe fohrs ov fo'netiks kaen 
nou foerdher gou ; boet wi shal bigin bai investigeiting dhe neityer 
ov aol dhe moust komanli-yuuzd spiich-saundz, pro'siid tu egzaemin 
hau meni ov dhiiz mei bi aidentifaid in risiivd Ingglish pronoensiei- 
shan, an finish bai endevering tu fiks apon dhe moust aproupriet and 
expiidyant Ro'maenik simbalz fer reprizenting dhem in ordineri rait- 
ing. Dhe taask mei bi a soemhwat ardyuas wan ; boet oentfl wi hav 
akomplisht it, aur eferts tohrdz pro'vaiding a praektikal riformd spel- 
ing wil bi misoenderstud iivn bai fo'netik expoerts, bikaoz dhiiz wil bi 
cenawehr ov dhi aektyual prinsiplz, truu or faleishas, hwich gaid aur 
tentativ leiberz. 

Aur intenshan iz tu prosikiut dhis taask from moenth tu moenth 
til wi hav kompHited it, an sou hav fulfild dhe mishan ov dhis litl 
joernal. Wi wud, hauever, diskleim bifohrhaend eni aembishan tu 
rait an egzaostiv or kritikal triitis. Hwot wi eim aet iz simpli soech 
a popyuler expo'zishan ov prominent fo'netik prinsiplz az mei help 
oenteknikal speling riformerz tu riialaiz dhe tr\iv\. ii<avt^^'^ o^ ^vik^^^^^si- 
lem dhat badz tu hi solvd in dhi seliabetftL i^Moi^ Q^ \SiQ^^vsOvxi%^5^\^ 


— --^ - , ■■■■ ■■ -■■■■■■■ 'i — -^ 

— ^hwich, it kaBoat bi taa distioktii steited, iz az yet an cen ritu tceug, 
Boet reprizeQting, sbz aiir estseblisht orthografi riiali doez, an oulder 
form ov spiich, or raadher vehrias oulder formz intermfkst, wi yet 
rekagnaiz its YSBlyii az a fikst konvenshaual simbalizeishan oy thaot, 
mobr efektiv tu dbouz bu bay peiufuli loemt it dban a les familyer 
reprizenteisban ov saimd kan bii. Wi shal dbehrfor emploi dhi» 
estajblisbt speling in aur fortbkoeming' expo-zisbaii, widbaut iivn dbe 
'^-parsbal kareksbanz" bwicb impiid raiting and impebr signifikanar, 
bwail inapriLsbiabli impruuTing fanetik expresban. 



From " R. H." (Writer of the Pamphlet noticed in No. 20) :— 

•* I thank you most cordially for the insertion of an outline of my Paper, and for 
your kindly candid criticism thereon. I spoke of the use of old type (cut and tuined) 
as a means of illustrating various schemes; but I feel quite sure that any effective plan 
devised for the masses will require new forms, although the orthoepy should not be too 
critically exaet. 

" I do not see the otility of the diacritical mute letters b, d, g, except to show that 
the nasals so distiagnished must be the formations from which the broad sounds of these 
mnte letters could come: e.g. the m in * thump/ the « in *ant/ and the n in *thiul,' 
must be thin ; but m in * thumb,' n in * Dnieper/ and » in * thing/ most be broad. I 
also think that the illustration I gave from the Hebrew of the necessary, broader action 
©f the instrument and larynx i» organically correct. 

** Other jBBt objections to my notation can be obviated when new forms are admitted, 
my specimen of which is intended (as I stated) for an MS. alphabet analogous to other 
new type for printing. I still think that nothing short of adherence to organic princi- 
ples can make an alphabet universally and easily consistent in its popular vocal and 
MS. use, because critical distinctions, not having such natural reasons, cannot be under- 
stood and used by the masses." 

[Wi traid tu bi fehr tu " R. H.'* and er glped dhat wi soeksiided tu hiz ssetisfsekshan. 
Aur objekt, hauever, in giving a noutis ov hiz psemflet, waz not so moech tn kritisaiz 
hiz partikyuler skiim, az tu point ant hwot ar, and hwot er not, jenerali aveilabl taips, 

Mz fer aur Ingglish neizalz, dhei er norradi vois saundz, hwedher dher ritn simbalz 
er atended bai niiut leterz or not, "plum" an "plumb," or "gneiss" an "nice," not 
difering in spiich, eni molir dhan "no" an "know." Beet, in aur o'pinyan, dhe breth 
kaunterparts ov w, «, and y {fig) er hoerd bifohr pro'nannst breth konsonants folo'ing in 
dhe seim silabl. Dhei rikwair non speshal no*teishan hwen dhe soeksiiding konsonants 
er ov similer loukal formeishan, a;z in romp, nimfy tent, tenth, tanSj link : boet hwen 
dhe leibial or dhe goeteral breth neizal okcerz bifohr a toeng-point breth konsonant, wi 
faind dhat bouth fornetik expreslian an konsistansi in speling raiming wcerdz rikwair (b» 
tu rait mp and nk, sez in rompt, prompt — limps, glimpx — lifikf, dishnkt — sinks, sfinks. 
Perhseps dhi ounli instansez in hwich ino*veishan wnd bi enteild bai dhis ruul wud bii — 
drempt (kompehr un -kempt, from kemb, to comb), lenkth, strenkih, amosnkst, Beter tu 
meik dhiiz fohr wcerdz faol intu lain, dhan to rait iu'konggruaali — rompt, promt — linkt, 
distingt — limyB, glims — sinkSj sfings — az dhe praektis ov soem iz. — W. R. B.] 

From W. G. WARING, Sen., Esq., Tyrone, Pennsylvania, U.S.:— 

"I have lately been reading— studying — slowly, repeatingly, and meditatively — more 

of all these than is usnal with me — ^your * Notes on Spelling Reform * (in tract). Yon 

treat on p. 18 upon the difficulty of preparing a generation for the rejection of the old 

spelling and the substitution of a new ; and, amow^ o\Jaei eNV^ewt^ %^ dae.^ as well as 

Mcute thought on the subject, you say truly ikat it ve xm^AxV^Ssa W\'eas^\Jas.V«':» vssSiaa- 


<— ^^— ^M^i I ■■ ma ■■ —-■■ .1 I ■ 111! 1^ ■ ■ — ■■-- — — ' ' ' " 

graphies [*] to the young, it would be exceedingly difficult to keep them distinct in 
practice, because of both possessing so many similar features. This is most true. It 
would be a path full of embarrassraeuts. Yet there seems no other practical way to the 
reform (pp. 34, 35) than through such preparation. I enclose some papers relating to 
a method of giving children in primary schools thorough phonetic drill, yet without 
in the least interfering with current orthography so far as Roman letters are concerned. 
It greatly aids in the acquisition of current spelling, by requiring that all spelling shall 
be done ^.y hand from the first, and by avoiding strictly the placing before the eyes of 
learners any mis-speUing — that is, any arrangement of Roman letters composing words, 
differing at all from current usage. 

" If you care to read the imperfect [chromographic] print I enclose, you will glean 
from it an idea of the method. I think it solves the main difficulty. If it were gene- 
rally adopted, we should only have some years of waiting for an assured result. This 
term of waiting should be occupied by an international Commission or Academy to deal 
with the questions brUlantes of how all English-speaking peoples should properly pro- 
nounce the many words and sounds that are now differently pronounced. 

" You will see that I provide a sign for the first of the two sounds in 'urn,* or second 
of the two in * sir,' which, in its short or obscure form, is the second sound in * are, 
article, ear, pour,' &c. Here we give full resonance, but no trill, to this sound. East 
and south of us it is softened down to a shadow of a sound, something like the vowel in 
French le, de, &c. And with you it is even further gone, if, as reported, your speakers 
make no difference between 'laud' and *lord.' Our most popular and latest (Appleton's) 
school reader gives in the second book as rhymes 'mamma' and *far.' I don't know 
whether the author would have * mamma' (as on some London streets, it is said) pro- 
nounced mammary or whether *far* is to h^fah, 

** I agree with you most fully in the conviction that we should not play with spelling 
reform by using * near- enough ' forms of words ; but should move at once to the clear 
and true basis of a sign for each sound, and the sign invariable. 

" I send this to you, as to the most far-seeing and thorough expounder of the whole 
question and its difficulties, and I should be very glad if I could learn your opinion by 
card or otherwise." 

[Mr. Wehringz plsen fer avoiding in skuulz eni klseshing bitwiin dhe nau estaiblisht 
orthografi and an int(Ei*preting fo'netik wan, iz tu yuuz fer dhe Iscter an rclfabet in hwich 
konsonants er exprest bai streit strouks or koervz (behring a jeneral rezemblans tu dhe 
kserakterz in Mr. Pitmanz Fo'nografi), an vauelz bai pehr-sheipt, kresant-laik, or socr- 
kyuler marks ritn az part ov dhe woerd-autlainz. Aur objekshanz tu dhis niethad ar — 
(1) dhat dhe niu speling wud not vizhuali asist loernerz tu riid dhi ould; (2) dhat dhe 
niu speling wud not hi intelijibl from a nolej ov dhi ould ; an (3) dhat dhe niu speling 
wud hi oensiutabl tu ripleis dhi ould az a praiktikal orthografi. Aur oun plsen fer dhi 
avoidans ov kleeshing spelingz wud konsist in dhe yuus ov niu leterz or niu daigrsefs fer 
aol saundz not speshali reprizented in dhi ould speling. iEz fer a sou-kaold Ingglish- 
vselyu and ould-leter "sjndroni" (tu yuuz Mr. Elisez toerm), wi biliiv it wud pro'dius 
insermauntabl konfiuzhan in childrenz speling an pro'noensieishan. 

In rigard tu dhi r kwestyan, it wil hi siin dhat aur korispondant, hwail rekagnaizing 
dhe simpli voukal saund ov ur in *'urn," or ir in "sir," strongli insists apon a shortnd 
form ov dhis saund aafter dhe liiding vauel in ** far, lord," &c. Dautles hi miinz dhe 
seim saund dhat wii yuuz fer oen-trild r, hwich wi konsider tu hi a veri wiik konsonant 
folo'ing dhe vauel in "urn, sir," az wel az in " far, lord, ear, air, pore, poor, sire, sour, 
pure." Sou fiibl an vauel-laik iz dhis konsonant, dhat Mr. Elis diklehrd hi kud hiir 
noething mohr dhan dhe "but" vauel at dhi end ov aur/«r (az \ifdce). Yet wii yelt 
dhe vaibreishan ov dhe bsek ov dhe toeng, hwich iz konsiderd bai Waoker, Webster, an 
Smart tu bi dhi orgsenik eekshan ov oen-trild r — az distinktli az wi kud fiil dhe vaibrei- 
shan ov konsonant y at dhi end ov French^///? ( -fiiy). Fer miir vauel- saundz, ounli 
dhe leerinks vaibreits, and eni vaibreishan or frikshan ov dhi auter organz haiz a konso*- 
naental efekt. Beet, hwotever dhe saund bii, wi er at woen widh aur korispondant in 
wishing tu prizcerv dlie fo'netik entiti dhat distinggwishez a diid ov armz from adiid 
ov aamz. — W. R. E.] 

[* That is, two orthographies with the same «\\Mae\, wAW^Kt-^^s^^'^^ 



From R. P. BULL, Esq., 88 Macfarlane Road, W. :— 

" Ai um matz intarectid in ya laust nambar aw ya QpelUt Egeperimentar, a qopi aw 
hvitz iv (opxanali iev) qaindli cent mi. Ai teiq tev qopis manzli zrev mai bvqcelar, 
van aw hvitx ai cend tv mai can ut XiqangoF, hv cends mi in ritaen 'qatika' qanteinik 
infaemeixan relatiw iv ya provgrec aw Cpelik Rifaom in ya Ivnaitid Cteitc. Bat ya 
qatiks aw leit huw bihn fiev an fau bitvihn. Ai fiha yat yi ndwovqetc aw an enlanc^d 
ulfabet ctop ya vei, us ya dicaiphls aw Micta Pitman cihm tv bi devik at hovm ; hoYi 
reali miht viy an anavncment aw yi ' Acovcieizan,' amak ya Covcaiitia hvhs nqtiwiti is 
rjpovatid in yi Uziniham. 

** Ai huw ofhn vixt tv miht viy an eqcpasixan aw ya fovnetiq mezad aw Doqta Frnkqlin. 
His letar is qvovtid bai Mr. Elic in his celibreitid ' Plih' (2nd idixan), bat ya cqihm is 
not ilactrcited, yov ai zikq it apihad cam iihas agov in Ma. Pitmans J^aenci, Us tv ya 
fovnetiq elimentc aw yi Ikglix lukgvidj Doqta Krukqlins mezad, viy yi eqcepxan zf^jt 
is aideutiqal viy yut aw Bixap Vilqins : — 

yaaeis o hnggcldhthndtizhshrzsSvfmbp 

^a o u e i V ov h k g q I tf z n d t i j xrtevwfmbp (Kihlik) 

" It is rimauqabhl yat ya deit aw Fmkqlins letar is 1768, ^'act a centiari aufta yi 
apihranc aw ya wolivm aw Bixap Vilqins (1668). let on ya hovl it is iufihria tv ya 
Bixapc mezad in fovnetiq anulicic. Indihd, ya Bizapc annlicic is aolmovct egsaoctiw ; 
yi ovnli vihq point araisis from his not admitik yi egsictanc aw gatoral difzoks in Ikglix 
and aya modaen lukgvidjis. His vaeds aur : ' Ai qunat dinai bat yat aya difzoks [bicaids 
yovs faomd viy i and v] mei bi meid bai ya nuqetiar aw ya wavely (a), hvitx va parhapc 
in ievc amakct ya I)jev8, and eqeprect bai *ain [rauya bai au}ef\ Bat bihik nav, as ai 
zikq, dicievsd amakct aya neixans, an fa yut rihsan weri difiqalt tv bi provnavnct, ai xui 
not yeafova teiq eni fahya uovtic aw yem.' 

''Qovtempareri viy Vilqins vos Doqta Djon Wall is, aozar aw ' Grammatica Lingvae 
Auglicanae: cvi praefigitvr de loqvela, sive de sonorvm omnivm loqvelarivm formatioue, 
tractatvs grammatico-physicvs.' Yic wolivm in greit meja caplais ya difixancis aw ya 
Bixapc mezad in ya trihtment aw ya gataral wavels, bat is lec'qomplilit in itc anulicic 
aw ya likgvals, hvitx au taemd 'palatinae.' Ai cab^join a brihf cqetx aw ya wavel 
cqihm aw Doqta Volic : — 

y o c A L E 8. 

Apertura majori, media, minori, EgsaumphU {cileqtid from Doqta VoKe), 

Qutturales « aperta e/oemin. ^ obscur. glholly ^) e-lib^rty (ae) ^^^^ (a) 

Tiii.. r •, ' ,ee., a-bat, bate, bar e-th^re, t«'ll ee-f(?tfl(ih) 

Palatmae ^extle e maseul. ^ extlt (u) (ei) (au) (eh) (e) i-fiU (aij 

Ti'i A^^oo* ' •/ 6-oat oo-p<7c?/(vh),f(!?ot(av) u-m«se,br^fi0 

Labiales orotund. Apingue u exile /„ ^.x i r n /a \ /• \ / \ 

u '^ •^ (aov) u-fwll (av) (iv) (ev) 

(Ya Qihliq novteixan is udid in parenzicihs.) 

" Yi Ikglix wavels, aqaodik tv Bixap Vilqins an Doqta Frukqlin, an 7 in nambar, and 
yei au diwaidid bai ya Bixap intv 3 qlancis — 

Gataral, a (y) ; Likgval, o (a), u (a), e, i ; Leibial, v (»), aou (o). 

Doqta Volic pleicis ya gataral wavel a (c«t, done, abundant) amak ya wavels aw mainar 
upaetivr, bat it mei bi cavndid viy a mihdial, or a meidjar ovphnik ; ya wavel bihik 
'hovUi gataral,* as obsaewd bai Bixap Vilqins, — *an i'mixan aw brez fram ya zrovt 
viyavt eni pae'tiqivla movxan aw ya tak ao lipc* 

" Qam'baind viy ya likgval ao likgvov-pulatain wavelz in * p/>t, pat («), p<ft, p/que,* 
ya gataral wavel faoms ya difzoks ao, au, ae, ai, us haed in 'broad, atrnt, h^ord, ptt;' 
an qam'baind viy ya leibial v, us haed in 'boot' {'=^6vt), it faoms ya difzok av, us in 
* foot* ( =favt), Ya wavel cavnd in * oath, knoto * is faomd aw 3 elimentc — aov, 

''It yac apihas ewident yat ya Qihliq novteixan aw ya wavels is lithl mova ynn a 
diwelapment aw ya fovnetiq principals avi NoWc miN\\4xvs,«»?^«H!i: ^\^vsaU in yelir 
ricpeqtiw mezads, an reqancailik a'pelvrant d\c<\te^Mvc\a. 



"It hns biqam fdxanabhl tv aqccpt Micta Melwil Bels zihari aw ya faomeixan 
aw cavnds, bat pocibli an egsudjareited ectimet hua bihu faomd aw his vaeq apon 
' Wisibhl Cpihtx.* Mr. Elic rimauqc, * Ctadiik his bvk, ai um a'qivtli eencibhl yat his 
fovnetiqc au yovs aw an Ikglixman viy Cqotx a'covcieixans' It is rimauqabhl yat yi 
ob^jeqxan aw hvitx Mr. Elic is a'qivtli eencibhl in rileixan tv Ma. Bels foFoetiqc is 
cabctnnxali ya ceim as yut hvitx is felt bai Ma. Flei (Kleay) in rileixan tv ya fovnetiqc 
aw Mr. Elic; iet ya fovnetiqc aw Ma. Cviht anr ancuticfuqtari tv Ma. Flei, hv ovnli 
abeteins firom giwik a zaed intaepriteixan aw Ma. Bels cimbals, difarik from yi aya te7, 
biqaos hi has not cafixant qonfidenc in yi uqivraci aw his ovu ihas. U'civmik yat 
Ma. Bel has meid Cpihtx ' Wisibhl/ yi mact in'fae ya ni'c^citi aw a caedjiqal opareixan 
tv eneibhl aya paechns tv cih and hihr a'qaodik tv his mezad. 

"Ai nov not viy hvot ingrihdiantc ya wavel in 'but' is miqct; um aneibhl tv 

{>aecihw yat ya wavels in *men, man* au vaid; yat ya wavel in 'full* is nurov and 
eibialaisd; yat yut in 'hot' is vaid and leibiaiaisd. Ya nurov ao cimphl wavels aur 
a, o, », ey i, V ; ya vaid, ovphn, ao gataral aOy au, aCy aiy av, hvitx mei bi taemd miqct, 
if iv plihs, ao difzoks. Leibiaiaisd wavels au yovs hvitx au faomd or aqampanid bai 
leibial waibreixan, us v, vh, eVy av, aov, auv. Tv mai maind ya wavel teibhls aw Ma. 
Bel au lee caientifiq yan ya ci'uopcic aw Da. Volic, hvitx cihms tv haw faenixt ya model 
aw yea qanctraqxan, and, laiq his, yci au difixant in yi eqcibixan awya trev quraqtar aw 
ya likgval wavels. Ya wavel u (man), far egsaumphl, is braot tv ya frant, yov it trevli 
oqivpais yamidhl povsixan, bitvihn ya buq wavel o an ya frant wavel e : 

Buq Midhl Frant Buq MidU Frant 

Nurov — one Vaid — ao au ae 

Tv qampliht ya cihriis, vi huw ya zrih praimari wavels : — 

Gataral Likgval Leibial Gataral Likgval Leibial 

Nurov — a i V Vaid — a ai av 

" Ya praimari wavels, tvgeya viy ya mivt brihyik h, afovad ya mihns aw dinovtik aol 
modifiqeixans aw qvoliti, ao qvontiti, tv hvitx ya wavels au cabdjeqt in cpihtx. 

Wavel Cqihm, 



AHI AEI A»I aOl 01 UI EI Al aV HR 


(In raitik Ikglix yi ituliq letaes mei bi ov'mitid.) 

**u a ei w mei bi ievsd tv repri'sent ya cewaral wavel cavnds, if pri'faed, in pleic 
aw a o u e i V, viy v in pleic aw w.** 

[Posibli seem ov aur riiderz mei think dhat dhi aboev iz ancef ov Kiilik fer an inishal 
lesn ; boet it iz onnli part ov a long and interesting leter widh hwich wi hav bin feiverd 
bai Mr. Bui. Tu oes hiz uo'teishan prizents nou siirias difikalti, and iz les iriteiting nau 
dhat a ripleisez u for dhi oupn obskiur vauel. Soech a speling wad perhrops bi eedvan- 
teijas in woen rispekt — dhat dher wud not bi eni deiiger ov its geting mikst bai loemerz 
widh dhe nau koerant orthografi, in dhe mrcner eeprihended bai Mr. Wehring (in a pri- 
siiding kamiunikeishan) . Boet, on dlii cedher ha:nd, wi faensi dhat Kiilik wad bi mis- 
liiding az an intro'dcekshan tu dhi ould speling, and aolso veri difikalt fer moust prezant 
riiderz tu disaifer — tu soech an extent, indiid, az tu render it not a bsed kriptogreef fer 
poust-kard korispondans. It wud aolso, on dhe houl, teik ces fcerdher awei from jenerid 
leter veelyuz dhan wi ar at prezant. 

Hauever, wi kacndidli invait expreshan ov o'pinyan, hwedher eni soech riiaproupriei- 
shanz ov ould konsonants az Mr. Bui meiks wud bi preektikali preferabl tu dhe yuus ov 
arbitreri beet jenerali-seksepted daignefs. Tu fasiliteit dir^kt kompserisan ov hiz injiin- 
yas skiim wi^ aur oun komanpleis wan, wi giv on anoedher peij part ov a rendering hi 
haz sent oes ov Dr. Frsenklinz Leter, widh a Yuunian voershan opozit tu it. 

Eksentrik az Mr. Bulz skiim ov no'teishan mei apiir tu meni piipl, it behrz evidens 
ov independant risoerch and o*r|jinal thaot, kleiming rispekt from aol speling riformerz ; 
hwail dhe wei in hwich hi ^uuzez hiz eelfiabet in speling marks him az woan ov dke ^la. 
Ingglish fo'netishanz hnz aidiiaz ov spiich-raitmg ex ilqV. cS^n\a^\ '^^r)^\\.<^\i^^^ v^ 
iaHaensez ov aur ould and efiit orthografi. — Y?. B.. ^."^ 




r<» tv **\i iiiqnnwihniancis" iv mcnxan. 
Ya faiTt in, yat " a«I avr ctitnoladjis vvd 
bi lohct, qoiiciqvantli vi qvd not ucateiu 
ya inihnik aw ineni vaed«." Ktimolat^is 
aiir at pri'^aut wcri an'caetin; bat catx as 
yri an, yi ovlil bvqr vvd rtil pri'saew yem. 
VacfU ill ya qovac aw taim txeiudj yea 
inilinik, as vel as yea cpelik an pra'iianci- 
'oixan ; an vi dev nat Ivq tv etimoladjis 
fa yra prcsant mihniks. If ai xvd qaol a 
muii a 'nriw and a 'wilan, hi vvd haudli 
bi cutirrnid viv mai telik him, vat van aw 
ya vacds a'ridjinali oii^nifaid ovnii a lud 
or a cncwaut, an yi ayar an anda plavroan 
or in linbitant aw a wilidj. It is fram 
prpsaiit irvsidj ovnli, ya niihuik aw vaeds 
is tv bi di'taeinind. 

Iva rcqand inqan'wihnianc is, yat "ya 
dic'tikxan bi'tvihn vaeds aw difarant mihn- 
ik an dniila cavnd vvd bi di'ctroid." Yut 
dirtikxan is aolrcdi di'ctroid in pra'navn- 
cik yeni; an vi rilai on ya cenc alovn aw 
a cciitanc tv nca'tciii, hvitx aw ya cewaral 
vaeds ciinilar in cavnd vi in'tcnd. If yic 
is rafixant in ya ra'piditi aw dicqovac, it 
vil bi inatx inova cov in rithn centancis, 
hvitx niei bi red lihjaeli, and a'tendid tv 
inova pac'tiqivlacli in qeic aw difiqalti, 
van vi qan a'tcnd tv a pauet centanc, 
hvail ya cpihqar is hariik ac a'lok viy 
niev vans. 

Iva zaed inqan'wihnianc is, yat "aol 
yabvqc aolredi rithn vvd bi icvclc^.*' Yic 
iiiqan'wihiiianc vvd ovnli qain on gmdiv- 
«Ii in a qovac aw eidjis. Iv and ai, and 
nya nav liwik rihdacs, vvd handii fao'get 
ya ievc aw yem. l*ihphl vvd lok laen tv 
rihd yi ovld raitik, yov yei pruqtict ya 
niev. An yi inqan wihnianc is not greita 
yan hvot hns uqtivali htiphnd in a cimila 
qeic, in Itali. Kaomaeli itc in'hubitantc 
aol cpovq an rovt Lntin : us ya lukgvidj 
txeindjd, ya cpelik folovd it. I5at, if ya 
cpelik hnd newa bihn txeindjd, an Italian 
vvd haw favnd it matx mova difiqalt tv 
rihd an rait his ovn lukgvidj ; fao rithn 
vaeds vvd haw hud nov ri'lcixan tv cavnds, 
yei vvd ovnli haw ctvd fa ziks; cov yat if 
hi vvd eqcprcc in raitik yi ai'diha hi has 
hven hi cavnds ya vaed vescovo, hi mact 
ievs ya Ictaes fipiscopvs. 

In xaot, hvot'ewa ya difiqaltis and inqan- 
'wihniancis nav au, yei vil bi movr ihsili 
eah'mavntid nav yan hihrauftar ; an cam 
taim ar ayar it mact bi dan, or ava raitik 
vil biqam laiq ya Txainihs us tv ya difi- 
iqalti aw laenik a,n ievsik it. 


lit Union Sp^lfing. 

.Ez to " dhi inkonviinyansiz " yn men- 
shan. J)he fcerst iz, dhat "aol aur etimol- 
ojiz wud bi lost, konsikwentli wi knd not 
Ksertein dhe miining ov meni wcerdz." 
fitimolojiz ar at prezant veri (cnscerten; 
bast, seech az dhei ar, dhi ould buks wud 
stil prizfErv dhem. Wcerdz iu dhe kohrs ov 
taim cheinj dher miining, az wel az dher 
spcling an pro'ncensieishan; and wi donnt 
Ink tu etiniolojiz fer dher prezant miiningz. 
If ai shud kaol a ma:u a neiv and a vilan, 
hi wud hardii bi ssetisfaid widh mai teling 
him dhat ween ov dhe wcerdz o'rijinali sig- 
nifaid ounii a Itcd or a soervant, an dhi 
(cdher an cender plaaman or inhiebitant ov 
a vilej. It iz from prezant ynozej ounli, 
dhe miining ov wcerdz iz tu bi ditcermind. 

Yur sekand inkonviinyans iz, dhat "dhe 
distinkshan bitwiin wcerdz ov diferant 
miining an similer saund wud bi distroid." 
DliHit distinkshan iz olredi distroid in pro*- 
naunsing dhem; and wi rilai on dhe sens 
aloun ov a sentans tu eeserteiu, hwich ov 
dhe several wcerdz similer in saund wi in- 
tend. If dhis iz safishant in dhe rapiditi 
ov diskohrs, it wil bi moech mohr sou in 
ritn sentansez, hwich mei bi red lezherli, 
and atended tu mohr partikyulerli in keis 
ov diiikalti, dhan wi kan atend tu a paast 
sentans, hwail dhe spiiker iz hoeri'ing oea 
along widh niu wanz. 

Yur thcerd inkonviinyans iz, dhat " aol 
dhe buks olredi ritn wud bi yuusles." Dhis 
inkonviinyans wud ounli kcem on grsedyu- 
ali, in a kohrs ov eijez. Yuu and ai, and 
oedher nan living riiderz, wud hardii ferget 
dhe yuus ov dhem. Piipl wud long loem 
tu riid dhi ould raiting, dhou dhei prsektist- 
dhe niu. An dhi inkonviinyans iz not 
greiter dhan hwot haz sektyuali haepnd in 
a similer keis, in Itali. Formerli its inhae- 
bitants aol spouk and rout Lsetin : tez dhe 
Ircnggwej cheinjd, dhe speling folo'd it, 
Boet, if dhe speling had never bin cheinjd, 
an Itpelyan wud hav faund it mnech mohr 
difikalt tu riid and rait hiz oun laenggwej ; 
fer ritn woerdz wud hav hacd nou rileishan 
tu saundz, dhei wud ounli hav stud fer 
thingz ; sou dhat if hi wud exprds in raiting 
dhi aidiia hi hroz hwen hi saundz dhe woerd 
vescovOy hi mcest yuuz dhe leterz epucopus. 

In short, hwotever dhe difikaltiz and 
inkonviinyansiz nan ar, dhei wil bi mohr 
iizili sermannted nan dhan hiiraafter; an 
soem taim or cedher it mcest bi doen, or aur 
raiting wil bikcem laik dhe Chainiiz sez tu 
dhe d\^\LQ\\.\ Q^ lo&Tnin^ and yunzing it. 

Printed by W, R. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, Qaeexi ^c^\3«ce,\jcsti^wv,^ .^.\ «sA. 
Published by F. Pitman, ^0 Pa\«moa\« ^ov«,^»e. 




{Not issued hy the English Spelling Reform Association^ 

No. 28— Vol. II.] JULY, 1882. IPriee One Penny 

Fof. I. of The Experimenter. — Boand copies now ready, price 2f. 6</., post-free from 
W. 11. Efods, 3 Gloucester Street, W.C., or through the trade from F. Pitman. 



It may be hardly necessary to say that breath, emitted by mus- 
calar compression from the lungs through the windpipe, is the one 
primary material of which human speech is composed. Some of 
the sounds which enter into the composition of speech are made 
out of simple breath, acted upon by different positions of the upper 
vocal organs ; but for producing the majority of sounds breath has 
to be converted into voice before it passes into the throat, by being 
subjected to the vibration of the vocal chords at the larynx. There- 
fore, the material of speech, as it comes to be Operated upon and 
moulded into shape by the upper organs, may be said to consist of 


Vibration of the vocal chords in a half -tense condition produces 
an intermediate, occasional, and less important material of speech, 
called WHISPER, which may be defined as semi- voiced breath. 


Breath and voice (as well as whisper), on their emission through 
the throat, may be said to be moulded into various distinctive shapes 
by the different positions of the lips, the tongue, or the uvula, often 
in relation to the teeth, the palate, or the nose. 

The organic position may be such, that while it modifies the form 
and size of the voice-channel, it yet leaves a free passage, which 
allows either voice or breath to issue without explosive or frictional 
effect. Under such condition an emission of voice produces a vowel- 
sound, varying in quality according to the conformation of the pas- 
f sage, as, for example, the single sound constituting the word^op^.* 
But an emission of mere breath through such a passage is practically 
inaudible, except it be immediately followed by voice during the 

• When any example is not qualified as Scottish, Ttc\mi\l, Qiwcassv, %tfc«,>^» ^<s^ik^\sR. 
taken as an English word. 


fiaino org'aiiir inipulHo, when the initial hn^atli has the effect termed 
" aspiration," as in the word luiw. 

Tho ixMition of the organs may, on the other hand, be such as to 
offer either frictional remstunce or total obstmction to the passage 
of emitted bri'ath or voice, so that distinctive hisses, buzzes, whirrs, 
&o. are pnKluced by such frictional resistance, and distinctive puffs 
or explosions on suddenly removinf^ such total obstruction. The 
andibli* offcc'ts produced by either the former or the latter means are 
tormed consonant-sounds. The sounds made by frictional resistance 
(as /, r, s) are called ojx^n or continuant consonants, and those made 
by obstmction and explosion (as/?, cZ, k) are designated shut or ex- 
plosive consonants. Hy almost all consonantal positions breath or 
voice sounds are equally producible as a matter of physical possi- 
bility ; but in actual practice voice sounds are the more numerous, 
at all events among the open consonants. Thus, while the initial 
voice sounds of bad^ doe^ f/ilt^ van, then, zeal, wet, have their breath 
correspondents in pad, toe, kilt, fan, thin, seal, whet , yet the sounds at 
the beginning of lie, ray, man, nod, have practicaJly no parallel breath 
sounds independently occurring in our language. 

/ ■*.- llie Material of which they are made. 

Vowel -sounds cannot be formed with simple breath, because this, 
when emitted through the organic position reqmred for any vowel- 
sound, produces no independent audible effect available for the pur- 
poses of speecli. Breath thus emitted only becomes phonetically 
effective in combination with a following vowel-sound, and is hence 
usually r(»garded as exemplifying the simplest of consonantal effects, 
to which (category we therefore defer it. 

For producing vowel-sounds breath requires to be converted into 
voice, by the vocal chords of the larynx vibrating in a tense con- 
dition ; or at least into whisper, by their vibrating in a semi-tenpo 
condition. This voice (oi- whisper), as it emerges into the pharynx, 
or portion of tlie throat extending from the glottis to the uvula, has 
no definite or special vowel quality, such as distinguishes the initial 
sound of emit from that of omit, Tliis unshaped voice is heard in 
various emotional murmurs (as of pain, relief, surprise, &c.), which 
are reduced to corresponding audible sighs when made of whisper, 
and to inaudible sighs when made of simple breath. It is also heard 
when a speaker hesitates for a word, and " hems and haws " in his 

The Manner in which they are made. 
It is gvneraUy recognised by modern p\iOTie\Kc\^ii?^^ ^^\. ^<^ ctxida 
vo/co prepared at the laiynx, and emvUed t\vrow^\v \\i^ ^^xt^^\>,\^ 


■ I. • ■ 

by various positions of the superior organs (from the uvula upward) 
modified into distinctive shapes, which, as they emerge at the outer 
aperture of the mouth, constitute specifically different vowel-sounds. 
It is not so generally agreed, however, perhaps because not so well 
understood, what are the essentially necessary and effective positions 
for the several sounds, or in what particular manner they operate to 
produce their modifying effects. We therefore append a brief in- 
cidental review of some extant theories on this matter, addressing it 
especially to persons who hold preconceived views. (See p. 56.) 

Modification by Resonance Chambers, 

The conclusion to which we have been brought by our researches 
is, that simple vowel-sounds are differentiated in quality by varying 
the length of the resonance chamber formed between an interior 
linguo -palatal aperture of emission and an exterior aperture of exit. 
The primary means of shortening or lengthening such resonance 
chamber is by advancing or retracting the position of the linguo- 
palatal contact (or approximation) forming the inner aperture ; but, 
instead of withdrawing the. tongue to extreme back positions, the 
speaker instinctively pouts forward the lips, to assist in producing 
the length of mouth-tube required for the back vowels. This is 
merely an exemplification of the same co-operative tendency of the 
members that prompts the mouth to meet the feeding hand, or the 
lower limbs to stretch as the arm reaches upward. 

In propounding this theory, however, that the essential quality of 
simple vowel-sounds is differentiated by the operation of a single 
natural principle, we do not mean to represent, that the quality of 
a vowel-sound is not at all affected by the size of the linguo-palatal 
aperture, by the shape of the resonance chamber, or by the size and 
shape of the mouth-opening. In practice, the tongue does not rise 
into equally close connection with the palate at all vowel positions, 
for at the centre of the palatal curve [ "Tn ] there is a looser approxi- 
mation and consequently a larger aperture. Tliis convenient laxity 
in the mid position, together with a sympathetic widening of the 
outer mouth-opening, gives an "open" quality to any of the mid 
vowels, as compared with those made by closer contact towards 
either end of the palatal curve, — the effect of such closer contact 
being aided by sympathetic contraction of the outer mouth- opening, 
in one manner [«*] for fi-ont vowels, and in another [ o ] for back 
ones. But these organic positions and their effects are merely inci- 
dental and subsidiary. They would not diffei-entiate vowel quality 
without varied length of mouth-tube, whereas this can do so without 
their assistance. 


Simple and Mixed Resonances, 

The principle of vowel -differentiatioD by the mere shorteDing or 
lengthening of a simple resonance chamber applies without qualifi- 
cation only to simple vowel-sounds ; but though such sounds were 
almost exclusively used in primitive speech, aod are by far the most 
prevalent ones in modem languages, yet their actual number is less 
than that of various mixed vowel-sounds. For the simple sounds 
the tongue rises towards the palate in a simple longitudinal curve 
convex on its upper face [^^], the sides of the tongue coming into 
contact with the sides of the palate, but a space being left between 
the centre of the tongue and the cross arch of the palate ; so that 
a single aperture of emission is formed [/^ in cross section], with a 
simple resonance chamber between it and the outer opening of the 
mouth. For the mixed sounds, however, the tongue rises towards 
the palate in a complex longitudinal curve doubly convex on its 
upper face \_^^m\t the sides of the tongue touching the palate as 
before ; but, instead of one linguo-palatal ap^tui-e, two are formed, 
with an intervening cavity. This cavity between the two ^)ei-ture8 
constitutes an inner resonance chamber, and the cavity between the 
front aperture and the exterior opening of the mouth fonns an outer 
resonance chamber. A mixture or an amalgamation of two simple 
vowel-sounds is thus produced, a back vowel having its quality 
modified, though not effaced, as it passes through the resonance 
chamber of a front vowel. 


The Antiqtte Theonj, 

Accrording to this theory, which was propounded by all our olden writers on phonetics, 
and which was maintained by Mr. Bidl in our last issue, the vowel-sounds are classified 
as — (1) guttural; (2) lingual or palatal, or linguo-palatal; and (3) labial. These terms 
sccui to imply that certain simple vowel-sonnds are made by or in the throat, others by 
tlie tongue or at the palate, anid still others by or at the lipsw If the theory be correctly 
represented as thos stated, we consider it to be quite unteDaUe. 

In the first place, we hold that the throat merely serves as a chamiel fer the upward 
passage of crude voice from the larynx, and that no definite vowel-sound is formed by or 
in the throat. As for the lips, no particular action or condition of these is neeessary as 
the essential or efficient cause of any distinctive variety of vowel-sound. The actual use 
made of the lips in helping to modify voice is merely a convenient mode of producing aa 
essential condition that may be otherwise produced; for all vowel-sounds maybe distinc- 
tively made with the lips widely open. In the tongue and the palate, however, or rather 
in the position of the tongue with respect to the palate, we shall find the really essential 
and efficient cause, not only of some, but of all variations in vowel qaality. 

The " Visible Speech'' Theory. 

Mr. Melville Bell, followed by Mr. Sweet and others, holds that position of the tongue 
with respect to the palate is the fundamental and principal cause of differences in vowel 
quality, but that further differentiation is made or aaalsVod. by the condition of the throat 
and the position of the lips. 


According to this theory, the firont (not the tip) of the tongue is set at three different 
perpendicularly parallel heights, or distances firom the crown of the palatal arch, in form- 
ing the initial sounds of French tV, etS, and English area ; and the back, of the tongue at 
three ccnrresponding perpendicularly parallel heights in producing the vowel-sounds of 
Gaelic laogh^ English but, and Scottish but ; while both the firont and the back of the 
tongue are simultaneously set at such three different heights in shaping the yowel-sounds 
of Wel^ bu, French que, and English eur. Nine such vowel-sounds are supposed to be 
the primary varieties formed by lingno-palatal positions ; while these nine are made into 
eighteen varieties — according to Mr. Bell, by a uniform "wide" condition of the throat; 
or, according to Mr. Sweet, by a laxness of the linguo-palatal position. The eighteen 
Tarieties thus produced are all stated to be capable of receiving a modification in the way 
of "rounding," which is rather indefinitely treated, sometimes as due to lip-compression, 
sometimes to cheek- contraction, and occasionally to both. Mr. Ellis, we may observe, 
generally agrees with Mr. Bell in regard to "wideness" and "rounding," but differs 
somewhat both from him and Mr. Sweet in arrangement of tongue heights. 

Now, the first objection we have to make to the Bell vowel-scale is, that in the 
formation of simple vowel-sounds wc cannot rec(^nise any such conditions as perpen- 
dicularly parallel heights of the toun^ue, involving perpendicularly parallel linguo-palatal 
apertures of different dimensions. \Ve find, that if we pronounce in succession the three 
initial vowels of French il, eU, and English area, we feel a gradual recession (firom the 
** firont") of the linguo-pahital marginal contacts, between which is formed the aperture 
of emission [^o^ in cross section]. So, in the back region (after passmg over several 
intermediate positions), the contacts ami the aperture continue to recede in uttering the 
initial sounds of English auikority^ opaque, and French outre. Seeing that the pairt of 
the palatal arch against which vowel apei-tures are formed would be represented by such 
a curve as -s (looking as at the left side of the face), and that the successive apertures 
firom firont to back are made in the direction of this curve, and by contact of successively 
lower parts of the tongue with lower parts of the palate, we consider the whole course of 
the refix)cession from Mr. Bell's "high front" to his " high back" position to be one of 
lowering in physical movement, as it is acknowledged to be in acoustic effect 

Mr. EUis so far supports our view, even in his arrangement of the Bell scale, that in 
place of corresponding tongue-heights at different positions, he reckons nine consecutive 
heights from, front to back ; and while he retains the nomenclature of "Visible Speech," 
he explains, that " although the front of the tongue may be low, the tongue itself will be 
higher than the high mixed tongue, while the low mixed tongue is higher than the high 
back tongue." — {Speech in Song, p. 38.) But we consider that Mr. Ellis still errs by 
admitting into the series of primary vowds the mixed sounds in Welsh bu, French que, 
and English eur, and that he puts the back vowels (his Glossic oo, oa, au) in the reverse 
of the natural order. When relieved from the obviously uncomfortable trammels of the 
BeU scale, Mr. Ellis always ranges his Glossic signs in the order ee, at, aa, au, oa, oo ; 
and, supposing these symbols to express simple vowel-sounds, we consider this order to 
represent the natural sequence of the sounds. 

Beyond the non-natural and confusing application of the term "height" — ^upon which 
application the whole vowel classification and notation of "Visible Speech" are based — 
we must demur to an arrangement which includes among its nine simple and primary 
vowels the sounds in Gaelic laogh, English up, Scottish up, Welsh bu, IVench que, and 
English eir, while omitting the normal sounds of a (p^zrt) and u (ride) from the series. 
But of course we may be told that the part sound belongs to the "wide" series of the 
unrounded vowels, and the rule sound to the rounded derivatives of the "narrow" series. 
But here, again, we must take exception to the terms "wide" and "round," as applied 
in the BeU classification. 

To us it seems that Mr. Bell's "wideness" is a vague term, used to cover divergences 
of sound in various different directions, and that it represents rather defect in theory than 
&ct in nature. We cannot accept the dictum, that the initial sound of English Ul is to 
that of French il as the initial sound of English ell is to that of French elu or that the 
vowels in come and calm differ in quality identically as do those in the initial syllables 
of carious and carrier. To our appreciation, the divergences here compared are not 
attributable to any such uniform organic deviation as that ima^lottd b^ Ms. ^^l\^ ^x ^a^ 
ihe quite different one conceived by Mr. Sweet. In f^Yiotl, ^^ V4\ks3\^ x^^^oS&jal^'^^'vjBTOi. 


"widcness/' except as an ordinary synonym of "openness/* as when we should say tbat 
the final vowel of English marry (not the vowel in rib) is wider than that of French wori, 
or that the vowel in parsed is wider than that in pait. 

As for "rounding/' Mr. Bell explains that "the mechaniftal cause of 'round' quality 
commences in the superglottal passage, and extends through the whole mouth tube, by 
lateral compression of the buccal cavities and reduction of the labial aperture/' and then, 
after spcakmg of '^thfSs uniform addition of lip modification, symbolized by a naiform 
addition to the vowel stem/' he proceeds to exhibit diagrams which show the so-calkd 
low round vowels to involve much less lip modification than the mid ones, and these than 
the high ones. Yet we are invited to recognise that the vowel-sounds in French m^e 
and English maul (which are in fact only one degree apart in the same series of sounds) 
differ as do those in the initial syllables of English marteUo and morose, or as those in 
French mise and muse (in which latter case the one sound is really simple, and the other 
complex or mixed). If we used the term "rounding" at all, we should rather say that 
the vowel in German mahl begins to be rounded in French mdisJe, is further rounded in 
English maul^ and still further in the initial syllables of English mollify , morose, molest^ 
Italian molto, English moustache, and Italian mula. 

In consequence of such defects in ^Ir. Bell's analysis and classification of vowels, the 
most closely-related sounds ore scattered about in apparently disconnected confusion; 
while, amid the perplexing varieties of non-natiiral distinctions, no two phoneticians can 
agree where to put some sounds, or how to fill some positions. In Mr. Sweet's latest 
allocation of values to the thiHy-six vowel positions, no place is provided for such simple 
sounds as those of i in Scottish pill, of a in English path, or of o in Italian polpa, not 
to mention the mixed sound in Lancashire />»//; yet there are some half-dozen places 
in the tabulation left unoccupied. 

The ^''Alphabet of Nature'' Theory. 

The theory of the old phoneticians appears to have been that differences in the quality 
of vowel-sounds were caused by and at certain linguo-palatul or inter-labial apertures. 
Messrs. Hell and Sweet do not make it quite clear in their expositions, how far they 
adopt this theory, or how far they attribute diversities of vowel quality to the eflfect of 
resonance cavities or chambers formed in connection with such apertures. Mr. Ellis, 
however, dwells so much on the resonance cavities, that he clearly shows his conception 
of vowel-formation to be very different from that of the earlier phonetic writers ; and 
we venture to think that this veteran chief of modern English phoneticians, so long ago 
as 1845 (in his Alphabet of Nature), came nearer to indicating the simple eflBcient 
cause of vowel modifications than either he or any other English phonetician seems to 
have come since then. 

In the work just mentioned, Mr. Ellis quotes directions by Dr. Charles Orpen for 
teaching deaf-mutes how to produce the normal and general sounds of the five Roman 
vowel-signs i, e, a, o, u (say as in the initial syllables of piano, wherever, barbarian, 
morose, prvdential). The chief organic modification which the Doctor describes as 
differentiating these sounds, in the consecutive order in which they are here indicated, 
is a gradual withdrawal or lowering of the tongue from the front to the back part of the 
mouth. He also recognises a simultaneous sinking of the larynx, and with the last two 
sounds the coincidence of lip-compression, both of which organic modifications we take 
to be merely incidental, and as non-essential for the diflferentiation of the sounds. 

In the same work, Mr. Ellis cites experiments made by Professor Willis with a tube, 
which was fitted with a piston containing an organ reed. Air being driven against the 
reed through a small pipe fixed into the back end of the piston, the tube was thus made 
to "speak," as musicians say. Then it was found, that on moving the piston forward 
or backward, the sound of the reed at different positions acquired varieties of quality 
analogous to those of the vowel-sounds i, e, rr, o, u. When the piston was advanced till 
the aperture of emission for the sound of the reed was brought nearly to the mouth of 
the tube, the analogue of i was produced ; and as the piston was drawn back by succes- 
sive degrees, the respective analogues of e, a, o, u were heard; thus : — 


I e a o u 

Piston ^' Reed ^^^ ^'^"^ 


With a rude apparatus of our own construction, we sufficiently verified the Professor's 
experiments to satisfy ourselves of the reality of the phenomena described by him. We 
also found his statement correct, that as the piston with its reed was drawn further back 
beyond the u position, the analogues of the vowels were re-produced in inverse order ; 
thus — i eaouoaei; which is a fact of importance for the explanation of certain 
ventriloquial eflfects, but only of subsidiary interest in our present inquiry. We must 
confess, however, that we were at first rather perplexed than inskuQted to find the ana- 
logues of all the five typical simple vowel-sounds produced reed through one 
inner aperture of emission and one outer aperture of exit, without any conditions corre- 
sponding to perpendicularly parallel toup^ue-heights or graduated lip-compression, which 
dogmatic assertion had induced us to accept, rather than to understand, as the essential 
and efficient causes of such vowel qualities. We were almost annoyed, indeed, by effects 
that seemed to imitate, without illustrating, those of human speech. 

Experimenting upon our own organs in view of the facts just adduced, we found, that 
if we tried to say o while holding the lips forcibly open, we produced a sound more like 
the a in Scottish man or French m^le ; and if we attempted to utter u (as in crusade) , 
the result was a sound like that of o in Italian croce. But, after a little practice, we 
discovered, that by drawing back the tongue, in compensation for the removal of labial 
projection, we could produce normal o and u without any aid from the lips. In short, 
it soon became evident that the whole series of the simple vowels ?, e, a, o, «, could be 
made with almost any aperture of the mouth, if only the tongue was withdrawn by the 
required gradations. 

In accordance with the foregoing facts, we accept the theory that the true cause of 
the diverse quality of the five simple vowel-sounds, », <?, «, o, «, is the varied length of 
the mouth tube from its outer opening to the linguo-palatal aperture at which unshaped 
voice issues from the throat ; that, instead of front and back perpendicularly parallel 
tongue-heights, there are successive inner and therefore lower vowel positions fi-om front 
to back ; and that the lips are only pouted forward for the back vowels to prolong the 
tube of the mouth, thus avoiding less convenient withdrawal of the tongue to the full 
back positions. 

If Mr. Ellis did not categorically formulate this theory in his Alphabet of Nature, 
he adduced the facts which form the natural basis of it, and both in that work and all 
his subsequent publications he has evinced the practical influence of those facts on his 
mind, by the order in which he prefers to arrange the simple vowel-sounds. Where we 
consider that he was at fault in 1845 was in trying to make mixed or complex vowels, 
like those in English ^»,y<?r»,/a«, or German ^r««, schoriy fit systematically into a 
single series with the pure or simple vowels. At that time he attempted such arrange- 
ment on theory ; but we believe that of late years his practice in this respect (like our 
own) has been influenced by the typographical convenience of rectilinear exposition. Of 
the nature and systematic arrangement of mixed vowels we shall treat in due course. 

As regards the typical simple vowels, however, it is not difficult to reconcile our 
adopted theory with Mr. Bell's or Mr. Sweet's facts as to what they call "rounding." 
No doubt, if a (as in mart) be pronounced, and then the lips be pouted out while an 
attempt is made to repeat the sound with the same tongue position, the efibct produced 
will be an open o (as in morass) ; but this is due to the prolongation of the mouth -tube 
by pouting the lips, which has practically the same effect as further withdrawal of the 
the tongue. The latter adjustment may be made to produce the same o sound, thus dis- 
pensing with "outer rounding." Then, as regards the cheek-compression which is said 
to cause "inner rounding," this is simply an incidental effect of muscular action sym- 
pathetic with that by which the tongue is withdrawn ; for it will be found quite feasible 
to make u with puffed cheeks, while the lips take the form ^^, as in a " broad grin." 


From JAMBS LECKY, Esq., Wimbledon :— 

" You invite opinions respecting the pecnliaT wsea ot \^ift\ei\XKt^ xa.'^x.^.'^.'^'^'^ 
'CJieillc' scheme. But it seems hardly vrort\i "wViVVft \.o ^\acv3aa «M3a. «^€5is»!^ ^ja ^^V^ 


znur, yiya (for ' king, thrash, thither'), which agree neither with precedent nor ana* 
logy, neither with modem English nor original Roman usage, neither with scientiiic 
phonetic alphabets nor Oriental transliterations. Mr. Bull's remarks on 'Visible Speeeh' 
are much more worthy of attention. He considers Melville Bell's Towel tables as 'less 
scientiftc than the synopsis of Dr. Wallis,' which appeared about two centuries ago. 
Now, Wallis' s pronunciation must hare differed widely from ours, and until we know ex* 
actly what the differences were, it is useless to apply his * synopsis' to present Englisli. 

" When Mr. Bull says, ' I know not with what ingredients the vowel in but is mixed,' 
the answer must be — first, that Bell does not regard the vowel in but as belonging to 
the mixed, but to the back series, namely as the narrow corresponding to (a) in caJni ; 
and, secondly, that the sense in which Mr. Bull uses the terminology of ' Visible Speech' 
is^pparently quite different from that which it was intended to bear. A mixed vowel 
ill Bell's sense is not one compounded of the sounds of two other vowels, but one which 
is produced by a mixed position of the tongue, viz. intermediate to back (as a) and front 
(as cc). Bell's classification is not founded on the resemblances of sound between the 
various vowels and consonants, but on the mode of their organic production : it is not 
aural, but oral. His three degrees of height are of course arbitrary and conventional, 
like lines of latitude and longitude ; but even if it should prove that no vowel in living 
speech coincides with the 'Visible Speech' positions, they are none the less useful as 
point* de rephre^ just as the value of parallels and meridians remains the same, whether 
they do or do not coincide with inhabited spots on the globe. 

" In order to explode ' Visible Speech,' it would be necessary to show that the real 
cause of different vowel qualities is not what Bell supposed, and is altogether irrecon- 
cilable with his mode of analysis. This has not been done yet. The chief English 
workers in phonetics have accepted and employed Bell's classification of oral positions, 
even when not using his symbols. Still, no one can suppose that 'Visible Speech' is 
perfect, any more than any other scientific invention. New symbols have been added 
to it by Professor Graham Bell and by Mr. Sweet, and more may yet be required. 

" The remark which Mr. Bull quotes from Mr. Ellis, that Bell's phonetics are pecu- 
liarly Scotch, seems to refer solely to his notions of orthoepy and his appreciation of 
actual sounds. It can hardly refer either to his alphabet or to his mode of analysis ; 
ifnless it means that the Scotch are given to inventing symmetrical, a priori systems, of 
universal application, while the English can only amass incoherent observations. Surely 
this would not be admitted. 

"Mr. Bull goes on to say that he is unable to perceive that the vowel mhot is labial- 
ized. Certainly the rounding is only slight, not enough even to enable many people to 
distinguish between English hot and Scotch hat. Compare also Thackeray's ' Mossoo 
Nongtongpaw' ( = n^^qt^qpoo) with French {jianian\ia). But there is an old-fashioned 
provincifli pronunciation in which the vowel in what is really unrounded, as in the fol- 
lowing genuine phrase : — {ytaan. tf«kn wa^fu tft,q -pei'deete'z p<^;4-8le^ TwaSi sesels). 

"As I do not know in the least what Mr. Bull's pronunciation may be, I cannot dis- 
cuss his system to any advantage. Indeed, all paper discussions of phonetics are liable 
to mislead. I tried once to convince a Welsh correspondent that the English vowels in 
cart and cat were totally dissimilar. I failed; and the reason was, as I afterwards 
found, that he replaced both these vowels by his native ones, which appeared to be 
really a pair. Till we agree on an objective basis, such as 'Visible Speech' aims at 
supplying, it is better to discuss phonetics exclusively by word of mouth. 

" Moreover, I do not see why * Visible Speech' need be brought into the Experimenier 
at all, for its bearing upon Spelling Reform is surely very remote. It does not require 
any profound science to fix the values of the letters. Long before Bell wrote, it was 
known that the English vowel in cat more resembled ket than cart. Even the Jburnai 
Amutant de Paris says — 'pantomime, "^vonGnc^z ptnntomatm* * And long after Bell 
wrote, spelling reformers went on using a in cat, till Mr. Sweet restored a to this, its 
proper value. At present we require not elaborate scientific theories, so much as courage 
and consistency in the application of admitted facts." 

Printed hy W. E. Evans, 8 GloucesteiT Street, (^\ieaTL%«jQ»x%,\ATva«$\v»"^,C,\ and 
Published by F. Pitman, 20 "^ateni<»\«c 18;««,^.e.. 




{Not issued hy the English Spelling Reform Association^ 

No. 24— Vol. II.] AUGUST, 1882. \_Frice One Fent^ 


VOWEL -SOUND S — continued from p. 5S. 
Vowels of Simple Resonance, 

We have said that in primitive speech simple vowel-sooiids were 
almost exclusively used, and that they are even now far more pre- 
valent in language than mixed vowel-sounds. We can go further, 
kowever, and say that only the most typically distinctive of the 
simple sounds were generally in use in ancient tongues. Naturally^ 
indeed, men at the first employed only such sounds to mark differ- 
ences of meaning in words. It thus happens that the five Roman 
vowel-signs, with their normal and still most general values (as in 
the initial syllables of piano^ puraameier^ Armorial, oration, crusader), 
represent what we may call the cardinal points in the scale of sim- 
ple vowels. If these sounds are pronounced successively, in the 
order i, e, a, o, «, it will be observed that the tongue continually 
recedes, leaving at each step a longer resonance cavity between the 
outer mouth-opening and the linguo-palatal aperture through whicli 
voice issues from the throat. By placing a finger between the front 
of the palate and the tongue when the latter is fixed for the i sound 
(in piano), it will be perceived that the resonance cavity consists of 
a mere chink ; but it will be found that this is successively length- 
ened by considerable degrees as the remaining vowels, e, a, o, u, are 
pronounced. Thus we obtain five markedly distinctive qualities of 
sound, from sharp or fine to dull or obtuse, and also from high to 
low in pitch, on a similar principle to that applied to produce varia- 
tions of musical sound with wind-instruments. 

While the finger is held agaiast the receding tongme as ahove «nggested, there wil 
tm coining to o, and still more on reaching « , be a tendency of the lips to pout forward, 
«nd at the same time to dose in ooneentricidlj ; and if this tendency be not resisted, 
the lips will meet rennd the finger, and block the onter mouth-opening. B«t after a 
little practice it will be fennd quite feasiUe to leave a free aperture romd the finger, 
whieh latter may be used to press the tongue gendy bade to the positions required for 
producing o and ar with open lips. This ezpenmfiBlt inSl ^«« ^i^GAYasaS^ss^j^ v^-^ss&s* 
eatentiaJ character of the usual lip position lot t\i«» wwsAa, VJfcCA\«w»%*^'^^'^^ 
98 a eonvement aaxUiary mode of kngiheimig tha levmsn!^ i^^jms^t^xsaVr*^^^^^^*^ 
*mng it solely by withdrawing the tongae to t\e ^tliL ^v^^«a ^^«wv»fc ^w«£osA- 


The five typical simple vowel-sounds under consideration sufSced 
for purposes of significant distinction in primitive speech, and still 
do so in various tongues (as Spanish or Modem Greek). Even the 
highly-developed Sanskrit language possessed only these five quali- 
tative varieties of vowel-sound, with the addition of quantitative 
distinctions in the cases of t, a, and u. But the intervals of tongue 
position and of acoustic quality from one to another of these five 
vowels were so considerable, that, as language was developed in 
different forms, it was foimd practicable, even for significant distinc- 
tion in the increasing stock of words, to introduce four intermediate 
sounds ; though generally such sounds were perhaps brought into 
vogue by the special phonetic tendencies of particular peoples to 
f modify some of the typical sounds. At all events, we find now in 
/ different languaga««, occasionally as significantly distinct from the 
typical vowels, and occasionally as substitutes for them, four addi- 
tional sounds, used in the initial syllables of French pecheur^ English 
I palace^ pauper^ and Italian polpa. 

There is little doubt that the ancient Greeks had at <me time the 
first and the fourth of these sounds, represented by their digraphs u 
and ov, for which latter the one compound character » was com- 
monly used. The Anglo-Saxons had the second sound, and repre- 
sented it by the combination se (which is improperly employed for 
separate ae in Latin) ; while the Scandinavians have long expressed 
a shade variety of the third sound by 5. Following the spirit of 
such precedents, we would suggest as appropriate Romanic symbols 
for the sounds in question-*-" ©, se, so, «." Since, however, printing 
types for three of the symbols are not at ordinary command, we use 
for them makeshift substitutes, as in the following representation of 
r the nine significantly distinctive simple vowel -sounds : — 
I ifeeseaooou 

( p?ano penal (f.) petty p^tty party pawper parous p«lpa(i.) crusaAe 

\ We have here a graduated series of nine simple vowel-soands, consisting of five 

; typical and four intermediate varieties, each capable of being used to distinguish mean- 

ing in words otherwise composed of identical elements, as in French pre^prh (pre, pre), 
Eng. pen, pan (pen, p«n), card, cord (kard, k6;-d), Italian molta, muita (m9lta, multa): 
and probably a notation that provided separate symbols for these nine varieties would 
be adequate for the representation of significantly distinct simple vowel-sounds in all 
European languages, with the addition of an expedient for marking long quantity. 

The tongue, however, in forming vowel apertures, is not bound to 

fixed positions at regulated distances, and therefore shade sounds 

may and do occur amidst the intervals of the above series. Such 

mmor variations of vowel quality are not adequate for marking dis- 

t/nctions of meajiing^ but merely const\t\x\«> \^ot£v^\ag ^^eic^ences in 

nafionat, local, or even personal pYOTvuiic\«t\oTi. "^ViAaa^^Cti^ ^\^^\«5^^^ 


between the two vowel -sounds in French follie and the correspond- 
ing ones in English yb% (pronouncing both words with the same 
syllabic stress or absence of such stress) would not be sufficient for 
significant distinction in a language ; for the acoustic effect of the 
two pairs of sounds is so far similar that a Frenchman might be 
understood if he used his normal sounds in speaking English, or an 
!Bnglishman if he employed his peculiar ones in talking French. But 
of comparatively minor importance as these shade sounds may seem, 
in their not being either effectual or indispensable for distinguishing 
meaning, they must be studied by persons who wish to acquire or 
represent the received idiomatic pronunciation of their own or any 
other language. 

For all practical purposes even of didactic phonetics, it appears to 
be quite sufficient to have the means of marking one shade sound 
within each interval of the above series. Thus, we require to repre- 
sent one sound between t and e, another between e and «, a third 
between e and », and so on. Our intention in writing e (for c) is to 
combine the forms of two Roman vowel-signs into one fonn indi- 
cating a sound equidistant between the two sounds expressed by the 
several letters ; so that e may be regarded as t^-e^. Instead, how- 
ever, of attempting to combine e again with i and e respectively, so 
as to produce forms representing severally tf-ej and ef-t^, we use a 
small " superior*' letter to denote diacritically the direction of diver- 
gence from the typical sound. Thus we obtain i® between t and c', 
^ between e and e, and so on. The full series of the simple vowel- 
sounds will therefore be thus expressed :^^ ^ 


ptano coup^(F.) p<?tty p^tty party palter porosity polpa(i.) poodle 

-^ ie e* e* a® a® o* o^ ^ u® 

copy payer p^ar p/^th pAle(F.) potter p etic pwlley 

For the benefit of the mere English reader, English examples have here been given 
of all the sounds which, even in quite exceptional connections, are believed to occur in 
received pronunciation of our language ; but it should be understood that the examples 
are intended to illustrate quality of sound only, independently of quantity (or length). 
Even as the illustrative words stand, the regular gradation of sounds indicated will pro- 
bably be obvious to most persons ; but comparison will be aided by equally shortening 
or lengthening all the sounds, without changing their quality. Each example may then 
be gradually reduced to p and the following vowel-sound ; thus — 

Ph P^^t P^t P^^t P^'i P^S P^t P^^^ P^^ Jt>«°, J5&, |J0% pO^ pO^, pp^ pu^^ pu 

Afterwards the sounds may be practised with other initial consonants , as ^, ^, n ; then 
any final cdnsonant may be nuiformly added, the vowels being pronounced both as long 
and short before such consonant ; and lastly the vowels may be carefully isolated, and 
be slowly pronounced in succession, both from front to back and from back to front. 

Such exercise as that above indicated will be necessary to obtain practical familiarity 
with numerous varieties and nice distincUona oi NON^d IjOvvvl^', \sv5\.^'^^^'^\^Ski*Oasi5it'^^5^ 


•ppndation of the nutter will retnlt finom examining only a seqoenoe of well-knowB 
and eaiilj-itolated loandt. It riionld be obterred, indeed, that ready repetition of tbe 
aboTe oomplete series of simple Towel-soonds would be even more difficult than singing 
a ehromatic scale in masic. To native speahers of a particular language, it will be more 
eonvenieot and more readily snggestive to repeat what may be called a diatonic scale of 
sneh sounds as are commonly and independently used in that language ; thus — 

Italian — i, e, e, a, o, 9, u English — ^i, e^, a«, 0, o^, u. 

As for the nine other soonds for which we have found English examples, they are not 
Med independently of spocisil position or collocation. 

Vowels of Mixed Resonance, 

We have already explained that by mixed vowels we mean those 
which require for their production the simultaneous holding of two 
different tongue positions, either of which positions would by itself 
be, at least approximately, that of a simple vowel The qualificatioD 
in the preceding clause is not unnecessary, for neither of the tongue 
elevations for a mixed vowel is as high and well defined as are those 
for the two simple vowels whose qualities are amalgamated in the 
mixed one. It should also be observed, that some de{»:ession of the 
tongue, between tbe two elevatious forming the linguo-palatal aper- 
tures, is necessary to g^ve the effect of a mixed resonance. From 
these two conditions it follows, that two sounds very near to each 
other in the scale of simple vo\^els cannot be mixed, as the attempt 
to produce the double resonance would only result in a distorted 
mngle one for an intermediate vowel. If we try to mix t and e, or 
o and w, we only get respectively e and o, perhaps a little obscured 
by a flatteniog-down of what would be the crest of the tongue-arch, 
but not distinguishable for practical purposes from normal e and p. 

We do not find, indeed, that two vowel -sounds can be effectively 
amalgamated into one significantly distinctive new sound, unless 
they stand on different sides of the central vowel a. As previously 
stated, the shape of the palate [ -^ ] causes the lingno-palatal con- 
tacts to be usually closer towards either end of the simple-vowel 
scale than at the mid portion — the curve of the palate corresponding 
to the outer, and the curve described by the tongue positions to the 
inner line of a crescent [ ^ ]. We regard this variation as one of 
organic convenience, for it appears to us that vowel-sounds signifi- 
cantly identical with those in cat^ cart^ and caught (though without 
their usual characteristic openness) can be made with close contacts 
at suitable positions. At all events, close front and back contacts 
may be relaxed without effacing the characteristic quality of the 
sounds ; and we have no doubt that they are usually relaxed in the 
making of mixed vowels. Such relaxation is accounted for not only 
by tbe organic difficulty of putting tVie toTig;w^ ^\. ow» vc!l\» «k dose 


front and a close back position, but by the necessity of allowing the 
resonaiace of the back Towel to continue through the apertui'e of the 
front one. 

Under the conditions, that the characteristic effect of mixed reso- 
nance can only be produced between a vowel position in advance of 
the centre and another position behind it, that mixing positions must 
be some degrees apart, and that the closest position at back or front 
18 not taken in mixing, there would be only five positions on the one 
side of a to mix with five positions on the other side. Therefore, if 
mixture always occurred between two positions equidistant from 
that of a, and if both positions were always held in equal degree, 
there would be only ^ve mixed vowels. But either through the com- 
bination of positions not equidistant from the centre, or through the 
assumption of equidistant positions to an unequal extent as regards 
closeness of aperture, the distinguishable varieties of mixed vowels 
are largely increased in number. So numerous, indeed, are the pos- 
sible shades, and so diflScult is it to determine the precise conditions 
under which some of them are produced, that we do not pretend to 
give a complete list of mixed vowels, or an exact analysis of all the 
varieties that we tabulate. For a full elucidation of this matter, an 
artificial vowel-producer is required, with mechanism adapted for 
exhaustive experiment. 

Bat thoagh vowels of mixed resonance are more numerous in their possible and even 
tiieir actual aggregate than are those of simple resonance, yet the former are not thu» 
proportionately numerous as they occur in individual languages. In many tongues no 
mixed vowels are found ; and where they exist it is generally in smaU numerical pro- 
portion to the simple ones. But then, while the five typical simple vowels are employed 
in almost all forms of humau speech, and some of the intermediates very generally, yet 
scarcely any two peoples agree in using a couple of mixed vowels in common. £ven in 
languages of the same stock, different mixed vowels have been variously developed out 
of the simple ones of the primitive common speech; and often within a single language 
there is local as well as personal diversity in regard to the mixed vowels employed. 

The three vowel-sounds in the initial syllables of English career j 
German korper and kiirze^ may be regarded as the prominent types 
of mixed vowel-sound, while they appear, like the typical simple 
vowels, to have been the earliest used in speech. 

The first of these sounds (career) is closely related to the a type 
of vowel, being made by mingling the resonances of w and »(=?>). 
This amalgam exemplifies the closest propinquity of vowel positions 
by which the effect of mixture can be effectively produced. It was 
developed from and used for normal short a in the Sanskrit tongue^ 
if the ancient pronunciation is correctly preserved by the modern 
Hindoos. In Indian words written with Roman letters, it is only 
approximately expressed by a accordmg to geii^ic^^wVj u^rrrs^^-- 
wg- to English values, as in pandit = pundit. 


The mixture in this case is no doubt generally prodnced by a mere flattening-dowii 
of the tongue between the adjacent positions for the tkall (se) and the thawl (b) vowd. 
The compound character of the resonance is therefore not obvious enough to be readily 
detected ; so that many persons have mistaken the sound coincident with either a in 
paremtal for an obscure simple vowel — a kind of vowel that does not exist, since every 
simple vowel, even when made with a relaxed aperture, has a clear sound. Where the 
sound of a vowel is obscure, mixture may always be detected on close analysis. 

The former vowel in German korper may be taken as represent- 
ing a pretty equal mixture of the t and the o resonance. It was in 
use in the old Teutonic and Scandinavian tong-ues, as a weakened 
form of radical o ; and their representation of this type of vowel by 
the sign OB or 6 (the former being as improperly used in medieval 
Latin for oe as was as for ae) shows a decided appreciation of the 
nature of the sound.* 

As e and o themselves, which form the constituent elements of this type of amal- 
gam, are each found in three specific varieties — e*, e, e*, and o', o, o" — it will be evident 
that three distinct mixtures are possible by an equal combination of corresponding ele- 
ments. But the linguo- palatal positions for even e* and o* are so far apart, that when 
these positions are taken simultaneously, there must be two well-defined convex eleva- 
tions, with an intervening concave depression, on the upper surface of the tongue. By 
varying the relative proportions of the elevations, so as to make either that of e* or that 
of 0* the more prominent and effective, at least two varieties of their amalgam may be 
distinguished, as in English her and Swedish h9r. As the positions of normal e and o 
are still further apart, there is additional scope for varying the back or the front ele- 
vation ; so that we obtain here the three distinguishable vowel-sounds in French que, 
English cut (the commonest pronunciation), and French eogur. Of coarse, the distance 
between the apertures for e' and o^ being yet greater, the tongue conformation may be 
again more varied as regards proportional front and back elevation, giving us the four 
distinct mixtures in the initial syllables of German bekannt, base, bockc, and in French 

The typical form of the third general class of mixed vowel, as 
heard in the former syllable of German kilrze^ is produced by equally 
mixing the resonances of i and u^ or rather perhaps those of the 
shade sounds i® and v9* In classical Greek such a sound appears to 
have been developed out of an earlier simple u sound, and to have 
generally superseded the latter as the value attached to Greek y, 
which the Romans represented in transliteration by y, in distinction* 
from their own u. It also existed (like a, the typical 6-o mixture) 

* The mixed nature of such sounds was generally recoguised until Mr. Melville Bell 
imagined the existence of *' front round " vowels. His theory is that e and i in English 
beck and stick become severally o and u in German bdckt and stuck by the addition of 
"rounding." If this ** rounding" is supposed to be added merely by the lip pouting 
and compression commonly used in producing o and u, we unhesitatingly assert that 
such lip modification, added while the tongue remains in the exact e (or t) position, does 
not give o (or «), but only e (or i) followed by a labial whizz. If, however, it is con- 
ceded that the back of the tongue aids in the "rounding" (as we say it does, by taking 
the/>osition for o or » behind that for e or i), then the term "front round" vowel is 
shown to be a misnomer. As a fact, vowel-sounds o^ \Jaft oe at y t^^e, like those of the 
o or u type, can he pronounced with wide-opeiv \\^%, V\V tloV, \w ^w^ w\^iviws:t '«\>Cvsa>\V, -a. 
mixed resouiiuce ciiiuu ber being formed by \-\ic Votv^we. 


ill the ancient Teutonic and Scandinavian languages, as an etymojo- 
gical weakening of radical u^ and has continued in some tongues of 
this stock to be represented by the appropriate Latin y. 

We have already intimated that the two combined positions for a mixed vowel are 

Commonly held more laxly than two corresponding separate positions for simple or ele- 

Hientary vowels, and have expressed oar opinion that the extreme i and u positions are 

Hot taken in mixing. We do not, indeed, question the physical possibility of combining 

tlie normal i with the normal u resonance ; but we believe that for organic convenience 

the X* and the u** positions are commonly taken in producing amalgamated sounds of the 

y type. The writing in German of ue or ti (romanically represented by ii) for this type 

of vowel tends to show that the old conception of the sound did not imply recognition 

of a pure i and u mixture; and we may also remark that Mr. Melville Bell classified 

the vowel in French nu as the "rounded" form of that in French «/. There may be, 

indeed, both an i-u and an i*-u° series of mixed vowels ; but for all practical purposes it 

appears to be sufficient to provide notation for a series of the latter type ; for if critical 

accuracy requires the exceptional closeness of any one of these to be noted, this may be 

done by a mark which we shall adopt to denote closeness of vowel apertures. 

The complete series of mixed vowels that we have been able to recognise as formed 
by the amalgamation of i^ and u° in different proportions, is exemplified in English bid, 
"Welsh bydf German buhnCy bundelf French buf^ Swedish budy and Scottish abune. All 
these sounds have long been recognised as belonging to the class of y amalgams, except 
only the vowel in English bid. This sound is really quite distinct from the final one of 
baby (i*), though the two are very commonly confounded by writers on phonetics. The 
final vowel of city has been properly regarded by many persons as intermediate between 
the final sound of French torti and that of cit^ ; but all attempts to fit in the former 
vowel of our city between the corresponding ones of French dte and c'etait have been 
unsatisfactory. Welshmen evince their appreciation of the direction in which our tit 
vowel really diverges from normal i by identifying the former with their u in sut (or y 
in 8ydd)y which is recognised also as a near relative of German il and French ». The 
real fact of the case is that i in English giddy has the smallest appreciable dash of u in 
its composition, just as the u in Scottish guid has a similar dash of i. The vowel in 
Welsh gyd has an additional degree of «, and that in Swedish Gud an additional one 
of t ; while between the latter two come the three sounds in German g&tey giinttigy and 
French aigu. 

Between the y amalgams and the close series of the oe mixtures lie a series of mixed 
vowels which have not yet received sufficient attention from phoneticians. At the two 
extremities of this series come the front and the back obscure vowel of our own tongue, 
having about the same relation to simple i and u that the mid obscure vowel (pArentAl) 
has to a. These sounds are exemplified in the final syllables of shaded and shadowed. 
The latter seems to be identical with the Lancashire and Midland but Kadput vowel. 
Centrally between these sounds we should be inclined to place that in Graelic laoghy to 
judge from descriptions we have read of the sound, for we have no personal acquaintance 
with it. To the front of the last sound we find a place for the second vowel in Cheshire, 
Hampshire f Sec., which some sections of American speakers seem to have retained from 
old English speech in such words 9a first, third, mirth, &;c. To the rear of the centre 
appears to be the position for the vowel used by Lancashire and Midland speakers in 
the final syllables of gracious, measure, nation, &c., for which Southerners substitute 
ihcpareniKl sound. The whole series would therefore be exemplified by the sounda 
beard in the Saal sjllahlea of shaded, Cheshire, GaeWc loogK^liMi'iSwSKMfe gtacvoMA^^ac^ 
Southern shadows (or Lancashire indulge). 



For symbolizing the mixed vowels, we adopt the general expe^' 
dient of inverting the signs of the nearest corresponding mmpl 
vowels ; but as o gives no variety of form when inverted, we avail- 
ourselves of the ready-made cb ; and as the turning of u practically 
gives n, we invert w instead. In the y series, we take the old sym- 
bol for the central sound ; and since intermediates are required here, 
as in the two parts of the simple series, we introduce y and v &s 
suggestive of the values to be marked. By treating the mixtures 
of the full front and back positions in a similar manner to the simple 
vowels, we obtain the advantage of inverting y in another series. 
Shade varieties of sound are expressed, as with the simple vowels, 
by the addition of diacritical ^^ superior" letters, only the inversion 
of these renders them "inferiors." 

It should be understood that the small diacritical letters, as with 
the simple vowels, are only required here to mark idiomatic shade 
sounds, and that for the purpose of distinguishing the meaning of 
words in European languages it would be sufficient to add to the 
nine forms required for the simple vowels nine other such forms as 
" «, 0, oe, I, iC, M, jr, y, q " for the mixed vowels, making eighteen 
vowel letters in all. 

As some langnages dispense with all of these sigpiificantly distinctive mixed sonnds, 
while others employ only from one to four of them, and as diffsrent tongues use from 
five to seven of the similarly distinctive simple sounds, it would follow that from five to 
eleven vowel-signs, out of the eighteen, would be sufficient for an individual language. 
But, in addition, means must be provided for marking significant differences of quantity 
or length. 

Illustrative Table of Simple and Mixed Vowels. 

i ^eseaooQU 

ptano coup/, f. p/iity patten party palsy pOTous polpa, I. cr«d 









pAte, F. 



I a « • . % < 

parental | \ 

hi?r hflfr, sw. I 

• • ^ • • « 9 90 OB •*«•••• 

qu<?, F. c«t ccfur, F. 

ein<?, G. h0hle,a. hdlle,a. d^tix, f. 

ended Cheshire la<7gh, oa. awful, l. ftdl, L. 

. iy y yi y y^ q u^ ..•; 

gtddy gyd,w. giitig,G. g«ltig,G. aig«,f. gtfd,8W. giiid,8C. 

P. French; o. German; oa. GaeUc; i. ItaWm*, !«. L«i&eaaklr«; sC Scottitli ; 

sw . Swedish ; iv . "^ f^sSti. 


Printed by W. R. Evans, 8 Glonccstw Stre«t» Q7««!i ^x^, W^«u,^ 5^..% %sA. 

Pnblished bv V. Pitman, 20 PateTTi«teT ^«w,^x.. 




(iVbf issued hy the English Spelling Reform Association,) 

KTo. 25— Vor.. II.] SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER, 1882. iPrice One Penn$ 

~ *m, ,, I - I I 
^^ ■ t. — 


VOWEL-SOUND S — concluded from ;>. 68. 
Arrangements of the Vowel Scale, 

On examining the Illustrative Table of Simple and Mixed Vowels 
given in our last issue, it will be seen, that the significantly distinc- 
tive simple vowels are ranged in a line from front to back according 
to sequence in their organic positions ; that the intermediate shade 
sounds are placed in a subjoined line, but beneath the intervals they 
would occupy if the whole series of seventeen simple vowels were 
given in consecutive order ; while the mixed vowels are arranged 
according to the simple resonances believed to be combined in their 
production. So arranged, the mixed vowels represent a pyramidal 
or triangular figure ; and the attentive observer will perceive, that 
if the signs for the simple vowels were brought down to the angles 
of the dotted lines which lead to the rows of related mixed vowel* 
(with some adjustment where we have hinted that an additional row 
of six mixed vowels might be inserted), the whole of the simple and 
mixed vowels would be disposed in a triangular diagram convention- 
ally indicating the relationship of the simple and mixed resonances 
by which the various sounds are produced. This arrangement con- 
stitutes the Triangular Scale, to which we were many years ago led 
by independent reflection, though we have smce found that equally 
independent thought has suggested the same illustrative arrange- 
ment to various other minds. 

Substantially the same arrangement is made by Mr. Fagliardini's Circular Scale, 
especially now that he has added an inner circle for the minority of the mixed vowels. 
The main practical diflfercncc between the Triangular and the Circular Scale is, that in 

■ the former yarions series of vowel-sounds are ranged in systematic order along straight 
lines, and in the latter a siiuil;ir arrangemeat is made along curved lines. We have no 
particulw preference for one uf these arrangements over the other, except that the Tri- 
angular Scale is the more (convenient to present in ordinary print 

But, effective as either the triangular or the circular arrangement may be for many 
of the pnrposes of an illnstrative dit^ram, stiU. io. dWiex Q»i V&zsoi ^^ ^kSgosS^ ^sd^ ^ 
nature are indicated merely in a conventioiuil aad «& Vl N««t^ %yB&»3^<^\as3Bfiiss^. K^^asswk 

pictorial thoagh less convenient illustratioii of t\ie T«i\%!t\o^\!^\^ ^l^wt^ w^^isA^ m«s>«^ 


prodoeed by dnwiog a carved line to represent the portion of the palatal arch against 
which lingno-palatal apertures are made, ranging the symbols for the simple voweb on 
this eonre at the positions of the apertures for the respectiye sounds, and adding the 
mixed vowels on convergent carves connecting the apertures combined in the production 
of each series of these vowels. This might be called the Organic Scale, as indicating 
more approximately than either the Triangular or the Circular Scale the organic posi- 
tions required for producing the various sounds. This scale would perhaps serve to 
prevent misconceptions that might be conveyed by nsing exclunvely either a triangular 
or a cireuhur dia^^wn, and in particular it would indicate more correctly the relationship 
of the mixed to the simple vowels. Bnt by no synoptical arrangement of this kind can 
the various organic positions for vowel-sounds be actually depicted. This can only be 
done effectually by a comparative series of diagrams, in whidi the position for each 
sound is separately shown. 

For comparison, we give below the principal sense-distinguishing sounds,* disposed 
according to the three scales : — 

Triangular Scale. Circular Scale, Organic Scale, 

a ^ IS i fe 

je t) © ^ o • ' • a 

« 9 CB 4, I 9 ^ 

! iC M " 1 ^ U V • 





It may be added, that for all ordinary purposes the simple vowel-sounds of any indi- 
vidual language may be set forth in a straight line, according to their organic succession 
from front to back, the mixed vowels (if any) being cither added after the simple ones 
or inserted among these, as may seem convenient in each particular case. Thus French 
sounds might be arranged in the order — i, e, e, a*, a**, o, o", u ; 9, a?, oe^, y. 

Close and Open Formations, 

We have already intimated that the front and the back vowels 
may be produced with looser linguo -palatal adjustments, and the 
mid vowels with closer ones, than are normally used for the respec- 
tive sounds. Such variations in organic production would never 
affect the sense-conveying effect of vowels, and would therefore 
require no marking in practical orthography ; but it will be useful 
to have some means of symbolizing them, in order to describe idio- 
matic peculiarities of pronunciation. We therefore adopt the signs 
[7] and [J, to denote respectively abnormal closeness and looseness 
of linguo-palatal aperture. Thus we may indicate that an Irishman 
uses a raised D-aperture in straw (str?)'), or an Englishman a lowered 
i-aperture in real (rii«l). 

* The sign ^ (for the vowel in but) waa oimtt«3L\jrj ctrot ^xGLVSck&xivuKkber of forms 
siated at p. 68 (inisprinted 86) as required for xe^xeaejAm^ %«ftafc.^\^^ea\^\^K«s%\i^^ 
rotveh in European languages. Its inclnaioii g^vea \ftTv «vwi\i n wi€^, '\t«\jmA ^l ^Ti&. 


Mr. Sweet uses these signs for apparently the same intended purpose, but not with 
the same actual effect. As he considers his "wide" to differ from his "narrow" vowels 
merely through the former being made with looser organic adjustments than the latter, 
he would identify under his "i** (the wide of "i") the two sounds which we should 
symbolize as t\ and »^, while his "i" would be equivalent to our i\ 

The three shade variations from normal i which we write by ii, i^, and t*, are not 
Very dissimilar in their acoustic effect, and could not be distinguished for practical pur- 
poses. We consider t\ to be produced by lax lingno-|>alatal approximation at the full- 
front or normal t position ; i', by making the liuguo-palatal aperture a little in rear of 
that for normal i ; and »^, by adding to either the t\ or the t* aperture a slight elevation 
at the u or u** position. The three sounds may be exemplified in the consecutive sylla- 
bles of the word deistie (diii^s'ti^k). 

As a front vowel made with a relaxed a]jierture simulates the effect of a vowel made 
with a normal aperture one degree behind, so a back vowel made with a relaxed, or a 
mid one with a contracted aperture, simulates the effect of a vowel produced with a 
normal aperture one degree in front. Therefore u^ might easily be confounded with if**, 
or (^ with a* ; yet puyt and pu^t, or pi^tt and paUt^ are analytically distinguishable, 
though identical for practical purposes. 

Vowel Nomenclature, 

Oar own experience is, that it is very embarrassing to employ for 
each several vowel-sound a separate " systematic " name formed by 
conjoining a number of epithets, most of which re-appear in various 
other names of the series ; so that if we want to speak of the final 
sound of English meadow^ or of the Italian o chiuso^ we might have 
to call them respectively " the mid-back-wide-round-raised vowel," 
and " the mid-back-narrow-roimd-raised vowel." For the identifi- 
cation of individual sounds we prefer to depend on their own special 
letter-symbols, and to speak, for instance, of " the vowel o^," or of 
" the vowel o," instead of using the above complex definitions. It 
is convenient, however, to have definite designations for limited 
classes of vowel-sounds ; and we would therefore propose to classify 
the simple vowels thus : — 

Front. Frontward. Mid. Backward. Back. 

i i« fe J e^ e e* | as a« a a® t) | o* o o^ | o u® u 

Of the mixed vowels, v would be " mid mixed ;" sounds of the <b 
type would be " frontward mixed," or " backward mixed," according 
to their predominant resonance (the evenly-amalgamated a> being 
" backward-and-frontward mixed"); while sounds of the y type 
would be "front mixed," "back mixed," or, in cases of equ«i reso- 
nance, " back-and-front mixed." 

Any further definition by way of nomenclature would hardly be 
manageable, nor would it be required with a notation possessing a 
definite symbol for each individual sound and each organic vajclefc^ 
of a signi&cant sound. 


Vowel Qttantity or Length. 

Every vowel-sound is susceptible of variable quantity, l^igth, or 
term of duration. The duration of the sound may be momentary, in 
the most restricted sense of that term ; or it may be prolonged to 
an extent only limited by a speaker's stock of breath and Ibs ability 
to continue steadily the "voicing" action of the larynx and the fixed 
position of the mouth-tube. In deaKng with vowels in th^ main 
capacity, as significant sounds of primary efficiency, there is no 
practical need to distinguish more than two quantities, known simply 
as '^ short" and "long." A third term of duration, which occurs 
with vowels used as sounds of secondary efficiency, and which may 
be described as transient or evanescent, wiR be treated of in another 

Short and long vovrels of exactly the mime quality are now foand iu many languages, 
^t chiefly as the sounds may happen to be unaccented or accented, and stopped or not 
stopped by a consonant fo)Iovring in the same syUaUe. An nuaccented sound, or an 
accented one stopped by a following consonant, is generally short ; whi)c an accented 
one at the end of a syllable is long. Thus, the a in Italian manere or mando is slioi-t ; 
bnt that in m&no is long. In such application the two ^antities are used for conve- 
nience of speech, and not for distinctions in sense; and they therefore require only such 
■nrking as is afforded by indicating syllabic stress^. 

Whether this was the application made of the two quantities in primeTal speech is 
cToubtfnl, as philological research tends to show that in many tongues long vowels ar« 
chiefly fomid, even in accented ^llables, where contraction can be shown to have taken 
place by the omission of following sounds. However thi» may be, short or long vowcl» 
may equally be used in the emphatic syllables of wofd»; and the mere difference in the 
quantity, without variation of quality, may effectively distinguish the meaning of words. 
This was doubtless the case with Latin words fike mUum (an evil), mvJum (an apple) ; 
and probably with such as l^go (I read), Ihgo (I WnX^. We have liltewisc m living 
tongues examples of sense-distinction by vowel lengtk alone, as in German bann (curse) 
and bahn (path), if not in tiilUn (to still) and siie/en (to helve), spucken ^» ^it) ancl 
»puken (to haunt) — quantities being distinguished by various orthograpjiac txpedSents. 

The English words Poll and don^ with a short vowel, would be distinguishable from 
PUul and dawn, with a long one, if the short and the long sound were cf precisely the 
same quality. But the quality of the Poll vowel (o*) does actually jBflfer from that of 
the Paul vowel (b), though lea* obviously than in the case of any other repifted "pair" 
of Eiig^sh vowel-somds, and! soi slightly that the diverse significant effect of words lifte 
stock and ttalkt or knot and naugfU, depends more on quantity than on quality. But 
86 variation of quality has been found to assist discrimination, qualitative divergences' 
have very commonly been introduced between long and short sounds of the same tyjie. 
Thus the short vowels in the initial syllables of German offen and hdlh differ about as 
much from the corresponding one» in of en and kahle aa does our stock from our ttaJk 
vowel. So with our short sounds in click and pull, as compared with our* long ones in 
clique and pool, even when the latter are pronounced as perfectly single vowels. 

For marking long quantity the old macron [ " ] is a fairly effective 

s/g-n when only the six Roman vowels (a^ e^ i^ o^ m, y) are required to 

l^ used:, but for a notation employing maa^ ^tm\:m^\,^j^«»\isA,i\a« 


xiisbed with this mark, some symbol on a sepamte type is necessary, 
such as Mr. Knudsen's adaptation of the macron (a«, «•, e^', e", t>', o^'), 
M^hich we shall use here, as in ha^^v (halve). But this mark may be 
omitted when the accent-mark immediately follows a vowel -sign, as 
ill vro^'/nv (aroma). 

Inquantitativeii Non'Syllahic^ or Transient Vowels. 

No sound can be produced without occupying absolute time in its 
pix)duction. It takes longer to say raw than to say atve^ longer still 
to say draw^ and longer again to say drawn ; that is, supposing the 
vowel ( t)» ) be made of the same length in each of the woids cited. 
But the time occupied in producing the consonant-sounds here added 
to the vowel is not obviously appreciable, like the time of the vowel 
itself. Relatively we may therefore call such sounds in quantitative. 

Any vowel-sound may become similarly inquantitative when pro- 
nounced in combination with another and quantitative vowel-sound 
that receives the stress of the voice. As an illustration, we may 
compare the two English words mossed and moist. These words, as 
they are commonly pronounced, seem to occupy the same time ; but 
in the latter word there is evidently an additional element inserted 
after the quantitative vowel. Similarly with the words noose and 
news^ only in this case the additional inquantitative element in the 
latter word is inserted, not after, but before the quantitative vowel. 

The mid vowels (including »), as well as the various mixed vowels 
of the oe and the fl type, seem incapable of inquantitative use before 
other vowels ; but all classes of vowels are probably capable of such 
use after quantitative vowels. Prefixed inquantitatives, being gene- 
rally varieties of i, e, o, w, or ?/, may be conveniently distinguished in 
precise notation by the breve, or short-mark, as in Italian piu^ kui 
(pill, qui) ; and where this may not be available, by the acute accent 
ON the second vowel, as in Welsh byu (by w). For specially contras- 
tive distinction, the short-mark may also be employed with postfixed 
inquantitatives, as far as types are available (the mark being neces- 
sarily inverted under an inverted letter), as in Italian inai^ hut (mai, 
cui), English mvi voHs (my voice). But in general piactice the latter 
of two conjoined and unmarked vowels would be taken as inquanti- 
tative, all disyllabic collocations being divided by a dot, when they 
are not already separated by the mark of length or of accent. Thus 
the Italian words qui^ cui, ruina, ruinare, fluido would be distinc- 
tively written as kui, kut, i*u'i'na, rwina're, flu'ido, 

Mr. Belville Bell classifies inquantitative vowels, under the name of "glides," as a 
third species of sounds distinct from vowels and consonants. Some less eminent phone- 
ticians class these transient sounds with consonanU oi WieYvo^v^ ^"sisa V^%1 ^K^ih^. ^*^^ 
cannot accept either mode of classification. Makiug o\mc \kTOft5«'^ ^\\\i\wv ^\ '^xxaS^^s*. 


reference to intrinsic quality, and not to advcntitioiu quantity, we obtain two broadly- 
difttinguisbable cUmcs — vowels, wbicb arc made without organic percussion or fricUoD; 
and consonants, which ore made with such friction or i>ercus8ion. If we divide vowdB 
again, according as they happen to be quantitative or inqnantitaiive, efficient elements 
of syllables or not, so as to class i in eoil^ for example, as a sound essentially distinct in 
character from i in quit I ; then we ought to discriminnte consonants into two clissesof 
sounds, according as they happen to be quantitative or iiiquantitative, efficient elements 
of syllables or not; and so / in notables would be classed apart from / in noiailg. But 
if we do not consider the essential nature of consonants to be changed by their becoming 
the quantitative and principal elements of syllables, neither should vowels be deemed to 
lose their essential character by becoming iuquantitativc and subsidiary dements. 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs, 

A diphthong consists of a quantitative vowel preceded or followed 
1)y an inqiiantitative one, as in the Italian words /^tu, mat (plu', ma!). 
Here the quantitative or syllabic vowel is u in the former word, and 
a in the latter, wliile in either case the inquantitative vowel is I, 

A triphthong consists of a quantitative vowel both preceded and 
followed by an inquantitative one, as in the Italian word suoi (suoi), 
Hero the syllabic vowel is o, and the non-syllabic ones are H and i. 

The vowels most commonly used in language as inquantitative 
I'lenients of diphthongs and triphthongs are the full-front vowel i, 
and the full-back vowel u; and some writers on phonetics appear 
to bo unacijuainted with diphthongs or triphthongs having any other 
vowels as iiKjuaiititative elements. But diphthongs and triphthongs ' 
may be formed, and are actually used, which have various other 
sounds for their initial or final transients (as inquantitative vowels 
may be concisely termed). In fact, with the exception that mid 
vowels and mixed vowels of the w and the /? type cannot be used as 
initial transients, almost any combination of two vowels may form a 
diphthong, provided one of the two becomes non-syllabic. But the 
diphthongal effect of vowel combinations is more obvious in propor- 
tion to the distance between the organic positions of the combined 
vowels ; or, putting it conversely, the closer the elements of a diph- 
thong ai)proximate in their organic formation, the less evident is the 
composite character of the sound. Thus eveiybody recognises the 
existence of a diphthong in English foil (fo*il or fo*i4) ; but the 
compound nature of the sound mjile (fisjl or feil) is imperceptible to 
some persons, and that of the sound in/ai7 (feel or i&V\) to many. 

The syllabic vowel of a diphthong may be short or long. When 
the transient is initial, the quantity of the syllabic vowel is just as 
obvious, and may bo as significant, as vowel quantity in any other 
connection, as in the initial syllables of squalid^ squally (skuo^l'i^^d, 
skQO'Vi^) ; but when the transient is fiual, difference of quantity in 
the syllabic vowel is less mamiest, and ad^om ^\^\\^^i^\!i\.,>i3ciw^^\\. 



does occur, as in coy^ quoit (ko*»i or kb'j®, ko*it). When the initial 
- syllabic vowel of a diphthong is thus long (as all such vowels may 
be made in singing them to a long note), an intermediate organic 
position is often taken before that of the transient is reached, as in 
ibVl, dod); (coy, die). 

A pretty &iniliar and accessible instance of a different initial transient from i or u 
is afforded in such French words as lui, suite (ly^i, sy^iit). Another mixed vowel of the 
same series is nsed in Welsh b^io (byu), and a third in English duel (dt^u'd). And no 
doubt any Towel of this series can be nsed as a prefixed transient. Vowels of the e and 
the o type are also similarly employed, as in Italian words like aveamo, toave (aivea'mo, 
s^a've), or in French words Vikt poSle, poll (p8e»il, p8a*l). 

As samples of variety in terminal transients, we may cite especially the Welsh diph- 
thongs aey at, au (aS, ai, ay), and oe^ oi, ou (oS, ot, oy), in which the difference of the 
finals often serves to distinguish the meaning of words. Vowels of the e and the o type 
are final transients in many languages, but it will be sufficient to cite as examples a few 
phonetically- written words from different languages; thus — Italian, inaestm, Paolo; 
Portnguese, pan, deos, vio, moeda; Chinese, Taeping, Skanghae; Maori, ae, Paora 
( = yes, Paul). Greneral-value ae and ao perhaps approach nearer than do ai and au to 
our English diphthongs mjile and foul; but these latter, as idiomatically pronounced, 
afford examples of diphthongs that have mixed vowels both for their syllabic and their 
transient elements, whichever of two current forms is used (feil, feiil, or fejl, faoAil). 
Mid vowels, also, may be terminal transients, as in Italian beano, oast (be&'n9, oa'si) ; 
Boomanian measH, soare (me*a'sB, so*S're) ; Cockney pare, pore (pe^, po*5 or pb«) ; 
rustic English great coat (grevt ko^t). And examples of variety in final inqoantitivcs 
might be greatly multiplied, if our space permitted. 

Whispered Vowels. 

Vowel-sounds may be audibly pronounced with whisper, or semi- 
voiced breath. In whispered speech all vowels are thus made ; but 
whispered vowels also occur occasionally in ordinary speech. Com- 
binations of consonants which most Europeans easily utter (as joZ, hr^ 
pt^ sik^ St) are unpronounceable to some peoples, who therefore inter- 
polate whispered vowels between such contiguous consonants ; and 
doubtless the e of French esprit was at first prefixed as a whispered 
vowel to facilitate utterance. Conversely, where the French final 
"mute" e is pronounced at all, it is reduced to whisper after breath 
consonants, as with acte^ risque (a«kta, riska). In English, vowels 
in obscure syllables, and occurring between two breath consonants, 
are usually whispered, as in the initial syllables of capacity^ petition^ 
successful (kwpses'i^ti®, pe^tiysh'-BU, s»kses'fu<>l), or in the final syllables 
of compass^ countess^ ti^umpet (k9om'p»s, k-BAin'tis, treom'pit) ; and the 
inquantitative elements of diphthongs, when immediately preceded 
or followed by breath consonants, are similarly whispered, especially 
in unaccented syllables, as may be discerned on comparing mutual^ 

finite {mVu'ttywBly f'Bi'weit). This frequent \^\i\s^t\xi^ o\ wix Oo^rnsl^ 
vowels aecounta for difficulty in detenmiimg \3afeYC Oaax^fcXsst^^xi^'^*^^ 

the paucity of vowel sound which fore\gv\eT% xeuvauTWcL q»x« ^'ge^^* 



Naaal Vowels. 

If the uvula be lowered while a vowel-sound is uttered, so as to 
allow part of the voice to pass through the nose, a nasal tone will 
1)0 imparted to the sound, as the effect of the additional resonance 
cavity thus provided in the nose passages. The lowering of the 
uvula may vary in degree, from a slight and unconscious relaxation 
caused by physical infirmity or indolent habit, to a wide and inten- 
tional opening. In the former case, all vowels and many consonants 
are slightly but undesignedly nasalized ; in the latter, strong nasal- 
ity is imparted, by intention and under organic control, to particular 
sounds, as a means of significantly distinguishing them from others. 
The final consonant -sounds of bag^ wad^ and rub are respectively 
changed into the distinctive ones of bang, wan^ and rum, by opening 
the uvula for the latter three sounds in addition to taking the same 
mouth-positions as for the former three. In a similar way, the three 
vowel -sounds of the above words (se, t), 8o) may be modified into 
significantly different ones by producing them with the uvula open 
as for ng. 71, or in (but without the mouth-position for g, d, or b). 
Thus, by adding to the vowels of the English words sat, loss (saet, 
lo*s) the full nasality which may be symbolized by " a " (italic a), we 
get very nearly the pronunciation of the French words sainte, lance 
— intelligible as sasa^t, ld^a*s, but more correct as S€^a*t, Icfia^s, 

Even intended and significant nasalization of vowels may vary in degree. In Polish 
the nasalization is considerably less than in French; and taking these two languages as 
exemplifying the minimum and the maximum of significant nasality, we may cite Hin- 
dustani and Portuguese as exhibiting intermediate degrees of such quality. In Polish 
the oral qualities of vowels are little modified by the addition of nasal tone ; while in 
Hindustani and Portuguese these oral qualities are so far retained as to admit of nasal 
diphthongs with more or less divergent elements, as in H. main (maXn), P. eaes (kaSas). 
])ut in French the distinctive qualities of front and back sounds are effaced by the strong 
nasalization, and there remain but four varieties of nasal vowel, which may all be termed 
midward — namely, e*n, a"n, on, cea (nearly, ajn, ba, o"n, a)ri). 

On the principle that the distinctive quality of different vowel-sounds is produced by 
varying the extent of the resonance chamber in front of the aperture of emission, it is 
easy to account for the tendency of nasalization to modify front or back vowels. The 
opening of the uvula provides an additional aperture of emission, and the nasal passages 
become an additional resonance chamber. The quality of the .full nasal resonance is 
similar to the oral one for the vowel in can (sc), so that a certain inteijectional utterance 
used by naughty children in a sneering and taunting manner, and which is only "nan I" 
(or a prolonged emission of voice through the nose without oral utterance), appears to 
sound like "fpnfrarca I" 'When this ne-like resonance is added in full degree to the oral 
resonances of front or back vowels, the result is ori-nasal mixed resonances of a discord- 
ant character, wliich speakers instinctively avoid by substituting oral resonances as far 
approximating towards "an" as arc available for necessary sense-distinctions. Thus the 
original French ia and ud have become e^a aniV oea. 

Printed bv W. R. Evans, 3 Gloucester SlrteV., Civfifi«.^cjaaift,>J^xi,^a,% «A. 

Published bv F. Pitmaiv, 20 PaienxoaX^x ^^ , ^^ . 




(Not issued by the English Spelling Reform Association^ 

No. 26— Vol. II.] NOVEMBER, 1882. \_Price One Penny 


How distinguishable from Vowel-sounds. 

If we have intellig-ibly expressed ourselves in speaking* of vowel- 
sounds, we shall have been understood to propound, that the charac- 
teristic qualities of such sounds are produced by free resonance or 
reverberation of crude voice (or whisper) within resonance cavities 
situated between inner apertures of emission and outer apertures of 
exit. On the other hand, the characteristic qualities of consonant- 
sounds are mainly produced either by arrest and succeeding explo- 
sion, or by frictional obstruction, of updriven breath or voice (or 
whisper). Broadly speaking, therefore, vowels may be regarded as 
musical sounds, and consonants as unmusical noises. As an illus- 
tralion, we may say that a vowel is analogous to a sound made by 

m deftly blowing into a bottle, so as to convert it into a resonance 
chamber for breath (which will be the more illustrative if to some 
extent "voiced"); and that a consonant is analogous to a noise pro- 
duced by blowing (unvoiced or voiced breath) with the lips tightly 
round the bottle-neck and then suddenly withdrawing the contact, 
or by blowing against the neck so as to cause audible friction, with 
or without exciting the bottle's resonance. 

I In describing the characteristic qifalities of consonants as mainly 

produced by explosive or frictional action, we qualify our expression 
— (1) because the quality of an explosive or fricative noise (which 
in speech we might respectively call a pop or puff, and a fizz or hiss) 
must be to some extent affected by the size and shape of any cavity 
within which such noise is produced; and (2) because some con- 
sonants have the quality of more or less perfect vocal resonance 
combined with their explosive or frictional effect. The bottle serves 
again for illustration here ; for it will be found — (1) not only that 
a bottle partly filled with water, so as to diminish its resonance 
cavity, gives a different vowel-like so\md iiOTCLl\i^^^\i\Ki!cs.^3cL<^'$si^ 
bottle yields when empty, but that it produc^^ «i. ^oxckfir^\kaN. $ij^'5t^eti^» 


coiiAonant-Iike effect when the lips are suddenly withdrawn h*om 
air-confiiiing contact with the bottle-neciL, or when air is frictionally 
blown against or into it ; and (2) that air may be so blown into the 
neck of a bottle as to cause frictional noise and resonant sound to be 
heard in combination. But still the broad distinction remains that a 
vowel is a musical sound made without explosion or friction, and 
that a consonant is an unmusical noise made with explosion or fric- 
tion, with or without combined musical tone. 

The Material of Consonant-sounds. 

Consonants can be possibly made to an almost equal extent either 
of breath or of voice (includuig whisper). Behind almost any com- 
plete or partial consonantal closure of the organs, we may force up 
breath to produce one distinctive variety of a typical sound (as p% 
or voice to produce another (as b). Thus we obtain from every such 
cloHiire a pair of sounds alike as to form, but different as to material 
and as to sense-conveying effect. 

Using figurative but perfectly intelligible terms, we may say that 
breath is a thin and light material, voice a dense and heavy one. If 
the reader wishes to realiz(3 the actual difference between these two 
materials — breath issuing unmodified from the lungs as from a pair 
of bellows, and voice made from breath by vibration at the larynx 
—let him prolong the sound of /(not c/, but simply the consonantal 
sound), very gradually withdrawing the lower lip from the upper 
teeth, while continuing the steady emission of breath. Then let him 
prolong the sound of v (not vt', but here again merely the consonan- 
tal sound), very gradually dropping the lip as before, without any 
break in emission. In the former case, he will have some diflSculty 
in feeling the audible effect of steadily-emitted breath unmodified 
by any frictional mouth -position — an effect hardly more palpable 
than that produced by a butterfly's wings in free flight. In the 
latter case, the audible effect of voice .similarly unmodified will be 
in comparison as perceptible as " the drowsy murmur of the droning 
bees," the sound resembling that of the former vowel in career («), 
and that of the vowels in curt and cut (9, 90), though not having the 
distinctive quality of any one of them. The reader may smilarly 
experiment with the middle consonant-sound in vicious (viyj'«s) and 
the corresponding voiced one in vision (viy3'Bn) ; and if he is familiar 

\ with the central consonant-sound in German lachen (la'xan) and its 

\ voiced correspondent in lagen (l^'gan), he may treat them in a like 

manner, and thus realize not ojAy the difference between breath and 

voice as material of speech, btit a\so tY^emodl^-^w^ effects of various 

organic adjustments in moiddiiig t\i© oiie\d«c^Ac«5L xcaX^tv^ <i\\jt<5»asv 

or the other identical material oi vo\c«. 


The Forms of Consonant-sounds, 

We have already said that there are two principal forms of con- 
sonant-sounds — the shut or explodent, made by forcing up breath or 
voice against complete organic closures, and then suddenly relaxing 
these closures ; and the open or continuant, produced by impelling 
breath or voice through organic adjustments suflSciently constricted 
to cause audible friction, though not total obstruction. But the 
audible effect of either explosion or friction at a given position may 
be varied by combining sound of another quality with the sound of 
the explosion or friction ; while the audible effect of friction at any 
given position may be varied by altering the form without changing 
the locality of the fricative aperture. We have therefore varieties 
of shut and open consonants, produced not only by the position or 
locality at which they are made, but by quite other conditions. 

As the organic adjustments for explodent consonants consist in 
complete closure, the characteristic effects of such consonants can 
only be varied either by continuing the emission of breath (or voice) 
as contact is released, or by adding nasal resonance. The former 
effect may be realized by saying a pill^ a bore^ with such additional 
( emission of breath or voice as is used respectively in uphill^ abhor. 
The effect of nasal resonance is added by opening the uvula before 
the explosion. For example, in m or n we have a nasal hum com- 
bined respectively with the oral thud of b or d. Thus we have the 
three forms of Simple, Aspikated, and Nasal Bxplodents. 

While flexible doors like the lips and the tongue are capable of 
shutting at many different local positions, they are naturally capable 
of partial opening at as many positions, and in various forms at each 
position. Consequently the forms of open consonants naade at any 
given local position are more numerous than the forms of shut ones. 
Thus, while the only other varieties of voice explodent made at any 
d position are the corresponding d'h and n (which latter, indeed, is a 
continuant sound as regards, its nasal resonance), there can be made 
by diverse open adjustments at the same local position the different 
voice continuant sounds typified by t$, £^, r, and I — to say nothing at 
present of the mere degree of openness, or of modification produced 
by making a simultaneous but less decided closure at another local 
position. And even in the four types of open consonants just exem- 
plified we have no sound of the same type as the initial one of yield^ 
made at another local position. Taking, then, these five types as 
our guides, we may recognise the five distinctive forms of SIMPLE, 
Sibilant, Vibeant, Liquid, and Vocal Continuants. 

It is impracticable to make our nomenclatore for conftowant^ e^^VxAn&tvs^^Vl ^"Ql^ ^^<^« 
Biveljr de&nitiva at the same time that it ia concVae. kVL c^^^iv iL<^T^Q''QiS»\s^ ^^'''' "sc^k^ 

^ f'# -^ 








Tongue-point - 

— reverted 


i . to upper. 

to Teeth. 

to Teeth. 

to (^MK. 

to Folate 

to Palate^ 

1. SunpUhTfXh p 


^d, o. 

rire, F. 



hnr/, PR. 

8K. cer. t 







2. Aspirated b. 



i/ire, F. 



ketd, PR. 


8K. cer. d 


t«h fh zh 

\ 8K. aspd.jD 

^ • 

81. up. / 

cer. / aspd. 

d«h ^ 


V. bh 





3. j\'cw(i/ 


8K. aspd. b 


9K. asp. d 



cer. i/ aspd. . 










kampf, 0. 

Mid, F. 


earn, pr. 

SK. cer. f7 



4. Simple 


* rgpph 

M.O. phi. 



1 J» ^ t^ th 

8P. ft soft r 

imprfl V, 



P v' elbh 





d8-dh8 4h 

M.o. beta 



8P. soft d 

imperf. r. 


5. Sibilant 







8^ 9 



no, Tvsc. 


cnr^, PR. 






Z f 


Z^z f 




man«o, T. 


eur«, PR. 

A. fiP 

6. Vibrant 







'r8 *r 




notre, F. 

w. M 


cr^, PR. 


o.E. «;;'iing 


ripa, IT. 


rust, PR. 

HIND. cer. r 

7. Liquid 








1 ^ 


c/ad, PR. 

18 I ~ 



/ire, p. 


/ad, PR. 

ZULU rfA//' 

8. FocaZ 












— . 









Contractione, — a.,ar., Arabic; F.,Freiicli; o., German; hind., Hindustani; »., Irish; 
IT., Italian; M.G., Modern Greek; o.E., Old English; o.c.. Occasional Cockney; 
PK., Provincial; SK., Sanskrit; sp., Spanish; T., Tusc, Tuscan; w., Welsh. 

Modi/lers in Table. — [ * ] prefixed makca \iTea\i\i ftym>ao\& trom 'qox^ ^-a«&\ 
[ *] suSSied means forward or outer, and ^ ."\ tcm^m^ otTSBOfcx VsrnaS^-. 
C ^J indicates iwerted tongue-point to ipaiate-, \.;>"\ c«w»^ftT^Bf»•>l«?•^^ft^JM^ 

"^ ^Vi ^ C V »r>.^<J- U- ^ ^ -fl_ ^ 




PHAKlk* ^ 
GAL. :«i 





KU8S ^1 /* 
RUSS dx? 


diy»it^, IT. 

4) 9'^d»' 


(;Aatui', SK. 


/ana, SK. 


c^Aura, SK. 
y^agiti, SK. 


- k^a, IT. 

Vs ch 

r^t, G. 

•r-it' i.S 3 jh 

5) J'-sh' 

ftehen, g. 

6) «j' 
crease, o.c. 

grease, o.c. 

7) Y 


%fi, IT. 

8) 'J* 

occlui, IT. 


fi//e, r. 

rc^en, g. 

J 8 § sh 

3 z g zh 


crab, o.c. 

grab, o.c. 

retracted advanced\ normal. 



//egar, sp. 




M.G. a: f 





S0^»0, IT, 

fol^en, G. 

^Mlaf, G. 
yaune, p 

crop, o.c 

grot, o.c. 

//ore, SP. 





yeese, IB. 






cri, p. 

gris, I. 




SK. asp. k 

8K. asp. y 

'g 'n 'ng 


9 2g^ 


la^Aen, g. 
la^en, g. 





(^, IR. 

yall, IR. 





cnn, p. 


graiu, P. 


ko k q 
AR. qaf 

go g 9 
yrand, p. 

koh k-h 






bo^eu, G. 

Xo-kho kh 

AR. kha 


AR. gkain 

cran, p. 
grand, P. 

Pol. gut. /. 






h (-h)* 

^e, ^oe 
cr. voice 



Qsl. voice 

H h 

AR. .ain 

trilled khi 

Northn. ^«rr 



Additional Modifiers. — [ ' ] denofes close, and [ i ] open formation, as with vowels ; 
^ h ] represents a breath, and [^ ] a voice glide from a consonant-sound; 

w J n J express severally simultaneous labio-guttnral, palatal, or nasal sound ; 
. ' ] signifies vibration added to non-vibrants, or increased with vibrants. 
♦ The sign 'A is used where plain h might form o^ di^^ m^ ^"^^^'^^^^s^^^^sfs^sss^- 
letter; bat fA and th\ &c,, are distinguiahed \)y t\ie ^wVC\wl qINX^^^ ws5a.^«. 


enough to penons brought up to the use of them ; bat we apply the tenn to consonaiits 
made by simple opeaingrs in the same positions as contacts for corresponding explodents. 
There is more or less ''sibilant" and "vibrant" effect with all open consonants; but 
aibilation is especially obvious with one class, and vibration with another. Yibrants and 
Liquids are to a considerable extent "vocal/' and Vocals are somewhat "vibrant" and 
*' liquid;" yet each class of sounds seems to possess in an especial degree one particular 
quality out of those common to several classes. 

Local Positions of Consonant-production. 

/ Conflonantal closures are effected by the contact or approximation 

of one mobile organ with or towards another, or of a mobile organ 
with or towards a fixed portion of the voice-channel, so as entirely 
or partially to intercept breath or voice. The mobile organs within 
the compass of the voice-channel are — the lips, the lower teeth, the 
tongue, the uvula, the walls of the pharynx, and the edges of the 
glottis. The entire or partial closures of the voice-channel that can 
possibly be effected by mutual action among these organs, or by the 
action of some of them upon fixed portions of the voice-channel, are 
the following : — 

* 1. I^wer Lip to Upper Lip (mutual) ; 
2. Lower Lip (active) to Upper Teeth 
(passive) ; 

+3. Lower Teeth to Upper Lip (mutual) ; ^11. Tongue-front (a.) to Palate-front (p.); 

• 9. Tongue-point (a.) to Palat e-rini (p.) ; ^ 

• 10. Reverted Tongue-point (a.}'!o^a]iite- /^ 
front (p.) ; 

12. Tongue-back (a.) to Palate-back (p.); X 

13. Tonjeue-back to Uvula (mutual) ; 

14. Tongue-back (a.) to Throat (p.) ; 

15. Walls of Pharynx (mutual); 

16. Edges of Glottis (mutual). 

/ • ■^4. Tongue- point to Upper Lip (mutual) ; 
^ +5. Tongue-front to Upper Lip (mutual) ; 
+6. Tongue-point to Lower and Tongue- 
front to Upper Lip (mutual) ; 
' 7. Tongue-point (a.) to Upper Teeth (p.) ; 
I 8. Tongue-point (a.) to Upper Gums (p.) ; 

. [It should be stated that the term "front" is here conventionally and conveniently 
used, as it is by Messrs. Bell, Ellis, and Sweet, in contradistinction not only to "back" 
of tongue or palate, but to "point" of tongue or "rim" of palate. The position thus 
indicated is identical with that of the full-front vowel t.] 

We have here sixteen possible modes of either entirely or partially 
closing the voice-channel by organic action. Four of these, marked 
with a small cross ( + ), seem to be too inconvenient or too inelegant 
for practical use, though they may be advantageously used by way 
of experimental illustration. We have therefore twelve modes of 
closure left, including two (the pharyngal and the glottidal) which 
are scarcely used in European tongues, at least for sense-distinction. 
Of these, the " Tongue-back to Uvula " and the " Tongue-back to 
Throat " are varieties of one position, used with different FORMS of 
sound ; while the few pharyngal and glottidal consonants may con- 
veniently be considered as belonging to a single position. Thus we 
have ten distinct positions. But it is quite feasible to bring either 
the tongue-front or the tongue-back against the palate at three 
positions sufficiently divergent to produce idiomatic shade varieties 
of sound; 80 that, after all, ioxnteew poaVWowa m\sa\. \i^ mdLcQ^ted.^ 
in order to put our consoaaat on a pat m\^ ovw NQ^^Tici\aJ^Q\i. 




It may here be mentioned that the positions for consonant closures are but partially 
coincident with those for vowel apertures. Vowel sound, being sound of musical quality^ 
requires a considerable fore-resonance as an essential condition of its production ; but 
consonant sound, being noise of more or less unmusical character, does not require any 
fore-resonance for its production (as in the case of €f> orpk, the purely labial breath con- 
tinuant), and is differentiated into rarious audibly distinct varieties (as/, = (k, and #) 
without the aid of as large a resonance as that required for the most forward vowel — t. 
The first forward coincidence of consonantal with vowel resonance is found at the most 
advanced '^ tongue-front to palate" closure, iliis position being employed for the last 
consonant-sounds of Grerman dicA, wenige, and the initial one of English ya, as well aa 
for the vowel s. On the other hand, Vowel apertures extend considerably further back 
than the most rearward of the ordinary consonant closures, the closure fur the final con- 
tinuant in German achy as well as the contact for the final explodent in English ark, 
being coincident in position with the vowel aperture for normal a, the initial sound of 
both words. After arriving independently at this conclusion, by passing whisper through 
apertures for vowels and through closures for continuant consonants, we were glad to 
observe, on reference, that Mr. Melville Bell and other eminent phoneticians had already 
reached similar results. 

The question now arises, On what principle, and to what extent 
shall we attempt to indicate by nomenclature the local positions of 
consonantal closures ? Where an active and a passive part meet for 
a closure, we may take the active or the passive as the foundation 
of our terminology, and so of two co active parts we may take the 
more or the less active ; or we may in either case attempt to indicate 
the more and the less active of meeting parts. By the first mode 
we should make /a labial sound, by the second a dental, and by the 
third a labio-dental. The last would be the most precise plan ; but, 
consistently carried out, it would involve the use of designations like- 
" cuspilinguali-f rontipalatal." 

The early grammarians and orthoepists recognised only three local positions for the 
formation of consonants, and the Eton Greek Grammar to this day preserves the antique 
classification ''Labiales, Gutturales, Linguales," for sounds made in the local positions 
indicated by p^ k, t. This lax and incongruous nomenclature was somewhat improved 
by Sheridan into "Labial, Dental, and Palatine," and by Walker into "Labial, Dental, 
and Guttural," for the above-indicated classes of sounde in the order p, t, k. But in 
all of these classifications various and unrelated sounds were disposed of under the head 
of "Liquids." 

Later phoneticians perceived the inadequacy of such tri -local arrangements even for 
English sounds, and Mr. Isaac Pitman in particular brought into vogue a quadri-local 
^vision as the basis of his symmetrical Phonographic alphabet, using the suggestive 
and very approximative terms "Labial, Dental, Palatal, and Guttural." Even in thia 
nomenclature, however, no designation was provided that would properly apply to the 
Hindu "Cerebral" t d n r (made with the tongue-point turned up and back towards. '9^ 
the centre of the palatal arch), or to the Semitic "Gutturals" (really produced in the 
throat, and not at the palate- back). 

Mr. Melville Bell, followed by Messrs. Ellis and Sweet, adopted the method of claa- 
sifying consonantal positions according to the active organs employed in producing the 
sounds, applying the terms Point, Front, and Back ioi d^€t€Q\> ^q^\(svs& ^\*0&&\Ri^^g:^. 
The terminology thus produced is perhaps iutnnsvcoS^^ motft igt^€«ftS5wsoL*^^ ^Ji^Kt ^s^i&v 



but it is also less familiar, and less convenient in providing available derivative adjectives 
and verbs; so tbat phoneticians who use the new nomendatore still speak of a palatal k, 
a gutturalized/, a palatalized r, &c. 

On the whole, we think it expedient, for the primary division of 
consonantal positions, to use the conventional terms Labial, Dental, 
Cerebral, Palatal, and Guttural. Somewhat arbitrary as these desig- 
nations are, they are practically convenient and effective ; while the 
addition of the epithet Pharyngal, for the few and comparatively 
rare sounds actually made in the throat, will render the series com- 
plete. At the same time, we are enabled, by subsidiary use of the 
new terminology, to indicate more exactly the organic closures for 
both generic and specific varieties of sound. 


The Receipts and the Expenditure of our little Sustentation Fund are snmmarized in 
the subjoined abstract, comparison of which with our cash-book and vouchers has, for 
regularity's sake, been obligingly made by the Secretary of the E. S. R. A. In render- 
ing this account of our stewardship, we beg to thank our Subscribers heartily for the 
confidence reposed in us by their contribution of this fund. We have only drawn upon 
it for out-of-pocket expenses, without making any charge for our own literary or typo- 
graphical labour, or for extra rent, lighting, &c. ; though we have not stinted ourselves 
in occasional petty disbursements for special types or additional material required for 
effective or convenient production of our small journal. Expenses having been rather 
heavier than we anticipated, the fund which we intended to last us for sixteen issues has 
been exhausted on thirteen, including two of twelve pages each. 

We have received such generous support from a few of our friends as to render us 
disinclined to trespass further on their liberality; while, on the other hand, we have 
received no recognition from seven-eighths of tbe recipients of the Experimenter — a 
publication which has practically no sale, though it is pretty largely distributed by post, 
not only to its subscribers and to all the members of the L. S. R. A., but to many other 
persons at home or abroad known to be interested in Spelling Reform. It might, then, 
not be unreasonable to expect such appreciation as woidd produce more subscriptions of 
moderate amount, rather than more donations from oiu* few liberal supporters. Should 
no such appreciatiou be evinced, it may be necessary to cease publication with the close 
of "Phonetic Outlines'* in our next number; though we had contemplated to follow on 
with a series of articles applying our principles to practical orthography, while leaving 
room for specimens of spelling and other matter coming to hand. 


To Subscriptions acknowledged 

in Nos. 14 and 15 ... 12 6 8 

ditto ditto in No. 16... 2 15 

ditto ditto in No. 21 ... 16 6 

Subscrp. from Mr. I. Pitman 5 

Deficit ... 10 8 

By Out-of-pocket Expenditure 
since August Slst, 1881, 
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Leaving the expenses of this present issue unpaid. 

Compared with Cash-book and Vouchers, 


Printed by W. R. Evans, 3 Glouceatet Strefcl, C^uwa^.^oj^^^.'^^^^^*^-^** ««^ 
Published by Y. Pitman, ^0 l?ai«nvotA«t ^w« ,^.^. 





No. 27— Vol. II.] DECEMBKK, 1882. iPrice One Penny 


[^Continued from p. 84.] 

Remarks on the Table of Consonant-sounds. 
We have endeavoured to make our Table pretty complete, both 
as to the more prevalent of seose-distinguishiug sounds, and as to 
non-significative varieties of these sounds, because we consider that 
the parts of a scheme cannot be adequately appreciated unless their 
correlation in the entire plan is made intelligible. Phoneticians who 
are able to follow our more minute distinctions of soimd will experi- 
ence no diflficulty from our including shade variations which do not 
distinguish meaning, but are either idiomatic in national or provin- 
cial pronunciations, or due to the modifying effect of one conjoined 
sound upon another. At the same time, the merest tyro in phonetics 
should be assisted rather than embarrassed by the exemplification of 
unknown or unnoticed distinctions of sound in systematic connection 
with familiar and appreciable ones. When it is understood that the 
marks [ ' ] and [ ^ ], like the small diacritical letters added to vowel- 
signs, are intended merely for critical indication, and not to be used 
for writing in detail, it will be found that there are only seven 
colunms of typical sense-distinguishing sounds, while most of these 
columns are but partially filled up. Thus we have only some ninety 
principal sounds to consider, about a third of which are employed in 
received English, and perhaps another third in provincial speech. 

As for our notation, wc have intended to apply every letter of the Roman alphabet 
in its original typical sense, or in one indicated by historical development of not merely 
national extent. The deficiencies of this alphabet we have supplied — (1) by adopting 
diacriticized letters firom enlarged Romanic alphabets; (2) by using Greek letters with 
their special national values ; (3) by employing Mr. I. Pitman's effective and widely- 
accepted new consonant letters; (4) by utilizing inverted types, whether of lettrri or 
of figures ; (5) by the admission of digraphs as alternative signs for any unusual types ; 
and (6) by using generally accessible printing-types as separate diacritical signs. We 
have thus been enabled not only to provide distinctive symbols for nearly two hundred 
primary varieties of sound, and to give often the choice of two or more equivalents, but 
also to furnish means for indicating hundreds of secondary modifications (as a;^, 8', x*, 
for the final sounds of German ^»<7A = bu»x*, I)aT\\%\i Gad=^>3^^, %»!^L'$iH(v«i ^«t\fi«sv 
Aawi = ba»x^). Merely tentative and suggestive as t\Mi hoXaXvcsdi ticl-k^ \it,\\.^^ ^^^^ ^xa. 
present purpose of represent'mg sounds iu a diacussvoTX ol Wvea \«toa^wA\€«&C\^^>*- 



Survejf of the Tabulated Consonant^saunds. 
1. — Simple Explodents. 

p, t, t* (t, «), c, k, ka (V, q), %^ with forward C) or rearward ( ^ ) 
varieties. — To 8ome readers the array of symbols presented here, and 
the more extensive one running across the Table, may appear exces- 
sive ; but we hope soon to show that we have not been extravagant 
in our provision of distinctive symbols, and that even a larger num- 
ber might have been admissible. The variety of possible "stops," 
as explodent contacts are often concisely termed, is actually almost - 
indefinite. These stops require consideration at some length, since 
they are the most characteristic as well as the most prevalent of 
consonant-soimds, and will therefore be useful as points of reference 
in describing the other forms of consonants. 

It ought to be thorooghly understood at the outset that it is not by any occult and 
mysterious influence of lip upon lip or teeth, or of tongue upon teeth or palate, that the 
appreciable distinction is caused between two sounds of the same form produced at dif- 
ferent local positions (as/> and /, or/ and f). 'We doubt, indeed, whether the material 
qualities of the organs of speech, as softness or hardness, roundness or flatness, dryness 
or muistncss, have much to do with producing the distinction between p and t, or that 
between t and k ; for continued investigation leads us now to conclude, more decidedly 
than we stated at page 77 in our last number, that the difference of sound in such cases 
is caused chiefly by the existence and extent of fore-resonance. 

If an investigator will lay along the top of his lower lip a bone paper-knife, or any 
similar object of innocuous material, or press his lip down with his fore finger laid along 
it, he will fiud that the contact of the intruded object with the upper lip will enable him 
to produce quite distinctly a />-sound, as in pa. He may then lay the front of his right 
fore finger along the lower lip, and the back of his left fore finger along the upper, and, 
letting the right finger move with the lower lip, make a contact and explosion between 
the fingers, pronouncing pa again in this way. 

Next he may protrude the tongue a little beyond the upper lip, and, with the tongue- 
point turned slightly downwards, make a firm contact with the lip above. By sudden 
release of this contact, so as to explode compressed breath, he will be able to pronounce 
pa without any aid from the lower lip ; while the upper lip may also be dispensed with 
by substituting a finger for the tongue to act against. It is also practicable to make an 
unmistakable ;?- sound between the tongue and the upper teeth, if the lips are held right 
away, so that neither they nor the fingers holding them shall form a resonance cavity. 

These experiments go to show that an explosion direct upon the outer air from any 
contact forming an absolutely exterior mouth-closure will produce the typical sound of ;i, 
which is significantly employed in the imitative words ''pop" and ''puff'* to indicate 
specific varieties of such explosion. We have seen that even the linguo-dental contact 
normally used for an advanced ^-souud can be made to give the p effe ct Therefore it 
would appear that the substantial difference between p and t is (Ine to the latter having, 
and the former not having, a resonance cavity in front of its explosion. 

To test the inference just stated, let the curious investigator take a pill-box, an inch 

deep and an inch or more in diameter, and cut in the bottom an ovoid aperture [ <=> ] to 

represent a slight opening of the lips. Now, while the left hand holds the entirely open 

end of the hoi. firmly against the ^ps, \el tike i[^«lm ol W^ fv^\.\ASGA^\\<^l\^ oluit up the 

aperture in. the outer end. On pronouiLcmf^ ti VxAo \\ie\Ksx., -w^^' vcms^^aattxM^ vb^ 



smartlj withdrawing the right hand from the exterior apertnre, ji will he heard. Next 
let the operator hold the hox hard against the lips with hoth hands, and utter /}t into it, 
taking care to allow no breath to escape at the comers of the mouth, when ti will be the 
sound actually heard. 

Even with the improvised appliance of a piece of cardboard or stiff paper rolled into 
a tube, tit ei (nearly "chee"), ki^ or even 0/, gi, xh **» *^> ^<> &c., are all turned into 
pi, when spoken into the tube as the hand is suddenly withdrawn from closing its outer 
end. To perform the converse permutation of pi into ci and it, we require a tube of two 
inches in length for the former, and another of three inches for the latter, each having a 
front aperture like that of the inch-deep pill-box that turns pi into ti, 

•» Kealizing now the effect of fore-resonance in varying the types of explpdent conso- 

nants, the experimenter may revert to simple organic contacts. After having produced 

f a satisfactory p with the tongue and the apper lip, he may proceed to try the effects of 
successive contacts with the tongue very slightly drawn inwards at each effort. He will 
find his />-sound becoming less distinctive at each step, until, when the tongue-point is 
just within the outer edge of the lip, he will produce a curious amalgam between p and t 

T (used by children, and accounting for divergent word-forms like Lat. papa, Rum. tala), (fiit>^ 
Then, as he still withdraws the tongue until the poiut is level with the outer surface of * "^ 

the upper teeth, he will hear a very delicate /-sound, which is sometimes used on the 
Continent, and may be marked by t*\ Not, however, till the tongue just passes the 
edges of the teeth, and makes a contact with them on the inside, will the experimenter 
reach the f of our Table. He will then find it feasible to make at least one intervening 
contact before he comes to our plain t, fairly up on the gum; and it will require another 
shift or two to bring him to the t, of South- West England, which by some phoneticians 
is considered to be used in received speech before r, as in track (t^rsek). " 

Continuing to turn back the already slightly reverted tongue-point, the investigator 
will arrive at the place of Sanskrit t^, at nearly the same position to which another part 
of the tongue is raised for the iuitial sound of English yet ( j ). This is about as far as 
the tongue-point will conveniently serve us in making distinctive stops. 

The experimenter may now commence operations with what is technically termed 
the front of the tongue. Turning the tongue-point downwards, until it presses firmly 
against the base of the lower gum on the inside of the mouth, he may apply the tongue- 
front to make contacts with the upper teeth and gum, and with the rim of the palatal 
arch. Proceeding by gradations from the rim to what is technically termed the front 
of the palate, he will find the characteristic effect of the t type of sound giving place to 
that of the type which we express by c in the Table, and which is substantially repre- 
sented by the initial sound of English chin (ciJ'n, or often cfiTn). 

But here we may remark that in some persons' palates (as in our own) there is a 
deep hollow, or small anterior dome, just under the bony foundation of the nose, which 
is the position for the normal c or "tongue-front to palate" stop. This cavity in our 
own case is large enough to receive the greater portion of the ball of the thumb inserted 
backwards into the mouth ; but in most palates the hollow is smaller, and in many can 
hardly be said to exist. Where the caviiy is of any extent, the tongue cannot be made 
to fill it, and thus to effect a solid contact, without considerable muscular effort: so that 
in such cases the tongue is brought into actual contact only with the edges of the hollow, 
making the double stop of a^ with c* (or of c^ with tongue-front t^), which we may indi- 
cate by (^. This double contact, like any other, prevents a clear and sharp explosion, 
as it produces what we may figuratively term an effervescence between two incompatible 
air- waves ; while, as the tongue is immediately upon release in the position which it will 
presently be seen is that of/(sh), the releaseCL sit iioTa.\i^\\A \Jttft ^ ^«^5^3N:iv.^^^5ss{»% 
through this aperture, generates the sibilant aouxid. mt\\o\Jil ^"fc ^'^aJJia^ ^^co^^^ 



(inulually drawing the front of the tongue imrards, the experinKeoter will probdiljr 
find a more solid superstructure againit which to make the rearward Ct , which we sap- 
pose to be the Modem Greek sort r (not simply '*x.o. r," as in the Table). Then, 
by an effort, he may ftirther withdraw the front of the tongue, ontU he can produce i', 
as in kim (k'i^n) ; and this is about as far rearward as he can apply the tongne-froDt. 
V Letting the tongne now lie easy in the mouth, the operator may mal^e virtually the 

tame it'-soond in kim with the mid part of the organ ; and then mal^e successively the 
series of contacts for l-iii, it^M, tfaii, ra«'/, r<M(. Either by feeling with such a probe as 
a penholder, or by looking into a mirror with a lamp placed beside it, so as to iUumiiiate 
the interior of the mouth, but not the mirror directly, the investigator may convince 
himself of the divergent k ^lositioiis before different vowels. He may also obtain aari- 
cular illustration of thcdji yCTjy nce. by making the contact for kin (k'i^n), bnt actually 
saying can (ka>n) ; for the resnlt will be an utterance (k''a:n) wbich is heard from many 
people. But the attempt to prononnce con with the same forward i* will bring out the 
discrepancy more forcibly, as no one uses the resulting form (k'^o'n). "Whilst the for- 
ward it' put before mid or backward vowels produces a sortcning effect much like that 
of a weak j interpolated between the consonant- and the vowel-sound, conversely the 
backward k^ put before the front vowels causes a hardening effect resembling a very 
slight and untrilled French "uvular r" (2) interposed. Thus Jt,i^n is rather jsnggestive 
of if'f2i^f», which, without trilling 2, would be much the same as itii7H. 

Hclow the most rearward contact that can be examined by a probe or observed in a 
mirror, there is at least one other, which seems to be made by reversion of the tongue- 
back against the uvula. This contact produces the stop Jti (or q), significantly distinct 
from k* or k in the Semitic languages, and often evolved in our own tongne in a word 
like equality (i'kjWaO^l'i'ti*), though not in one- like equal (iik'wjwl). By getting the 
tongue into position for saying quart, and then saying kiny or even can, without letting 
the back of the tongue slide forward (as it will be strongly disposed to do), some notion 
may be formed of the difference between Arabic f^Ji ^^\j!i'if' I* will also be noticed 
that there will here be a tendency for an imper/ecl to^ somid to be formed between the 
consonant k^ and a front vowel, so that k^en suggests k^en. 

When it is thoroughly realized how numerous are the contacts 
that may be made for explodent consonants, from the extreme front 
position of the upper lip to the extreme back one of the uvula or the 
upper pharynx, and how possible it is in some cases to produce very 
similar acoustic effects by substituting one active or coactive mem- 
ber for another, it will perhaps be recognised that we have not gone 
to excess in our subdivision of positions (for critical purposes), or in 
adopting for our Table two series of headings, which approximately 
define both meeting parts in the contacts. 

But numerous as possible contacts are, and instructive as it may 
be to substitute unusual or diflficult ones for the purpose of illustra- 
tion, the typical sense-distinguishing contacts may be reduced to 
the seven for p^ <, t^ (t, z), c, k^ k^ (k, q), h 

Of labio-dental p^ the only recognised occurrence we know is that 
in the German combination pf, as in pfeil^ hopf. 

Here practicsl convenience formerly led to t^e assimilation of the position for the 
contlnaant to that used for tbe explodent coiisowMit V?&, p^aU^pf oir^.^siVwi^^wwat 
prevalent viae causes the converse assimilatlou i?a, p^fttU^. T\^<«^\% ^\«kA««s<3 \a wmsJ^ 
assimilation in quick utterance of Englislx ^at^ VvVe hopeful. ^^^.\>x-\^^. 


The dental varieties t% t^ and t^ are found principally as idiomatic 

in different languages, or in different dialects of the same language 

— Irishmen, for instance, using t' (often f^ or fh)^ and South- West 

Englishmen t^ , for the common English t 

The position taken fur a t contact is hai'dlj liable to be influenced by the qoalitj of 
the immediately preceding or following Yowel, because, as uo Yowel apertures are made 
in any of the t positions, assimilation of consonant to vowel position cannot be effected; 
but many Englishmen seem to find it convenient to take the t, position before r in the 
same syllable, as in tread (t^red), while many use t^ for k in words like dad (t,l8ed). 

The stop fi (t, z) is sense-distinguishing in many Eastern tongues, 
but generally in contrast with the forward t% as in Sanskrit. This 
is apparently the proper distinction between the two Semitic explo- 
dents represented by Hebrew tau (t* and fh) and teth (t^). 

The English t is stated to be generally identified by Hindus with their t^, and by 
Englishmen with Hindu t\ showing the intermediate quality of the English consonant, 
which is intelligible for either of the Hindu sounds in most connections. We suggest 
3 as an appropriate sign for "cerebral /,'* because this is the form of the Sanskrit letter 
(modified for t^k, d^, d^k) \ and we have likewise used it as a separate diacritic for the 
whole series of point-reverted consonants, because it pictorially represents the organic 
adjustment common to the class. We may add that the Indian Mohammedans write 
these cerebral sounds by diacriticizing Arabic letters for the corresponding dental ones — 
no doubt because the reid Arabic equivalents lose their special values in the pronuncia- 
tion of all non-Arab users of the Arabic alphabet. 

The simple front stop c is rather rare in language. It was proba- 
bly not used for sense-distinction in primeval speech, and appears to 
have been developed through a k contact being drawn forward by a 
following front or frontward vowel, or through a t (or even a 'p) 
contact being drawn back by a following non-syllabic front vowel. 

We have already alluded to the physical conditions which often generate the complex 
e^^ and even (P'shy in the attempt to pronounce simple a and we may now add that the 
omission of terminal vowels in modern English has induced the general use of i?9h at 
the end of words, for better distinction from i and forward k\ the simple c stop being 
liable to confusion with either t or k* when not exploded on a following vowel, as may 
be realized by comparing pit aad pick (pi^t, pi^k) with pitch, without allowing sh to be 
head iu the last example. This comparison may easily bemade by holding the contact 
^i tlie end of each word, and avoiding any audible recoil. 

As the c contact was originated by organic accommodation in pronouncing conjoined 
consonant- aud vowel-sounds produced at adjacent positions, it is only natural that there 
should be a tendency to make the sub-positions of the contact accord with the positions 
for preceding or following vowels within the same organic range ; but this range being 
limited to that of front or close frontward vowels, the varieties c* c c, are of very small 
importance, except as it may be required to indicate the prevalence of any one of them 
in a given language. Before mid, backward, and back vowels, a fEiint j-sound is apt to 
be developed after the front stop (or its variations), as in Italian cid (c'o). 

The common back stop, ^, represents the third of the three promi- 
nent and broadly-distiuguished types oi ex.^Vci^'eo^ (^^^\.^VN^nr\sss&v 
are most largely employed in a\\ bum^ai «^q«^« ^^^^^ ^^j^oisj^ ^ss«. 


this type of explodent can be made at various positions, from nearly 
that of the vowel t backwards as far as the tongue-back can be 
brought into contact with the palate or throat. The range of the 
contact is therefore nearly equal to that of the whole vowel-scale, so 
that the sub-position for this stop is specially liable to be assimilated 
to that of a preceding or following vowel in the same syllable. 

It should be observed, however, that for a i made in the t, e, or e position a more 
rearward {mrt of the tongue is used than that employed for a c produced at an identical 
part of the palate ; so that the fore-resonance is larger in the former case, through the 
point of the tongue resting at the bottom of the mouth, instead of being raised midway 
as when the front touches the i position. Where a very forward i* is employed before 
front vowels, there is a tendency, as the tongue slightly rises and slides back into posi- 
tion for the following vowel, for a faint j-sound to be generated, as in French qui (k'^i). 
This i*> is acoustically so similar to Ct as to account for such divergence as " Kien" and 
"Chen" in spelling Chinese names. 

It should also be understood that the contact for k is in many languages never made 
below the a, or at most the b position ; and that in the more ordinary varieties of lan- 
guage any lower contact is only fortuitously and unintentionally developed when the k- 
sound precedes a full-back consonant in the same syllable, as in English quel/ (k^Waei), 
and perhaps in French cran (k32«a°a). In Italian que/io (kiiel'19), or in English que/l 
pronounced, as it may be, with an inquantitative vowel (kiiel), the extreme back contact 
is not required. 

The ko (k, q) contact, made with the tongue-back reverted to the 

throat, gives in the Semitic languages a different significant sound 

from that of the back stop made in the nonnal or advanced position 

{k or ^'), distinction being assisted, as in the case of point-reversion, 

by the hollow sound which k^ imparts to following vowels, causing 

^1, qa to resemble ^y, q^. 

The distinction of /^ from k is represented in Hebrew writing by the two diverse 
letters called kap'A and qop'h, from the Phenician originals of which our k and q are 
derived. Therefore the best and perhaps the only admissible use we could make of the 
symbol q might be to apply it for its original value, as is now frequently done in Orien- 
tal transliteration. This would not conflict with current English use, in which q, indeed, 
represents what most people pronounce as the ko stop at the beginning of a syllable (as 
in request = ri'kaWaest'), but not at the end of one (as in requisition = reywoi^zi7sl/vn) 
— an idiomatic and non-significant variation of no practical account. 

The stop ?, which is the only one that can be produced below ^^ , 
; is made by bringing the edges of the glottis into close contact, so as 
< suddenly to check emission of breath. As this closure shuts up the 
:' voicing apparatus itself, there can be no variation of the stop accord- 
* ing to action on voiced or unvoiced breath, as with ^, ^, or jp, b, 

A light closure of the glottis is no doubt usually made in sympathy with any of the 

upper organic contacts, the back pressure of the air above inducing a closure below, by 

which the force for an explosion is at once maintained and regulated. But this glottidal 

catci or check, thus forming a subsidiary part of the action for all explodents, may be 

used Independently, as when we try to pTonoxmce \ke ioxmet \,\?^ ^>3ai^ <il -pei mtbout 

tAe /, while retaining the short quality aad a\>ru\>t en^xv^ ol >i)ftft n w^\ ^x\&--jn* ^ 


similar effect is prodaced initially, when ^a is suddenly and inteijectionally attered after 
a constraint of thought that induces organic compression. Commonly used by all men 
in inarticulate though often significant ejaculations, this stop is an element of speech in 
the languages of some peoples. 

/ b, d, ds (d, 4), j, g, go (g, 9)^ «^«'^^ forward (M or rearward ( , ) 
H varieties. — These are the exact replicates of thtTpreceding serieOf 
breath explodents, but made with voice instead of breath. If the 
reader wishes actually to feel the difference between the two sets 
of sounds, let him lay the tips of the fore and middle finger of the 
right hand lightly above the Adam's apple in his throat, and then 
make merely the organic contact and initial effort for saying both 
pa and Ja, taking the examples several times in alternation. In the 
case of p (a) he will feel nothing but perhaps the light closure of the 
glottis in sympathy with the lip-closure; but with b(a) he will feel 
the vibration from the " voicing" process at the edges of the glottis, 
as well as hear the dull murmur of voice in his throat. A similar 
experiment may be tried with t(a) and d(a\ k(a) and g(a\ or any 
other pair of corresponding breath and voice explodents. 

Nearly all our remarks on the breath stops apply to the corresponding voice ones, 
with the single qualification that voice should be substituted for breath symbols in read- 
ing. Of labio-dental b^ we know no recognised example; but the sound is easily made, 
and seems so convenient in quick pronunciation of words like subvert, that perhaps it is 
often used unconsciously. The dental varieties d* and d^ always occur in correspond- 

1^ ence with f and /, . The cerebral d^ (d, 4) ^^ represented both in Indian and Semitic 
languages. What is said concerning the effects produced upon the c stop by the confor- 
mation of many palates and by the exigence of sense-distinction in English, will equally 
apply toy, the voice correspondent ; so that we havey, J^f -J^, and the last developing 

d into f^zh in Knglish speech, especially when it is final. In Italian the development of/ 
before the mid and back vowels is parallel to that of c, as in cid, gik (c'o, j'a). The g 
follow all the variations of the k contacts ; and though the Semitic languages furnish no 
such voice correspondent as ^a (g^ g) to k^ (k, q), we appear to have fortuitous and 
non-significaut examples in Yv. grand {^2fiPDL) and Eng. sanguineous (ssen'QWoiJ'n'j'Bs), 
though not in sanguine (sseng'gWai^n), while goWo may be avoided by using inquantita- 
tive ii in sanguineous (saen'giiiyn'j'Bs). 

Semi-voiced b, d, g [or 5 and g], — Stops of this character, some- 
times called " implodents," on the supposition that the percussion is 
inward, are used in Germany in two ways : — (1) More generally for 
radical voice sounds at the end of words ; and (2) in the Saxon dis- 
tricts indiscriminately for breath and voice sounds in any positions. 
These really whispered consonants may be critically indicated by 
'6, 'cf, '^ ['5, 'g], as in weib^feld^ sieg^ to^ = v'ai'b, f el'd, zi''g [or zi«'j], 
ta''g [or ta''g]. 

In practical orthography, these sounds, as used in received Grerman speech, are indi- 
cated by their position at the end of words, and require no special symbols, since their 
significant values are precisely the same aa thoae Qtt]!i<&ML^-^<A<cftj^%d^'Qa^^^^Sji^ 
indectional forma, as in loeiber, /elder, nege, tagc=N'«^«t»i'^'«t, '»>"s^\?t -c^rs^^ 
taig9 [or taige], plurals of the above YroiOia, MiQLm'WssMi'^www, j».e\d*> wA\.OT^e*^^«.H^ 


2. '^Aspirated Explodents. 
jrh, t'h, t^ (fh, ch), ch, k-h, k^h (V*h, q-h), with forward {* ) and 
rearitard ( , ) varieties. — These ftymbols only represent modifications 
of the simple breath explodents, produced by releasing the varioos 
contacts rather gradually, while continuing to emit breath through 
the increasing aperture. In p'ha^ the slight p explosion is followed 
by an indistinct and evanescent effect of ^ (much less decided than 
in German p4>aH or p/ail)^ which effect is immediately lost in that of 
A, as the lips continue to open. So t'h involves a weak and transient 
effect of $* (y\ th'), passing quickly into that of h (-h) ; while ch and 
Irh include respectively a faint q (c, ch) and x (x, kh). 

It should be particularly observed, iu considering the above remarks, that these are 
meant to apply to simple explodents, aspirated explodents, and simple continuants cor« 
responding exactly as to local position of formation. English / aspirated gives not the 
passing effect of our English 0* (th*), but of Spanish (written by c or z), which is the 
simple continuant corresponding to English t, and the substitute for t used by lispers; 
whereas the often aspirated Irish /*, made in the same position as our 0* (th'), is iu some 
connections heard and written by Englishmen as the latter. But Irish tkrue (t'hr'ui) 
is not the same as English Mr<<^ (th'rui). 

b-h, dh, d*Ti (dh, <(*h), jh, g*h, gjb (g-h, 9*h), with varieties as above. 

— For tha«*e sounds voice is employed in the same manner as breath 

is used for the preceding series, and in the gradual relaxation of the 

several contacts transient effects of )3, 8, 8^, j, g, and go are heard, 

followed by equally transient crude voice before the vowel-sound. 

It is impracticable by any ordinary effort of utterance to change from voiced breath 
to unvoiced in passing from d, //, &c. to a vowel in the same syllable, and what is really 
represented by a Sanskrit combinatiou like ^Ai«, or heard from an Irishman speaking 
energetically of the river Dee, is only an effect a little stronger, while more graduated, 
than au Englishman would produce iu saying adhesive («d"hi'si*v), if the consonant in 
his connected d'hv or dtfv were forward d*. Therefore we ought, in strictness, to write 
do, do, &c. for d'h, d'h, &c.; but we have followed the prevalent practice, both scientific 
and demotic, of writing these "aspirated" voice explodents with h in Romanic notation, 
which practice is in accord with that of the Indian Mohammedans with Arabic letters. 

In the last column of our Table, we have placed h {'h) and o opposite the aspirated 
explodents, more for the convenience than for any special propriety of the arrangement. 
Representing as these symbols do the two kinds of raw material out of which all con- 
sonantal sounds are shaped by the actions of the upper organs, they might vrithout any 
impropriety be tabulated opposite the simple explodents, the simple continnants, or any 
other FORM of consonant-souuds. But as the place opposite the simple explodents is 
wanted for the glottidal stop, which is the most rudimentary of the explodents, it seems 
not unfitting to tabulate A and o opposite sounds to which they form the characteristic 
fiuish — the actual difference between simple and aspirated explodents apparently being, 
that simultaneous application of the glottidal check gives compactness to the "pop" of 
p (for example), while its non-application permits of comparative laxity in the "puff" 
ofp'A, which, beginning with /), passes instantly through ^ to A, and might be written 
Bsp^p^ to express the fall analysis of the &o\md. 

Printed br W. B. Hvans, 8 Gloucester Street, (4\!deeiv^«v^«TO>'^'^^^^>^*^ *» «=^^ 
Pubhshed by F. Pitman, ^0 PatcTtLO*V»t ^o^,^.C,. 





No. 28— Vol. II.] JANUARY, 1883. IPriee One Penny- 

Notice. — It is intended to issue our next and final number in March^ 

containing the conclusion of the " Outlines" 


a A . > u / /• 


3. — Nasal Explodents. 
*m, 'n, 'n^ ('n), 'ii, 'i) ('n, 'ng), with forward (') and rearward (^^) 
varieties, — We shall here, as with the following' forms of consonants, 
experience the advantage of having surveyed in detail the organic 
local positions for the simple explodents, since the oral adjustment 
for every one of the above nasals corresponds exactly with that of 
the simple explodent beneath which the nasal is tabulated. The dif- 
ference between the two classes of sounds is briefly this : — that for 
a simple explodent, say as at the beginning of />a, updriven breath 
is closely confined by the shutting of both the mouth- and the nose- 
passage, until it is exploded by the sudden opening of the oral 
contact only ; whereas for a nasal explodent, say as at the beginning 
of '7«a, part of the upforced breath is allowed to escape through the 
open uvula and the nose-passages, both immediately before and 
during the oral explosion, which latter is therefore much weaker in 
effect than for a simple explodent, and merely strong enough, as it 
were, to connect the nasal with contiguous oral sounds. 

Making the contact for the corresponding simple explodent, as for p, let the tyro 
force breath from the larynx as for producing that explodent, bat allow a considerable 
poiiiion of it to escape by the nose, both before and daring explosion, in order to get the 
breath nasal effect, as for *m. To make sore that he is osing only breath in producing 
the nasal, he may lay the finger-tips of his left hand lightly upon the Adam's apple, by 
which he can feel whether any "voicing" is effected at the larynx ; and to satisfy him- 
self that breath issues at the nose, and continues to issue as the oral contact is released, 
he may hold the edge of his extended right hand against the upper lip (as it would be 
held against the forehead in shading the eyes), and thus feel the breath issuing simulta- 
neously from mouth and nose. 

The breath nasals were probably never used in language as original radical sounds, 
and they are rare even as phonetically independent derived sounds. In Welsh^ *m, *n, 
and > (written mA, nhy ngh) are used both initially and medially, but always as idio- 
matically euphonic mutations from radical |), <, ft, «&|f P^t A mketw«'^\woL^'^'^'"«assa. 
(Ote bead, my head) ; and there is a tendency in\ii wma '^ tS^ «^wS5w8c^ Nft "*^^»'^ia^ 


effect of these breath nasals hj finishing them oraDy like the aspirated ezplodents p'^* 
tk, tk, while closing the a?n]a, as in^y uJkad'^YB 'n'haid (my father). Perhaps t3t® 
best example of an independent breath nasal is the *n which has been develeped in Jc^' 
landic, as it is supposed it was also in Mid English, from original in throogh As. Tb^ 
knvft (rniht), after becoming Amtft, would have taken the form *neu}l, before settltO^S 
down as ntnt (knight). 

Though hardly found at all as original, and rarely as derived independent soun^^ 
yet breath nasals are very common in some languages — as in our own — in close cfp"^^' 
nection with other breath consonants. Even in accented syUables, our nasals are ox»S^ 
partially voiced before cotgoined breath consonants, as will be perceived on comparirs^ 
"a limper verse** with "a liiiib perverse,** or "amongst ill people** with "amo»y sti^ 
people;** and when similarly connected with breath consonants in unaccented ais-^ 
obscure syllables, they are usually altogether unvoiced, as in impatient (i^mpe^'shv'nt) ^ 

The nasals follow the sub-positions of the corresponding simple explodents, whether 
these positions be idiomatic in a language, or due to the influence of connected vowels* 
I^abio-dental 'm, must be developed in words like nymph, triumph (ni^^'mff, trei'v'm.f)^ 
unless the /-sound is made purely labial to assimilate with m, (ni^^'m^, tr«iVm4>). The 
distinction is only of importance in fixing the character of/, v, as we shall see presently. 
To several breath nasals we append no examples, not knowing for certain whether the 
English habit of unvoicing n obtains in Irish pronunciation, as in meant (me'n't* ?), or 
whether breath nasals are used in Sanskrit words like tugansu or suganUu (sugv'n^su 7) 
KnAparichan (p^'ncen?). Moreover, the nasal place in the "Tongue-back reverted*' 
colamn is left vacant, because, as the explodent contact is made against or below the 
uvula, it seems to be theoretically, as we find it experimentally, impracticable to use a 
nasal resonance while holding this contact. 

m, n, n^ (n), n, i) (n, ng), with varieties as above, — These nasals are 
related in just the same way to the simple voice explodents as the 
foregoing are to the simple breath ones ; so that the above descrip- 
tion of the diverse formation of the two forms of sounds will apply 
here, with the substitution of voice for breath as the material to be 
operated upon. 

While breath nasals are very rare as independent sounds, voice nasals are among the 
most prevalent elements of speech, being commonly used both as independent sounds 
(as in ban)y and as anxiliaries to other sounds of the same local position (as in band). 
It is worthy of remark, however, that only the labial and the dental voice nasals have 
obtained universal currency in language. Cerebral n^ (n), palatal n, and guttural p (ng) 
are only in partial vogue, especially as independent sounds ; and many languages which 
admit these latter nasals as developed medials or finals, do not permit their occurrence 
as initials. Thus, although tI is an independent element of speech in both Italian and 
French, it is not a recognised vernacular initial in either of those languages ; and a like 
remark may be made of p (ng) in (xerman and English. Yet all the nasds are really as 
pronounceable in any position as are the corresponding simple explodents, and a Hindu, 
a Spaniard, or a Welshman finds no difficulty in using respectively initial «^, n, or p. 

As regards sub-positions, the nasals, being commonly used in anterior conjunction 

with the explodents, naturaUy follow the positions of the latter. German m (regularly 

a voiced sound in all positions) is normally made, like English and general m, with the 

purely labial contact used for b ; but before «k labio-dental sound m^ is developed in such 

B German word as Jtampfhj the same infLuence Wi&t ^<&\^o^% >i)ici& ^vyct%s<^\i^i£c(v^1^^>, its^^ 

doabtieM a Bimilar evolutioii often occurs in. "Bn^'bL ^at^ft\k)&ft triumw «i dTcw>K<Qe«.\, 


'FreBcliman's or an Irishmaa's iC is made at the same sab-position as his forward d^ ; 

^oath-West Englishman's n, corresponds to his rearward d,; while a Hindn finds his 

and n^ as available for sense-distinction as his related d* and d^. The palatal n, like 

^e corresponding simple explodent, accommodates itself to coigoined vowels as far as 

^^e range of its sub-positions permits, bat is considered by some anthorities to have a 

^r^ansienty subjoined in Italian before mid and back vowels, as inffa^no (ga'&F9), just as 

^ 9,ndj cause a similar interpolation. In Spanish the tongue-front nasal is a more fully 

developed phonetic element, and no doubt varies its sub-position appreciably at the coni- 

^O^encement of words like nino and nague (ii'i'no, fifalce). 

But it is with the guttural nasal, as with the guttural explodent, that the variation 
^f position to accord with that of a subjoined vowel, is most marked, as in English sin^, 
^ang^ tong (si^ng', sseng, so'ng^). The assimilation cannot, however, be extended to 
t^lie back vowels or back-reverted consonants, as n^ is not producible when a contact at 
Or below the uvula shuts off nasal resonance. Thus it occurs, that while we exx>erience 
facility in combining p (ng) with a normal y in a word like linguist (li^i^g'wsi^st), where 
ff can be dissociated from 103 and taken with the former syllable, yet we should find little 
or no advantage in using p in linguistic (li^n-gaWai^s'ti^k), because it is not practicable 
to complete assimilation to the g^ which is developed before W;» in the same syllable. . 

We have put 'a and a in the last column of the Table opposite the nasals, on much 
the same principle that influenced us in tabulating h and 0. What *a indicates is simple 
breath {k) emitted through the nose, as a represents simple voice {0) similarly emitted. 
These signs, therefore, represent the characteristically modified material common to all 
nasal consonants, as h and do the material common to all other consonants. If taken 
alone, a belongs, like 9, theoretically as much to the vowel as to the consonantal division 
of sounds ; but practically it is convenient to tabulate 'a, a together, as well as A, 0, 

4. — Simple Continuants. 

* (f, ph), f , 1 (f , e, th), 9 (ch), X (x, kh), x^ (xo, kh^, kh), h (h), with 
forward ( ' ) and rearward ( ^ ) varieties, — By simple continuants we 
mean frictional sounds severally made by one single and simple 
organic adjustment, corresponding uniformly in each case to the 
contact for an explodent consonant. The characteristic difference 
between a simple explodent and a simple continuant is, that the 
former consists in an explosion of breath (or voice) Jrpna hehU a 
complete coutact , and the latter in a frictional squeezing of breath 
(or voice) through a small orifice left in the cefttCj^Q| an otherwise 
complete contact.* We exclude here all other forms of contifiuants, 
as these will be dealt with further on, in their proper classes. 

Although a simple continuant may be produced corresponding to every explodent, as 
^ corresponds to jt?, and although most varieties of simple continuant appear to be in use 
somewhere in the world, yet the actual distribution of such continuants in language is 
more irregular and capricious than even that of the nasals. To begin with, the purely 
labial continuant answering to/) is either so rare, or has been so little recognised as dis- 

* There is a symmetrical centring apparent in the general construction of the human 
frame, which is especially observable in the vocal organs. Where nature does not shape 
up to a rounded central ridge, she works down to a central hollow or furrow; and in the 
vocal organs the latter construction obtains, bem^ cow%\^\G,MO\y& \si ^^ ^\\^\s%\s!^^-^ecsiK^ 
0ftbe lips and tongae. While it is easy to close i\ie\\\jft\i«tm'fc\I\ca^'^ Vj ^^rj \aR^«wi*k 

pressure, these organs are also well adapted \>y t\iea ccuVnil toww^ \q« Vw^ vssvsc^'^^ 


tinct from/, tint the Modem Greek prononctatioii of f otkn the only fiuniliar iniiuKe 
of the loand, as manj aiithoritia consider the ancient prononciation to have been thit 
of the aspirated eipludent frk. While a pnrel j kbial p is regolarij used io ahnoit lU 
languages, it is curious that the labio-dental/ is almost as regolarly emplojed u the 
phoneticallj and etjmologicallj corresponding continoant, as exemplified by Latin ffi 
petl' or Greek pous, pod-, in comparison with English /oo/ or German/KM. Probibl]f 
the greater contrast in sound between p and/ than between p and ^ led to the genenl 
sapersession of the latter b? the former continuant. The rather exceptional duncter of 
the orifice fur/ has led many persons to class the sound apart from the really simple con- 
tinuants, and some to regard it as a sibiUnt. The soand /, however, has its correspond- 
ing simple eiplodeat and nasal, while it is organically derived from /»., as ^ is from ft 
by allowing the centre of a contact to relax into an orifice. The orifice necessarily takes 
the form O instead of the labial Q ; but still it is simple, and nnaccompanied by any 
auxiliary organic position.* 

The dental 9 is of somewhat less rare occurrence than the interlabial continuant, md 
we find varieties ot it, corresponding to t* and /, in English, Welsh, Icelandic, Spanish, 
Modem Greek, and Amhic, among the better-known languages. The sub>poeition for 
the continuant, however, is often different from that of the related explodent in a given 
language, as, for example, wc use /, ^ in English, while t\ are employed in Spanish. 

closure, in which a small orifice is left midway, as in whistling, or in blowing to cool 
anything. From such an orifice is blown the cootinnant ^, which any one can readily 
substitute for/ in woril« like/^z/./r//, so as to make them ^d, ^elt. This is the sim- 
plest variety of continuant consonant, unmodified, like the corresponding explodent p, 
by any fore-resonance. The labial orifice adapted for the produ tion of this sound ^ is 
somewhat less than a quarter of an inch in diameter. With a smaller apeiiure a whis- 
tling sound is produced, and with a larger one the frictional effect becomes so weakened 
that the charocteritftic sound of ^ begins to be lost in the formless one of h. 

As is produced by expulsion of breath through an interlabial orifice, so are 0, 0^, 
^, x> &nd Xa made by such expulsion through similar orifices formed between the tongue 
and the roof of the mouth at the respective local positions for the explodents t, /*, e, k, 
and ki. The tongue being so mobile and elastic as to permit the elevation of any part 
of it into a sharply-ronnde<l latitudinal ridge, and the longitudinal furrow of the tongue 
being met by the hollowed centre of the palatal arch, the condition of such a small and 
short orifice as that which causes the frictional sound of ^ may be substantially re-pro- 
duced at any position where a liuguo-palatal contact can be made. The various local 
adjustments for simple continuants thus being similar in character, it will be found that 
what chiefly differentiates the sounds of 0, 6, 5, and % — so differentiates them, we mean, 
as to make them capable of significant interdistinction — is not diversity in the forms of 
the respective orifices, or friction of the liberated breath against anterior parts of the 
mouth, or even the particular shape of the fore-resonance cavity, but the relative length 
of that cavity a^ measured inwards from the outer lip-edges. 

The simplicity of this principle of differentiation will not surprise any one who has 
carried out the little experiments we suggested, at pp. 86, 87, with regard to the effects 
of resonance upon simple explodents. The inch-deep and inch-wide pill-box, with an 
ovoid aperture [ «> ] cut in Uie bottom of it, will modify ^«, when pronounced through 
it, into 9i ; while fore-resonances two inches and three inches long will modify ^i into gi 
and x'" Three little tubes, of one inch, two inches, and three inches severally in length, 
and each a full inch in diameter, will enable an experimenter to make some instructive, 
interesting, and even amusing experiments with respect to the resonances of simple con- 
tinuants and other consonants. The tubes will be all the more effective for having such 
a restricted outer opening as that described above. 

* Mr. Melville Bell's appreciation and classification of/ as a "divided" consonant 
(tbtit is, as belonging to the same formaUou. a« i) seetna to us as fallacious as it does to 
Mr. Sweet. It needs little investigat\o\i to de\fttmm* n<\a\>dl« ^wwcci^J \%Vc^uced 
/ivm M central aperture, or from two side aperlraca mVk a. t<iu\aRX\i^\\«iw«wi^'t\B.. 


It need scarcely be added that conjoined vowels no more affect the positions for than 
they do those for t. But, in any variety, the dental simiile continuant is a sound but 
little in vogue, its ordinary phonetic and etymological substitute appearing to be the 
related and more distinctive s^ which, though a complex sound (as we shall show further 
on), is perhaps even more easy to produce. As ancient Greek {th* or t*h/*) was dialec- 
tically replaced by Sy so is Castilian in provincial Spanish and Portuguese, and Arabic 
in Persian, Turkish, and Indian pronunciation of Arabic words. The same phonetic 
tendency is often illustrated by Continental speakers of English. As for rearward Of , 
we are acquainted with no example of its practical use, and we fimcy it would simulate 
'r, too much to be effective as a sound distinctive from the latter. Still 0f and *r, are 
organically different forms of sound, as are medial and V, or forward ^ and V. * 

What is true of rearward 0t applies even more forcibly to cerebral 6^, which might 
well be takeu for an attempted, though an imperfect *r^, Hindu i^A, indeed, includes a 
transient ^ without necessarily suggesting ^*r^ (^^r) ; but, on the other hand, there is 
f occasional confusion in Hindustani bet ween jrf^Xii an d r^ ( j^. probably through 8*. 

Tongue-froat g occurs genei*ally as a softening of tongue-back x before or after firont 
vowels, just as the tongue-firont explodent, c, is developed from tongue-back k in similar 
connections. This c, as represented by German cA in micA or mddcAen, is not identical, 
as Messrs. Bell and Sweet seem to think, with the breath counterpart of English y {'}) 
heard at the beginning of hue or Aew ('ju^u) ; otherwise, the sound which follows t in 
German kiisfchen (ke'^st^en) and in English question (kaWaest'jvn) would be the same. 
But, in our judgment, the German and the English sound belong to different forms of 
consonant made in the same local position, much as do ^ and labial *io, or x &nd *i (in 
German macAt =maxt, and English marl = mB.*Jt), With regard to the sub-positions 
for 9, they usually vary with those of conjoined vowels within the range of the closure, 
as do those for related c,j\ and n; and when this continuant is used before a mid or a 
back vowel, there is a tendency to interpolate a veiy faint V» as in German erweicAang 
(erv'ai^'ung), though not the full effect of this vocal continuant as in English /or/un^ 
(fb'it'jun). It may be added, that as has a rival and frequent supplanter in «, so has 
5 in/(sh) ; as, for instance, German nicAt (ui'^t) is "ni'sh't" in some districts. 

Tongue-back % (x* ^^^ ^'^ normal form of which is a steady sound without trill or 
tremor, has a wider currency than any of the other simple continuants except/, being 
used in some languages of almost every type, such as Welsh, (Jerman, Russian, Spanish, 
Modern Greek, and Arabic, not to mention many other European, Asiatic, American, or 
Polynesian tongues. The sub-positions for this continuant vary to accord with those for 
conjoined vowel-sounds, as do those for k. In languages which have not developed the 
true front continuant (9), or where a preceding mid or back vowel would prevent the use 
of this, x'^ is often heard before front vowels, as in Welsh iacAi (ta'x*'i), which may be 
compared with French naqids (na'k'^i). The position for medial x coincides with that 
for a, and below the position for normal (in oracular) Xa is developed. This deep and 
hollow-sounding continuant, which is illustrated by an Arabic example in the Table, 
seems to us virtually the same as Mr. Bell's ''labialized'' x> which, like his labialized 
or rounded vowels, can be distinctively made without aid from the lips. This x^ or Xa 
is developed after back vowels in German words like locA^ tucA (loix^, tu'x^), and in 

* Had Mr. Bell possessed the phonetic advantage of being able to remove his upper 
teeth at will, so as to observe the small central orifice &om which issues steadily, but 
V with tremulous motion, each at all the sub-positions, he would scarcely have fallen 
into the double error of classifying as a "divided" continuant (like 7), and V as the 
simple continuant of t. Mr. Sweet has only partially rectified this error by makin^c, € 
the simple contiauant of t\ and *r that of U TVi\a wtw\^cakft\i\i\«w^^ \ka^^<5feSsR.''itoRk 
forward 'r (Irish and Italian), or for the me^\a\ (^^\»«ol\^'^ » 


similar Scottish words, as well as before tf, in sach as quhat '^whsi (zaWga^), which 
dialectically becomes /a/ (fa*^, or ^a'^t?), — an interchange of consonants formed at the 
two extremities of the vowel « resonance which is yery conunon in language, as seen in 
Sanskrit ap, Latin aqua, Rumanian ap^L (f^ysA^vYs^ ) 

The Arabic sound h (h), tabulated opposite to th6 simple continuants, is actuallj a 
less frictional sound than those with which it is yoked. It is A (or simple breath) modi- 
fied, not hj a close compression of the upper organs, but by a moderate contraction of 
the pharynx, as in the act of swallowing. It may conveniently be regarded as a rudi- 
mentary simple continuant, though it might perhaps just as fitly be classed with the 
vocal continuants. The sound appears to be confined to Semitic languages. 

p (v', bh), V, d («, 8, dh), d5 (82, dhs, dh), 5 (3, jh), 8 (y, gh), go (gh., 
gh), 6, with vanetits as above. — These sounds correspond severally 
to those of the preceding series, and differ from them only in being 
formed of breath, as their material, instead of voice. 

The currency in speech of these voice sounds is to a great extent, though not wholly, 
coincidcut with that of their breath correspondents. For instance, we find /3 (v') not 
only beside ^ (f) in Modem Greek, but beside/ in German, Spanish, and various other 
languages ; but, on the whole, labio-dental v seems to be a much more prevalent sound. 
Knglish, Welsh, Icelandic, Spanish, Modern Greek, and Arabic employ 8 as well as 0, in 
its front or medial variety. Of the rearward "dental '* 8, and the cerebral 8^ we do not 
know any practical example (unless one of them be a dialectic substitute for Arabic d^), 
and perhaps the sounds are too suggestive of r^ and r^ to be practically useful.** 

Tongue-front J (3, jh) occurs, like its breath correspondent 9, as a developed substi- 
tute for tongue-back 7 (g, gh) after front vowels, as in German ^«>y^« (fli«3on). This 
was probably the sound of Anglo-Saxon initial ffe in words like ffedc, which sound has 
been further softened toy = j in English yoke. The same extreme softening is given to 
Modem Greek 7 before front vowels. liy the majority of educated German speakers 
3 is used in certain medial positions as the true voice correspondent of g, as in konig, 
konige (ko^'ni^, ko**'ni3o), — the sound being quite distinct from Germany = Eng.y (j), 
which Mr. Bell and Mr. Sweet erroneously consider to be the voice correspondent of q. 
Mr. Ellis does not thus fallaciously identify the two front simple continuants (9, 3) with 
the two vocal continuants ('j, j) made in the same local position, but with larger aud less 
frictional orifices. 

Tongue-back 7 (g, gh), in its normal form, is a steady sound, like iS, r, 8, or 3, and 
has no trill or quiver. It is less current than the corresponding breath sound (x). In 
modern Welsh and Erse it has become disused ; but it is found in the Teutonic and the 
Scandinavian languages, in Modem Greek, and various other tongues. Some authorities 
consider this, rather than the breath sound (x)i to be the proper Castilian ])ronunciation 
of Spanish y and soft ^, as in vifijo, gente (v'le'go, gcn'te— «o^ v'le'xo, xen'tc). It is 
hardly necessary to say that this sound, like others of the same local formation, accom- 
modates itself in sub-position to conjoined vowels. 

'*' But even the fact that rearward 8^ is sometimes used for r in defective English 

utterance, or the probability that the occasional confusion of d^ and r^ in Hindustani is 

made through 8^, does not remove our surprise that phoneticians like Messrs. Bell and 

Sweet should have classed English r, instead of Spanish 8, as the simple continuant of 

English d. If English medial r is the simple continuant of English dy then Italian r* 

must be that of Italian d\ and our V must be again ousted from the position to which 

Mr. Sweet has restored it, to be perhaps Te-cana\%Tvcd to Mr. Bell's incongruous class of 

"divided " cottBonanta. Organically and aco\iat\caIi\y Wie ^ \i\vs\«sa ^JStovVj \» hJcl^ I than. 

io the r type 0/ sound, and less to either than to t\ie a \,y^e,^\i\Ott.\%\Xv«i <iQ.\tc«wsiv^^. 

netic substitute of the 9 type, as the 4 is o£ the 6 t^\>e. 


Of the normal — that is, steady and untrilled — back-reverted 73 (ga , gha) almost the 
only recognised example is Arabic ffhain, though it wonld be difficult to distinguish this 
sound fronr what is called the "labialized" 7 in German auffe (au'g''o = au'gao), which, 
like the back vowels to which it forms an assimilation, can be made without any help 
from the lips. It is not unusual for the Arabic consonant to be identified by Enropean 
writers with the French uvular r or the Newcastle "burr," probably because a trill is 
added to both Xs ^^^ to ^^ corrupt local pronunciations of Arabic, as also to x ^^^ 7 
in some local pronunciations of German. Of these trills we shall speak in their places. 

The sound 6, exemplified by Arabic and general Semitic ain, appears to be the voice 
correspondent of H (h). As H is to h, so is 6 to the emphatic initial voice (0 — Arabic 
alif, Greek spirittis lenis) by which we distinguish "slight ears" from "slj tears." If 
we say "a great hill" and "a great ill," making a compression of the throat as when 
swallowing at the commencement of "hill" and "ill," we may develop H in the former 
case, and 6 in the latter. These two sounds hold much the same rudimentarj relation 
to Xa yo i to *2 2, and to *iOo Wo . 

5. — Sibilant Continuants. 
s, 8^ (s), / (sh), p (sh^), with forward ( ' ) and rearward ( ^ ) varieties. 
— These souads are all really complex or mixed, being produced by 
combining front and point (or palatal and dental) adjustments in dif- 
ferent modes and proportions.* For the 5 class of sounds a relaxed 
q aperture is made behind a normal oiifice, giving the compound 
effect q^^O, For the /class a normal g orifice is employed behind a 
relaxed $ aperture, giving the compound effect qj^O^ (^ meaning loose 
adjustment). The longitudinal curves described by the tongue, and 
the relative sizes of the combined apertures, may be roughly indi- 
cated thus : — For 5, ^ - o © ; for/, ,->_ © o . In either case the 

smaller of the apertures is the more effective one ; so that s must 
be regarded as mainly a dental continuant with palatal modification, 
and /as mainly a palatal continuant with dental modification. 

The sibilant s is so prevalent a sound, that we find it missing in only a few even of 
the invertebrate Polynesian languages, like Maori (which, indeed, uses only the conso- 
nants^, t, k, m, n, p, Wy r, A = R or X 0- The usual sub-position for the sound is the 
medial one of our own j, while the forward ** and the rearward *, occur chiefly through 
assimilation to conjoined consonants, as instanced in both Italian and German z = ft\ 
or heard in South- Western English gets (get,s,). But the forward s* becomes an inde- 
pendent sound by the omission of the /' contact in Tuscan Italian zio (s'i'9, for t's*i'9), 
or in familiar German zuzuziehen (s'ms'us'i'on).. This variety of * is also used in the 

* We had often speculated in a desultory way as to the special cause or causes that 
produced the sharp hiss of j aud/(sh), as contrasted with the comparatively mild whiff 
of the obviously related 6 and ^ ; but we remained unenlightened in this matter until 
we set ourselves to investigate what mechanical conditions, apart from the human organs 
of speech, would produce sibilation, as distinct from mere efflation. By experiment we 
found that air driven through a confined space with a larger aperture of entrance than 
of escape [thus — entrance 3 escape^ would produce a hissing noise similar to that of s ; 
whereas, if the difi'erent-sized apertures were inverted [thus — entrance ^ escape"], the 
result would be a gushing noise resembling that of/. Evidently, then, the special con- 
dition for the production of hissing sound was tKe am\vL\aftR«v>& wfe\<«!yvss\s. 'j^ "wx ^ss.« 
current to two different degrees of vibration, ao t\ia\. «k ^Ii\5^^A^'ca^W!k. ^W'2it<J& ^Sc^s^^SiJ^sRk 
effected bjr what we may call an effervescence oi mcom\»«\J^<& ^-^w^-^* * ^. 

Applying such extraneous mechanical \BustT«idQ\ia m wx ««wsi\^SL^^^^a^^^*^'^^^^ 


Semitic languages (Heb. sin), as distinctiTe from «* (9 — Heb. samecA), just as t* and fi 
•re employed. These two sounds, as well as Arabic 0, are confounded as common s hj 
Penians and others in adopting Arabic words. 

The typical sound / is not nearly so current as #. In familiar European languages 
it is always a developed sound, baring arisen — (1) from assimilation of « to a palatal 
sound, as in English mansion {mBtn'/vn, from man's'jun), iAip (fi^Ptffom 89i^p, sci^^p), 
German sekiffiJiS, from S9if, sk'if), Italian cretce (kreVe, from kres'ce — cf. Rumanian. 
eresai - kr^'te) ; (2) from omitting the contact of r/*, as in Tuscan Italian face (fa'/e, 
for f»'c/c), French ehSrir (/ezia or /er'ir*, from c/er'ir' — ci, Eng. cherish) ; and (3) by 
softening ^ or x* •* often in German nichi (ni>yi, for ni'^t), Portuguese Xerez (/e'res, 
pronounced iu Spanish x^'*"^)' But in some languages/ is an original radical sound, 
especially in those of the Sclavonic stock, which are very rich in sibilants. The Semitic 
tongues have forward/', while Sanskrit has this/' and also tongue-reverted /^, the two 
being used as significantly distinct sounds. 

apparatus of sjieech, we found that the tongue, in adjustment with the anterior portion 
of the palatal arch, in which there is generally some extent of cavity beneath the bony 
foundation of the nose (see p. 87), was capable of forming a confined space such as we 
have indicated above. We now ascertained, by observation in a mirror, by examination 
with a probe, and by organic sensation, that ^ was emitted from a single linguo-palatal 
orifice on the inner side of the palatal hollow, and from a single orifice on the outer 
side. Then we found, by similar scrutiny, that while the breath for/ was emitted pri- 
marily from the same orifice as for ^, an outer and larger orifice was formed by a more 
forward part of the tongue rising partly to the position. For s we were able to per- 
ceive unmistakably (thanks to the removability of our central upper teeth) that the same 
orifice was used as for in corresponding sub-positions ; and investigation showed that 
in this case an inner and larger orifice was formed by the tongue rising partly to the g 
position. Thus the conditions indicated by our external experiments were fulfilled. 

Mr. Melville Bell arrived, probably by a different course of investigation, at similar 
general views as to the mixed nature of s and /; but we cannot accept his diagrams or 
his notation as representing the fiacts of nature. We are, indeed, quite satisfied with his 
diagram of the linguo-palatal orifices for s (Fisid/e Speech, p. 57); but we should sim- 
ply transpose the larger and the smaller orifice to illustrate the adjustment for /, which 
lie seems to us to misrepresent materially. His side sketches of the tongue adjustments 
for these two sounds give no indication of the intervening cavity between two orifices, 
which investigation has taught us to regai'd cs the most essential condition for producing 
a true hiss. As for his notation, we decidedly think that his two characters for s and / 
should have been interchanged. Mr. Sweet repudiates Mr. Bell's analysis, classification, 
aud notation of the two typical sibilants, calls these "blade" sounds, and imports S into 
** Visible Speech" to represent *, with a reflected inversion (2) for/, which signs seem 
to us more appropriate to the sounds than accordant with the idea suggested by "blade." 
Mr. Ellis treats s and / as simple continuants, corresponding to some varieties of t, as 
does to another variety, ignoring the fact that a variety of 0, s, and /may be produced 
with the tongue-point in the local position for any t. 

Although the general character of the adjustment for *, and of its inversion for /, is 
always mainteined, yet there may be considerable variations in deteil. We have stated 
already, that while the point of the tongue is pressed against the lower teeth, an unmis- 
takable t contoct may be made with the advanced tongue-front. As t* may be made in 
this way, so may 6' and *' ; while /*, which requires but a veiy moderate closure for its 
outer orifice, is better made with the tongue so disposed. Nonnally the toogue-point is 
lifted to make the small outer orifice for « at all sub-positions, but the point is not con- 
veniently used for foi-ward /', or necessarily for medial/; and, while useful for/,, it is 
perhaps indispensable only for /^. Of course, the particular part of the tongue used for 
the inner orifice of either sibilant depends on that used for the outer; and so the palatal 
sub-position for the inner orifice must correspond to that for the outer, giving the com- 
binations ^-tf*, Oj^q, ^,+f , , with perhaps 6P:tX ^^^ ^^® cerebral sibilante. 

Pnnted by W, B. Evans, 8 Gloucester Street, (iueci3iSc^Mafe.\^^^«^,^a»\ «a. 
Published by F. Pitman, ^0 PateTnaft«.\.ex^R«w,^.^. 





No. 29— Vol. II.] FEBRUARY— APRIL, 1883. \_Frice One Penny 

*■ — ..■>>- ----■ ■ -■■ ^ 


[^Sibilant Continuanta — continued.] 

z, z^ (z, f), 5 (g, zh), 3^, with varieties as above. — These sounds are 
severally made by the same organic adjustments as their breath 
correspondents in the preceding- series, voice being used instead of 
breath, and subjected to similar compound vibration by means of 
mixed resonances. 

The typical z sound is not so current as its breath correspondent, being altogether 
absent in many languages that use Sy as Sanskrit, Spanish, and Welsh. The variety in 
most common use is our own medial » ; but forward z* and rearward Zt occur here and 
there, though chiefly through assimilation to conjoined sounds, like the breath sibilants. 
The z sound appears to be a development from onginal t in most European languages, 
the sign for the breath sound generally remaining in the orthographies, as in Ital. rosa, 
French and Eng. rose; though in Spanish the breath sound is everywhere retained. In . 
the Sclavonic tongues z seems to be an original sound ; and as snch it is also found in 
the Semitic languages, Arabic having the sense-distinguishing varieties z* and z^. In 
Persian and Indian pronunciation of Arabic words 5, (^, z\ and z^ are all reduced to ». 

The sound 5 (S, zh) is one of the rarest in general speech, as it is likewise the least 
used in our own tongue. With us, it is always a development from ar, caused by a con- 
tiguous palatal sound, as in vision^ seizure (viJ^s'wn, si'sdi, from vi^z^jun, si'^ur). In 
French it arose by developing the front stop ij) to jj, and then omitting the contact, as 
joug (3uig, from J3U>g, Latin ju'gum, Itt'gum). The sound $ is common in Sclavonic, 
but is not found in Semitic tongues. It is used, however, in Persian, and has latterly 
been developed in Portuguese, in the same way as it was long previously in French. Of 
point*reverted S"^ we have possibly an example in Polish rz% 

6. — VihrarU Continuants^ 
The sounds of this class we consider to be of a peculiar mixed 
nature. The common base of every variety of vibrant appears to 
be the vocal continuant n, corresponding to the vowel a, as^ (yet) 
and w {wQi) correspond to i and u respectively. We believe that 
a soimd of the typical r form, cannot be made without raising the 
back of the tongue into a position between that for the second and 
that for the third sound in German tage = ta'ga (as uttered by most 
Germans). With this position assumed behind tha ivonjaal T^^vtiara^ 
for ^ smdj3, we find these latter so\m4s mod^^<5i^\oJi.'^''"5^^ss!L^'^N "^^^ 


with the addition of a similar back adjustment and 8 are oonvert^^ 
into V and r, or c and/ into ^j and j. Taking the conmion varieti^^ 
of tongue-point r, we regard them as derivable from corresponding^ 
varieties of 3 by the simultaneous holding of a relaxed y (g) behin ^ 
a normal 3 (d) orifice, just as the varieties of z are obtainable by th^ 
holding of a relaxed i (3) behind a normal 8 orifice. The efferves- 
cent effect of such admixture of resonances is less decided with the 
common varieties of r than with those of r, because of the greater 
distance between the two orifices in the former case ; just as there 
is in music less discord between contiguous tones than between 
contiguous semitones. 

But though a tongne-point r, ereiywfaere intelligible as such, may be produced by 
simply combining a relaxed back (7) with a normal point (9) orifice, yet the long and 
eompoond cure [ •— ^^ ] which the tongue describes in making snch combination 
has a tendency to modify the 9 position in sereral ways. In the first place, the curving 
of the tongue shortens it, so that r* r r^ are respectively made at local sub-positions 
somewhat behind those used for 8' 8 S^ ; secondly, the tongne-curve naturally, though 
not necessarily, ends in a sharper upturning of the point for an r than that used for a 8 ; 
and, thirdly, the forcing of breath or of voice against the upturned point of the flexible 
tongue, when the organ is disposed in such an extended curve, has a strong tendency to 
make the point vibrate, so as to give a whirring effect to the sound produced. Such a 
vibration, or trill, is the most characteristic quality in the tongue-point r of many lan- 
guages, as in Italian ripa, though it may be almost entirely omitted without destroying 
the distinctively significant effect of an r sound, as it generaUy is in English rip. Con* 
versely, as the point position combined with the back modification will give an r effect 
without obvious trill or vibration, so will an interior trill or vibration when added to the 
relaxed back orifice. Thus the tongue-firont may be used, instead of the point, as the 
effective terminal position of a vibrant continuant; or by making the relaxed back (or 1) 
orifice just behind the uvula this pendulous and tremulous organ may be used for adding 
vibrant effect, without bringing the fore part of the tongue into use at all. 

*a, 'r, 'r^Cr), 'j, '2, '23, with forward (') and rearward { ^) varieties. 
— These breath vibrants are all possible sounds ; but as few of them 
are in practical use, and these only to a limited extent, they demand 
but slight attention. They are, of course, produced by passing sim- 
ple breath through the organic adjustments for the voice sounds. 

Tongue-point V is the sole instance we know of an independent breath vibrant. This 
sound appears to have existed at one period in Old English under the representation hr, 
and it is still preserved under the same symbol in Icelandic. In these cases, the sound 
was probably first developed by assimilation to a preceding breath guttural (k or x)) as 
it is in present English crept (k'rept), the effect of such preceding sound remaining after 
omission of the sound itself, as in the analogous cases of A/, A», hw (compare Lat. quod, 
Sc. j'«Aflf< =* x*wa°t, Eng. what- *wo*t). In Welsh, however, V appears to be quite an 
independent sound, being used regularly as a radical initial from which voice r is always 
a deflection (as I is from 7), as in rhatit o ran ('ran, ran = part, in part). In French 
V is used as a semi-independent final after another breath consonant, as in enire, offre, 
were (a'^nt'r, ofr, sy^k'r). In English. Mdoa 'bicaVk N\hTVD\. Qf^c?Qs% voi^ «a sl de^^dent 
soand after a precediag breath consoniaiLt m t\ie wxne «^\\sX^^« «& \SLtTee«iKTee«$Y«« \ 


ctnd by getting breath ready to ntter either of these words, but only pronouncing -ree 
C*riii) we may arrive at a close approximation to Welsh rhi (*ri'). 

Tongue-front '^ is used after the back breath stop by English speakers who use the 

oorresponding voice vibrant after the back voice stop, as in cratCy grate (k'leet, gieet). 

Simihurly, French speakers who employ the back (uvular) voice 2, are apt to substitute 

•a for *r as a non-syllabic final, saying " a°iit*2, of 2, 8y*k*2," and this especially after 

the back stop, as in the last example. 

Of labial 'h and tongue-point-reverted *r^ no occurrence is known to us, and we can 
only conjecture that tongue-back-reverted '2^ (with *W3 base and uvular trill) should be 
identified with a local trilled form of Arabic Xs (kha), and with a similar local pronun- 
ciation of the last sound in German buck (bu>X3'^ = bui'23). 

a, r, r^ (r), i, 2, 2^ , with varieties as above, — Reducing our preced- 
ing general remarks to a formula, we would indicate our analysis of 
these sounds respectively by i+)8^, i+S', 1+8^', 1+3'? i+S'i ^o+S'? ^® 
mark 4. signifying absolute simultaneity in combined adjustments, 
the symbol s representing uvular action, and the diacritic ' more or 
less trill, according to the custom of a people or the habit of an 
individual speaker. Strong trill may be expressed by doubling ' in 
the analytical, or by adding it to the conventional representation, as 
1+8"" =r*. Different as are the local positions for the more effective 
adjustment with these various sounds, yet the general identity of 
their base-adjustment, combined with the similar acoustic effect of 
trill or vibration in any position, gives to the sounds a much closer 
inter-resemblance than is observed with the simple or even with the 
sibilant continuants. 

The labial vibrant was probably the former English sound represented by initial f^r, 
as in wrett, wring (nest, aiJ'ng ?). The sound can easily be made by putting the tongue- 
back into the 7, and the lips into the iS position, and forcing voice through this double 
adjustment ; but the acoustic effect is not so pleasant as to make one regret the modem 
levelling-down of tor to tongue-point r, though distinctiveness of expression is impaired 
when we talk of " ringing aur hsendz ouver rekt houps." 

Tongue-point r is the most common form of vibrant throughout human speech. It 
is found idiomatically in the forward sub-position, as in Italian ripa (r''^i'pa), in the 
medial, as in received English reap (ri|ip), and in the rearward one, as in provincial 
reap (r,i*9p); and also with a weak trill, as in English, or mth a strong trill (r'), as in 
Italian — a stronger trill than the English being generally in vogue. In Hindustani for- 
ward (dental) r* and reverted (cerebral) r^(r) are distinctive sounds, like d* and.rf^(d); 
but c^ and r^ are liable to occasional interconfusion. So strongly characteristic, indeed, 
is the acoustic effect of point-reversion, that (^, 8^, «', and r^ are far less interdistinctive 
than the corresponding forward d\ 8* «' and r\ 

As for palatal or tongue-front r, we often hear it from careless or mincing speakers 
in London, sometimes as an independent sound, but mostly as a dependent one after the 
back stop, as in green grass (gJiiin gla*is) ; and we think no phonetician whose atten- 
tion has been directed to this sound could fail to recognise its frequent use, as prolonged 
and gradually voiced, in the London cry of " Wbitek'uiiiisi^'z !'* But, in any case, this 
occasional English sound, like our ordinary tongue-point r, is made with a minimum of 
vibration ; though probably a stronger-trilled iorai ol l\ka^«\a.\a\ \^^'as!&.*^'"Q5ss. vs^sSi.\a. 
Montenegrin Rjeia or Rumanian ^fcTrl (JPe»ka, iloJ?^"), Vt yiiim«5 V^^'^^^^^'^'^^'s^'^'^ 
offijand Mz = our n. 



Ufnltf 3 it, howefor, the only Tilvnit modi in Togne betides tongoe-pouit r, and is 
the mott coDunon snbttitate for the latter. It hat been long used in provincial Frendu 
and hat latterly become qaite common in the coDoqnial speech of Paris, thoog^ tongne« 
point r" is still preserved in public oratory and declamation. In Germany, too, 2 has 
come a good deal into fashion as a substitute for r ; but in England its employment is a 
rare personal peculiarity. The " Northern burr," used for r in Durham, seems to have 
a deeper base than the ordinary " uvular r," the inner adjustment being that for w, or 
relaied y^ (g,), since the stop g^ (9) is used for the "burr" (23) by some local speakers, 
with a different significant effect from that of common ^, as in Mngsinfti, for Mv2^\ 
» received Morvi'v (Maria). This is also a local mispronunciation for Arabic yAa»», 
which is properly the untrilled simple continuant y,. 

7. — Liquid Continuants. 

The sounds of this class also seem to be of a peculiar mixed com- 
position, as the base-adjustment for all of them is apparently a w^ or 
relaxed y^ (yo^) aperture, while the outer, more frictional, and more 
effective closure is the converse of that for the r class of sounds.* 
Instead of the tongue forming a central orifice against the palate, as 
for either r or 3, it makes in the anterior adjustment for I as firm a 
central contact with the palate as for d; but, again, instead of this 
contact being complete as for the explodent, the edges of the tongue 
are allowed to drop slightly, and the voice is driven out between 
them and the sides of the palate. To produce any variety of liquid 
continuant, therefore, the back of the tongue should be as nearly as 
possible in the position for w^ while an anterior portion makes a cen- 
tral contact in the position for the corresponding explodent, but per- 
mitting frictional passage for the voice (or breath) over the edges of 

* We were led to suspect an inner adjustment for the / class of sounds, analogous 
to that for the r class — (1) from the »-like character of the vocality in English vocal /, 
which has led some phoneticians to suppose that aile is really eibul; (2) from the flEtct, 
that wliere, as in old French, the outer frictional adjustment for / has been suppressed, 
the inwardly-modified vocality of the / has developed u diphthongs, as in beaUf vautyfou 
(beii, vaii, foil), from bel, valt.fol ; (3) from finding, that when we tried to realize the 
pronunciation intended by " he'p," for " help," in characteristic American writing, and 
to utter the word with the simple omission of the anterior frictional adjustment for /, we 
arrived at something like ** heiip," or " hewap," or at least " heiip ; (4) from being led 
consequently to observe that in familiar English speech the anterior adjustment for I is 
sometimes omitted in words like milk^ built, help, felt (niiJ^Wak, bi^Wat, hewap, fewat), 
just as probably happened when / began to be suppressed in walk, yolk (wa'N7:i, yoWak, 
now wbik, yo9k), and as the more general suppression of the anterior adjustment for r, 
when not followed by a vowel, still leaves the base 1 in what we prefer to consider good 
pronunciation, as in card, beard, board (kai'id, bi*nd, bo'id). 

Our suspicion in this matter was confirmed into conviction, when we found that on 
holding down the fore part of the tongue while attempting to say ''la" the result was 
"Waa" or "gata." We concluded, therefore, that / has a t^a or consonantized u base, 
as r has a 1 or consonantized a base. Perhaps, indeed, the lifting of the tongue for the 
anterior frictional adjustments of r and / necessarily imparts to the primarily-modified 
voice for these consonants the respective qualities of the mixed vowels v and m ; and 
when the front adjustment is omitted, and V\ie\iWi\L owe teduoed to a mere vowel aper- 
ture, the fore part of the tongue may yet \>eUftftd,\>^ Sb swt\. olm^wtl^ ^gjfiftL^steation, 
high enough to lei rxs hear "ke*»«n, mi'i^'* lot coiru, milk. 


the tongue. The friction causes the relaxed tongue-edges to Vibrate 

or undulate, and the acoustic effect of prolonging the intermittent 

bilateral sound is somewhat similar to that produced bj pouring out 

liquid from a bottle. 

A labial liquid (which would have to be made with the lips preMed fiimly together 
in the middle, and left loose at the corners) is too difficult a formation for practical use, 
and a labio-dental one is nearly as awkward ; while a back-reverted liquid is impossible,' 
because the more firictional adjustment for a sound of the / class cannot be made at the 
same position as the semivocal one, nor cim we lower the inner adjustment here, as we 
lower that for 23 from ito Wo, since the latter is alreadj the general / base. 

'I, 'l^CD, '|, '^, with forward (*) and rearward (^) varieties, — These 
breath liquids are produced by putting the tongue centrally into the 
positions for the corresponding stops <, t^ (t), c, k^ and, while holding 
firmly the central contact, discharging breath over the relaxed sides 
of the organ. For some persons the operation may be facilitated by 
getting up breath, as it were, to 8B,j pli^ plH^ pji^ pLi^ with the, par- 
tial lingual contact for each liquid held behind a complete but light 
labial contact for the explodent ; then opening the lips so gently as 
not to make any explosion, and using the prepared breath lor '/i, &c. 
Or, while the partial contact of Z is held, as if to say &', &c., a gentle 
attempt may be made to say hi. The sound of 'W may be imitated, 
as a test, by placing the ball of the thumb upright against the centre 
of the closed teeth, and trying to say Oi^ when the thumb acts as a 
central stop, dividing the breath into two lateral streams, nearly as 
the tongue does in saying 'Zi. 

Tongue-point 7 is the only breath liquid that we know to be in independent use in 
language. This appears to have been the sound indicated by Old English Al (as in Me^ 
>== laif ) at the stage of the language in which hn, hr, and hto represented the breaUi 
counterparts of n, r, and to ; and this sound is preserved in cognate Icelandic forms of 
English words formerly written with hi. To us a more £uniliar example is the Welsh 
initial, medial, or final 7 (written //), as in lie, gallaf, holl (*lei, ga*l'av, ho*l), — initial 
/ being always a deflection from this sound as a radical, as in y Ihy pale = 9 ^e*, pa lei 
(the place, what place). In French there is a semi-dependent 7 used as a non-syllabic 
final after other breath consonants, just as V is employed, as in iimple, sijffle, onele, 
se^np'l, sif 1, onki). In our own language 7 occurs as a dependent sound after another 
breath consonant in the same syllable, as in play, clay, apply, proclaim ; and in words 
like the two latter we may detach the 7 by syllabizing the preceding explodent with the 
antecedent vowel, holding the stop momentarily on the shut-in breath, and then com- 
mencing the stress syllable with the breath liquid, as " up-lui', pro'*k-*leem." Chil- 
dren often indulge playfully in such utterances, without knowing, as in miany like cases, 
what phonetic exercises they are performing. 

It is a mere conjecture of ours that an example of point-reverted 7^ ('p is afforded 
by Zulu hi, which can hardly be simple 7, because the corresponding voice sound is not, 
written /, but dhl. The dh is no doubt meant to indicate a $-like sound, and it is not 
till made with a reverted point that / hat mach resemblance to 9 ,* but fi ihiaxe& uLt^<& 
strong family likeness of r^ and a* to 8^. 



1, 1< (I), ], £, with varietiea as above. — ^We have already described 
the general formation of these sonnds, and we need only add a few 
particulars here. To obtain the position for /^, say fa, Za, /,a, 2^a, 
taking intermediate positions ad libitum^ and gradually turning back 
the tongue as far as possible. For ; make the central contact in the 
same position as the complete contact fory, or obtain just the same 
adjustment by pressing up the centre of the tongue when it is fixed 
for^ (yet), while slightly relaxing the sides of the organ; then say 
ji jijje ;e, or^t 7t,^e ;«. For L make a contact as for a g, and relax 
the sides of the tongue ; then practise on ga ia, gu Lu, 

Tongue-point / it one of the most widely prevalent sounds in human speech, and is 
missing onlj in languages having a verj scanty consonantal syBtem, like Maori. This 
liquid usually follows the idiomatic sub-position for d; so tiiat in most Continental 
tongues forward /* is used, while medial / is heard in received English, and rearward l^ 
in those forms of provincial speech that use d,. Most nations not only employ a more 
forward / than Englishmen, but also fully voice the liquid before breath consonants, so 
that the I in Grerman welt (iSel't) differs in two particulars firom that in Eng./<f2/ (felt). 
The inherent vocality of / enables it to become the quantitative element of a syllable, as 
in people (pi'pl or piitpl), which it does in other languages besides English, as in Welsh 
pobl (po'bl, i.e* people). In this case, unlike that exemplified by Yrenck peuple (posApl), 
the / is fully voiced, and by its prolongation its «-like base is rendered evident. 

Of point-reverted or cerebral /^ we cannot call to mind any undoubted example in 
practical use. We have expressed a surmise that this is the Zulu sound represented by 
dhl (as in Isandhlana=Isanl%na?), and it may well have been the obsolete Sanskrit 
'* sound partaking of / and r" the character for which is " peculiar to the Yedas." It 
is easy to understand that l^ might suggest an admixture of either 5^ or r^, inasmuch ad 
/^, r', and 5' (as well as a^) have a general acoustic resemblance, and are liable both to 
interconfusion and amalgamation. It is only between /^ and r^, or at least l, and r^ 
that mixture seems feasible like that in Swedish "thick /" (l^P), or Japanese r (1/?). 
J Tongue-front / has a considerable currency, mostly in the same varieties of speech 

/ that employ the stops c and/ and the nasal n. In all the modem tongues of the Latin 
stock this liquid was developed, just as was the nasal n, by the attracting influence upon 
point sounds of conjoined front ones, so that Latin palea became Italian pallia = pa'f'a, 
and Yrench. paille, formerly =:pa'[e. But in Rumanian, as well as in present French, 
; has been further softened to^, as in Rum. ^<utf = pi^u, Yr,paille=ps.*}9 (both frx)m 
JjBLtm palea). The front liquid is also prevalent (generally in company with n, e,j, 
and sometimes with .^') in various Sclavonic dialects, as in Servian fubi^ (to love), bor- 
rowed into Rumanian as tubi=}vhi\ The sound appears not to have been developed in 
any of the old historical languages, nor is it found in the standard pronunciation of the 
Teutonic tongues. In English it is not an acknowledged element, but it is occasionally 
developed in passing from / to^, as in million (mi^V^vn, or mi^l'[h?n), and after the back 
stop in words like fflean (gli Jn or gliitn — cf, g-ri^in), though perhaps utterance is more 
often facilitated by using dl (dli|in). In regard to sub-positions, I accommodates itself 
to front voweb, and, like e,jt ^, is often connected to mid and back vowels by a feunt 

^ j-sound, as in l\»!iiva.figlia,figlio (fi'l'a, fi'l'9). 

i. Tongue-back i& is a rather difficult sound to make, and not a pleasant one to hear. 

The closeness of the anterior adjustment to the v>^ base causes a kind of guttural sibila- 
Hon, and, indeed, the corresponding breath sound {'L) is stated to be identical with the 
hiss of the swan. Varieties of voice L axe xuedi in 0««S^<^, ^^janan., and Polish. 


— - - — ■ - - --■ I 

8. — Vocal Continuants. 

These sounds form the connectiiig links between other consonants 
and vowels. They differ from inquantitative vowels in being made 
with just so much contraction of vowel-apertures as to cause fric- 
tional sound ; and they differ from other continuant consonants in 
being made with just sufficient expansion of consonantal orifices to 
produce vowel-like combined with mildly frictional sound. 

'w, 'j, 'i, 'Wo, with forward (') and rearward (^) varieties. — These 
breath sounds are shown to be consonantal by their mere existence, 
since vowels cannot be made with simple breath, and require at the 
least whisper, or partially- voiced breath, for their production. By 
subjection to friction, however, simple breath is made audible ; and 
in the above cases this effect is produced by contracting the respec- 
tive adjustments of back vowels (o g u) made with lip-pouting, for 
'u;' ^w ^w^; of front vowels (i e e), for 'y' 'y 'y^; of mid vowels (« a t)), 
for 'l' 'i \ ; of back ones (o g u) made without lip-pouting, for ^w^. 

'When made with the lip-ponting generally used for back vowels (to assist in length- 
ening the mouth- tube, and thus to diminish the extent of tongue-retraction required), 
*w receives an outer finish by means of lip-friction, which gives it a superficial acoustic 
resemblance to merely labial and more frictional <p. But the really effective apertures 
for 'tff' *w *tOt are made in the same positions as those for o p u, towards the base of the 
tongue ; and from such inner apertures alone, with wide-open lips, a sound ('te^a) can be 
produced which has the same sense-conveying effect as lip-finished *Wi whereas no vocal 
continuant, but only a weak^, can be produced with the *w lip-adjustment alone, '''^ 

/ Outside of the English language we are not acquainted with any undoubted examples 

of the breath vocals ; and even within it the examples may possibly be all questioned to 
a greater or less extent. Some persons think that the initifd sound of why, whip, when x 
('wBi, Vi^p, *wen) is not *«;, but hw or hU ; but there is a compactness and neatness \^ 

of effect in the simple sound which is wanting in the combinations. This breath vocal t^ ' 
was originally developed through following a long since omitted initial breath consonant r 
(as 'wo% from x^'^^a^t and older k^w^at) ; but, after long survival, it is following the >a V 
fate of similarly-developed initial '», 'r, % in being levelled down to the voice sound. ^ .i^ 

Tongue-front V^ the initial sound of hew, human ('jUiii, 'ju'mvn), has received little 
acknowledgment as a distinct simple element, perhaps because of its occurrence in very 
few words, and of having no distinctive symbol in the ordinary spelling ; but a speaker 
who uses *w will generally be found to employ the parallel % when saying, for instance. 
What hue ? ('woH 'jUiii ?). This V is a modem development from h^ or Ki, 

Tongue-back *i has perhaps remained altogether unrecognized, although its voice 
relative, i, is an acknowledged English element. Those speakers who retain the latter, 
as the fundamental remnant of r, in a word VS&A'pard (paid), wOl find that they at least 
partially unvoice it in part (pai'it), and entirely in rampart (rampo'it). But this '7, 
being a thoroughly dependent sound, requires no practical attention. 
-X Back-reverted *w^ is seldom heard as an independent sound (for lip-finished '«>), but 

' it is used as a dependent sound after another breath consonant in the same syllable, and 
particularly after *a, as in twin, quest (t'Trai^Uf ka'waest), at least by all speakers who 
use idiomatic English voiced Wo in analogous positions. 

w, J, 1, Wo , with varieties as above. — Through being made of the 
same material, voice, these sounds xeBeicAA*^ mcs^^as^'^sdi^^ ^ct^h^^ 




even more than do the corresponding breath sounds ; but the TocaL 
continuants are yet distinguishable by an appreciable loss of distinct 
▼owel quality {f ^ y, being, for eiample, much less interdistinctive 
than their yowel correlatives t 4 e), and by an addition of sensible 
friction. Both these characteristics of yocal consonants are caused 
by the contracted apertures with which they are made, as compared 
with locally-corresponding yowel apertures. 

Lip-finished w has long been the initial sonnd of manj very common English words, 
•i in the phrase We w^e wite. Yet it maj be doubted, whether this was the original 
Saxon sound, seeing that v-^iS is the equivalent consonant in Oerman Wir war en vfeUe^ 
and V in Danish Jl vare viit. The Sclavonic tongues also use iS as their etymological 
equivalent for our v, as in Servian fitda, fiina (water, wine). On the other hand, the 
Celtic and Romanic languages use inquantitative u as their nearest approach to w, as in 
Welsh teir (\Slvi', a deflection from pmr, true), or in French ouest (iiest). Rumanian ii, 
however, often substituting original 2, seems to be our w, just as t, similarly replacing 7, 
appears to bey, as in et^&dy detpaid (ste^'wv, despo^'jv, from Lat. stella, deepoliaf). 
But restricted as is the use of v in European tongues, it is a phonetic element in Arabic 
and other Asiatic languages, and is represented as existing in many African, American, 
and Pqlynesiau varieties of speech, though in some the actual sound is probably fi. 

Tongue-front j is also the initial sound of many common English words ; bat we 
may presume that in modem English year, yoke, y is a development from a more fric* 
tional sound (probably 3) in Saxon year, yeSc. It is generally assumed, indeed, that 
Germany (as va.jahr,joch, cognate forms of the above words), as well as Dutch y and 
Scandinavian y, is the exact phonetic equivalent of English consonant y; but German/ 
is locally or personally often pronounced as 3 (like y mflieyen = flii3on), giving "3a«r', 
301X3," with what we suppose to be the original initial sound of the English words. In 
the various Sclavonic languages there is an element generally identified with y, though 
this, too, is probably sometimes uttered as 3. In the Celtic tongues, on the other hand, 
inquantitative i is the nearest equivalent toy (as in Welsh iachi = \2!i}\, health). Of 
the Romanic languages, Spanish has initial and medial y, represented by y (as in yerbat 
jer'^'ba) ; French possesses it as a medial and final, in substitution for obsolete 2 (as in 
pSril, bouillon, perij, biii'jon) j and we have already noticed its similar substitutional 
development in Rumanian. In Arabic, Sanskrit, and many other non-European tongues, 
y has even a larger currency than w. 

Tongue-back 1 we know only as an English sound. As recognised and described in 
most pronouncing dictionaries, and as we personally appreciate it, we consider the sound 
of "untrilled r," as in bard, to be the vocal continuant intermediate between inquanti* 
tative a and y (g), just as v is intermediate between inquantitative u and /S, y between 
inquantitative i and 3, and W:^ between inquantitative non-labial u and 73. Like inquan- 
titative a, and like 7 in German use, i is not in normal pronunciation used before the 
quantitative vowel of a syllable ; but defective English speakers who omit the anterior 
adjustment for r, like French ones who omit the uvular trill of 2, make route =1^1. 

Back-reverted or non-labial «>o seems to us to be the ordinary and idiomatic English 

sound after another voice consonant in the same syllable, as in dwarf, yuano (dwabif, 

goWaa^ino), as 'wa is after a breath consonant in twiei, quest (tVai^st, koVaCst) ; and in 

a word like quote (ka*Wo09t) we think that even a weak French '2< (as in crotte, when 

nearly ^kt'ifii,) would sound baxdly moie \ui-English than Up-finished *w or H, 

Trinted by W. B. Evans, 8 Glouces^ Street, Q^^ii^^w^,\^^^.^ R. ^ ^ 

Publishedbyr. Pitman, ^OY«.Vemo*\ftT^o^,^.^. 



Nine months have elapsed since the Spelling Experimenter was 
brought to a close ; but occupation in other matters has until now 
prevented us from taking any active step to bring the completed 
volumes, and especially the " Phonetic Outlines," to the notice of 
the very limited public likely to take any interest in such a publica- 
tion. The lapse of time has, however, given opportunity for further 
reflection on phonetic principles, and allows us now to state delibe- 
rately the conclusions suggested, not only by second, but by oft- 
repeated thought. 

The most mature reconsideration has suggested no important 
corrections or modifications in the matter of our dissertation on 
phonetic principles and facts ; but in the manner of it we should 
now be disposed to make several amendments, if we had to go over 
the task again. The material of the treatise we believe to be gene- 
rally trustworthy so far as it goes, though it does not pretend to be 
complete ; but the arrangement and disposition of it appears capable 
of improvement in the following particulars : — 

1. Progressive Order of Sounds. — In the text we have arranged all sonnds in order 
according to their successive formation from outer to inner positions. Experience has 
convinced us that it would be more convenient and advantageous to make the arrange- 
ment in the direction of outward progression, in order that the more rudimentary sounds 
should be described before the more developed ones. 

2. Nomenclature of Local Positions, — In regard to the consonantal positions at the 
Lips, Lip and Teeth, or Tongue -point, which are exterior to the most forward of vowel 
positions (that oft), we have no practical amendment of terminology to propose; but 
reflection has shown us the advisability of applying the terms Front y Central^ and Back 
alike to vowels and consonants produced at corresponding local positions ; so that while 
i andy would still be described as "front" sounds, a andy would be called "central," 
and u and g^ "back" sounds. In the Table of Consonants, the headings on the right- 
hand page would thus be corrected : — 

Front- Palatal. Mid- Palatal. Back-Palatal. Guttural. 

Tongue-front. Tongue-centre. Tongue-back. Throat compressed. 

J (i) & (a) go (u) - ' 

3. Voice and Breath Sounds. — We should now be inclined to treat the voiced as 
the primary and normal forms of consonant-sounds, both for more eflPective comparison 
with vowel-sounds, and because the voiced forms, being more prevalent in speedi, may 
be more conveniently used as familiar illustrations in treating of the local positions. 

We commenced our discussion of vowel-sounds with the clearly- 
defined theory in our mind, that the distinctive acoustic qualities of 
the nine sense-distinguishing simple vowels (i, e, e, «, a, o, <?, o, u) 
are mainly caused by successively increasing the length of mouth- 
tube in front of a linguo-paJatal aperture of em\as\QiviiRrt ^T^A^^^^^sfe 
— such aperture being made in succeaaW^X^-i^c^^CkXi^Vi^'^SiL^^iQ^^^ 
No. 29* 


for tho different sounds, from the front to the back of tongae and 
paliito. Every fresh investigation we have undertaken confirms the 
triitli of this theory, as oppased to that deduced by Mr. Melville 
IMl from ol)scrviug and considering superficial appearances rather 
/ than effective adjustments of the organs. 
^ As we understand Mr. McWa theory, all the apertures for simple vowel-sonnda are 

iupiMMi'd to be made at one or other of two definite and comparatively distant positions, 
which he calls front and back. Primary differences of quality among the respective 
front vowels on one side (us t, e, tf), and among the respective back ones' on the other 
(as b, o, m), are held to be caused by three different heights of the tongue at either of 
the two local positions, giving three different-sized front and back apertures of emission. 
Secondary differences of qimlity among cither the front or the back vowels are imagined 
to be caused by two processes or conditions called ** widening" and "rounding/* which 
have been very variously, but never satisfactorily de8<*ribfcd. According to our theory, 
a vowel -aperture cau be made against any part of the palate from the i to the 71 position, 
and by the varying fore-resonances which result from the different positions of aperture 
the distinctive qualities of all simple vowels are produced, without any necessary varia- 
tion in size of aperture. Both of these theories are to a considerable extent consistent 
with the same observed dispositions of the organs. 

We quite agree with Mr. Bell that the extreme front of the tongue is "higb" when 
i is produced ; that it is lower for e, and lower still for a. But, unlike him, we recog-' 
nise that the gradual dropping of the extreme tongue-front is caused by anterior parts 
of the organ successively going out of efifective use as the vowel-scale proceeds firom t to 
a, while posterior portions successively come into efifective use, each of these in its turn 
being as "high," in forming an aperture with the palate, as the full-front portion was. 
Thus we recognise that the transition from a (p«tty) to a (party) is made by insensiUe 
gradations, which are continually illustrated in English speech, but which are lost sight 
of in Mr. Bell's abrupt jump from "low-front" (re) to "low-back" (a). 

In passing from a, through b, 0, and p, to Uy it is true that the visible rearward 
portion of the tongue appears to rise by gradations, somewhat as the front is seen to fall 
in passing from i, through e and e, to a (and on to a) ; but it does not appear to have 
occurred to Mr. BeU, that this rising of the visible rearward part of the tongue is only 
incidental to the formation, by unseen portions of the organ, of successively-receding 
apertures against the extreme back portions of the palate. When the conformation of 
the palate is considered, and the convenient or necessary attitudes of the tongue while 
making successively-receding apertures of emission, the appearances on which Mr. BeU 
based his theory may be more correctly interpreted. 

Mr. Bell's classification of vowel-sounds and his terminology are thus based upon 
certain dispositions of the tongue which may be conveniently or necessarily incidental 
to the effectively operative adjustments, but which are not really the effectively operative 
adjustments themselves. To eke out his classification of sounds and category of terms, 
he fallaciously distinguishes as primary or wide, unrounded or rounded, shades of sound 
which he had no other means of discriminating, but whicb all fall into the continuonB 
scale of simple, or into the subsidiary scales of mixed vowels. 

Still, clear as was our view at starting with regard to the organic 

production of vowel-sounds, we had but imperfectly recognised the 

natural principle of the differentiatioiv of consonant-sounds, at least 

in regard to the various local posvtVoTia «A. N7\iv^ VXi«^ ^^^^^^^^jrA. 

Continued investigation has, howeYei, m«^^ Vt Oiewc \ft >i&^'OMw\» ^ 


far as vowel and consonant positions can coincide, the principle of 
fore-resonance is the same for both classes of sounds. Prictional 
noises, serviceable for sense-distinction in speech, can be produced 
without any fore-resonance (as b^ ^), or with less fore-resonance 
than is required for non-frictional sounds (as c?, 8). Thus there are . 
some classes of consonants that have no relation to vowel-sounds. 
But where the local position for consonant and vowel begins to 
coincide — that is, at the technical "front" of the tongue and palate 
— and thence inward to the extreme back-palatal position, we main- 
tain that simple vowels and simple voiced consonants made at iden- 
tical local positions are correspondingly differentiated by extent of 

The difference between the vowels and the consonants made at 
identical local positions is simply one of degree in regard to organic 
closure. The contact for J (front stop, only the commencement of 
the consonantal sound in Eng. joi/) is relaxed in the vowel direction, 
by leaving a small central orifice, to produce 3 ( = ^ in Germ, einige) ; 
whereas, on the other hand, the aperture for the vowel /, made at 
the same local position, is contracted in the consonant direction for j. 
(initial sound of Eng. year\ so that the opening iovj. is in size mid- 
way between that for t and that for 3 Thus we have in the "front" 
local position the series t,^', 3',/. 

It will be seen that we have marked the consonants corresponding to i as belonging 
to the forward sub-position of the general local position termed "front." We have done 
this because it is not only the full-front vowel i that corresponds to the front series of 
simple consonants ^, 3, j, but the three front vowels », e, e correspond severally to the 
forward, the medial, snd the rearward sub-position for the consonants. Contracting the 
apertures for z, e^ e into smaller apertures, we get the gently frictional sounds^', y, y< ; 
contracting these reduced apertures into still smaller orifices, we obtain the roughly fric- 
tional sounds 3', 3, 3t ; and compressing further to a complete contact, we produce the 
explosions j\ j, jt . 

What is true of the front local position is equally true of the 
central (called "back" in our consonant classification). The four 
sounds a, 1, y, g form a series, as do e,y, 3,^. By contracting the 
aperture for a we get the slightly frictional sound n, heard at the 
end of English tar (tai) from what we believe to be a large majority 
of English speakers ; by reducing the already contracted aperture to 
a small orifice we obtain the strongly frictional sound y (g), repre- 
sented by ^ in German tage (ta'ga) ; and by compressing to a close 
contact we get the explosion g. The three vowels a?, a, t) corre- 
spond to the three sub-positions of the central consonants, as may 
be tested in the words gap^ garh^ gcdl (g'sep, gaib, g^t)«l). 

ConsonaniaJ noiaeSj as we have said, ca3i\>e m«j9Lem^wj\.i'5iT^T«8«'MsssRft.^ 
Tbey cm also be locaJly differentiated hy wi ©ttaiifc <it lotfe-^wa^-MfiORfe TiR^ 'soS^sassssi^^^sst 




the production of cletr ? owel sound, as are b and d, or fi and 5. However, consonantal 
noises having the same extent of fore-resonance as vowel sounds, are, firom their fric- 
tional natufp, both less dependent upon fortsrcsonance for their aconstic effect, and less 
affected by it for purposes of minute seuse -distinction. So it follows that we have only 

the one scnse-distinpiishing consonant j (year) to the three sense-distinguishing vowels , . 

t, e, e; and so only the one such consonant i to the three vowels d>, <z, b. It is diffi- 
cult to most persons to appreciate all the sub-positional varieties of consonants, even so 
fiur as these varieties rorresiMmd to scnse-distingiiisliing vowels; but it is unnecessary to 
do so for any pradical puq>()!»e. 

We have not distinguished consonantal sub-positions in what we 
will now call the pfciieral *' back " position. Yet there are undoubt- 
edly three varieties of the vocal continuant Wo , corresponding to the 
three vowel* o, ^, m, as i', i, i^ (or //*, (7, g^) correspond to «, a, t) ; 
and there must be similar varieties of the simple continuant yo (ga), 
and of the explodent ^/j (9). Hut these distinctions may be ignored 
in an outlying, little used or explored, and hardly accessible region 
of sound. We are content, indeed, to discard heie all distinctions 
of consonantal sub-position, and to tabulate as below the correlations 
we wish to indicate between vowels and consonants, taking only the 
simple sounds of either sort, and only voice consonants : — 

Back. C/cntre. 

I^ull Aperture u, 0,0 t), a, sa 
Contracted do, Wq i 

Small Orifice gj g 

Close Contact g^ g 

Breath consonants would, of course, follow this arrangement of 
their voice correspondents. By itself, breath becomes au "'ble only 
in passing through frictional closures ; but even when it is emitted 
through vowel apertures, breath is made audible by ti-ansition to 
voice in producing a folio* wing vowel -sound, thus giving the really 
distinct varieties of the aspirate, in hu, ho^ ho, /i&, ha, hw, he, he, hi. 
These varieties of h are the vowel -like correlatives of the breath 
consonants. Wliisper is audible through vowel as well as consonant 
adjustments, and instructive experiments may be made by com- 
mencing an emission of whisper through any vowel aperture, and 
sustaming this emission while gradually contracting the linguo- 
palatal adjustment, so as to produce several degrees of friction, and 
to end with full contact and explosion. 

Januanj, 1884. 


Volume I, or 11. separately (clotli, "boaTdB^, ^s. TVvtt^o Volumes in one, 8*. M. 
London : • Earrar & Ycntoii, ft 3 o\m. ^\iee\,, kaiNL-^,^ .^ , \ "it' ^ 
or post-free from W. R. Evans, % GlouceStet ^UeeJc, Q^xsmi^^^jma,^ Si. 


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